METHODS: This intervention study was conducted in Araihazar Thana, Narayanganj district, Bangladesh during April 2012 to March 2013. The total participants were 944 students from three local schools. At baseline, students were assessed for oral health knowledge, attitude and practices using a self-administered structured questionnaire and untreated dental caries was assessed using clinical examination. Follow up study was done after 6 months from baseline. McNemar's chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the impact of OHE program on four recurrent themes of oral health between the baseline and follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the impact of the intervention group on our outcome variables.
RESULTS: Significant improvement was observed regarding school aged adolescents' self-reported higher knowledge, attitude and practices scores (p < 0.001) at follow-up compared with baseline. The prevalence of untreated dental caries of the study population after the OHE program was significantly (p < 0.01) reduced to 42.5 %. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the OHE intervention remained a significant predictor in reducing the risk of untreated dental caries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.51; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.37, 0.81). In the follow-up period participants were 2.21 times (95 % CI = 1.87, 3.45) more likely to have higher level of knowledge regarding oral health compared to baseline. Compared with baseline participants in the follow-up were 1.89 times (95 % CI = 1.44-2.87) more likely to have higher attitude towards oral health. In addition, OHE intervention was found to be significantly associated with higher level of practices toward oral health (AOR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.12, 3.38).
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that OHE intervention was effective in increasing i) knowledge, ii) attitude, and iii) practices towards oral health; it also significantly reduced the prevalence of untreated dental caries among school aged adolescents from grade 6-8 in a deprived rural area of Bangladesh.
METHODS: This study is a single blind, randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms in which participants will be allocated to VRET or IP with a ratio of 1:1. Thirty participants (18-50 years) meeting the Phobia Checklist criteria of dental phobia will undergo block randomization with allocation concealment. The primary outcome measures include participants' dental trait anxiety (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and Dental Fear Survey) and state anxiety (Visual Analogue Scale) measured at baseline (T0), at intervention (T1), 1-week (T2), 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T4) follow-up. A behavior test will be conducted before and after the intervention. The secondary outcome measures are real-time evaluation of HR and VR (Virtual Reality) experience (presence, realism, nausea) during and following the VRET intervention respectively. The data will be analyzed using intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis.
DISCUSSION: This study uses novel non-invasive VRET, which may provide a possible alternative treatment for dental anxiety and phobia.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN25824611 , Date of registration: 26 October 2015.
METHODS: This is a meta- analysis study, following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta- analyses (PRISMA). Relevant studies were searched in the health related electronic databases. Methodological quality of the included studies were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. For individual studies, odds ratio (OR) and its 95%confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the strength of association between IL10 polymorphisms (- 1082 A > G, -819C > T, - 592 A > C) and the risk of periodontitis. For pooling of the estimates across studies included, the summary OR and its 95% CIs were calculated with random-effects model. The pooled estimates were done under four genetic models such as the allelic contrast model, the recessive model, the dominant model and the additive model. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was done for estimation of the required information size for this meta-analysis study.
RESULTS: Sixteen studies were identified for this review. The included studies were assessed to be of moderate to good methodological quality. A significant association between polymorphism of IL10-1082 A > G polymorphism and the risk of chronic periodontitis in the non-Asian populations was observed only in the recessive model (OR,1.42; 95% CI:1.11, 1.8,I2: 43%). The significant associations between - 592 A > C polymorphism and the risk of aggressive periodontitis in the non-Asian populations were observed in particular genetic models such as allele contrast (OR, 4.34; 95%CI:1.87,10.07,I2: 65%) and recessive models (OR, 2.1; 95% CI:1.16, 3.82,I2: 0%). The TSA plot revealed that the required information size for evidence of effect was sufficient to draw a conclusion.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested that the IL10-1082 A > G polymorphism was associated with chronic periodontitis CP risk in non-Asians. Thus, in order to further establish the associations between IL10 (- 819 C > T, - 592 A > C) in Asian populations, future studies should include larger sample sizes with multi-ethnic groups.
METHODS: A total of 121 PLWHA receiving medical care in Kota Bharu (Kelantan, Malaysia) participated in this cross-sectional study. The Malay version of the short Oral Health Impact Profile (S-OHIP(M)) and the Malay version of the 36-item Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-36) were used to assess OHRQOL and HRQOL, respectively. A higher S-OHIP(M) score indicates greater oral impact and worse OHRQOL; a higher SF-36 score indicates better HRQOL. An additional structured self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain other variables of interest from the participants.
RESULTS: Most participants had at least one oral symptom (69.4%), and the most common oral symptom was a cavitated tooth (55.4%). The prevalence of oral impacts was 33.9%, and the mean S-OHIP(M) score was 8.8 (SD = 7.92). The mean S-OHIP(M) score was significantly higher in participants who had toothaches, cavitated teeth, gum abscesses, and bad breath. In addition, participants with lower S-OHIP(M) scores had significantly higher scores in all SF-36 domains.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence for an association among oral symptoms, OHRQOL, and HRQOL in PLWHA from Malaysia. In particular, the presence of oral symptoms was significantly associated with more severe oral impacts and poorer OHRQOL. The presence of less severe oral impacts was associated with a better HRQOL.
METHODS: A multi-staged cluster sampling method was employed. A total of 598 16-year-old adolescents participated in this study. Participants' demographic profile was assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. Clinical examinations were carried out under standardized conditions by a single examiner. The level of GTW was recorded using the modified Smith and Knight's Tooth Wear Index (TWI) whilst ETW were recorded using the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. This index was developed to record clinical findings and assist in the decision-making process for the management of erosive tooth wear. Dental caries was recorded using the D3MFT index whereby D3 denotes obvious dental decay into dentine detected visually.
RESULTS: The prevalence of GTW, ETW and dental caries, i.e. percentage of individuals found to have at least one lesion, was 99.8%, 45.0% and 27.8% respectively. Two thirds of affected teeth with GTW were observed to have a TWI score of 1 whereas almost all of the affected teeth with ETW had a BEWE score of 2. The mean D3MFT was 0.62 (95% CI 0.50, 0.73) with Decayed (D) teeth being the largest component, mean D3T was 0.36 (95% CI 0.30, 0.43). There was no significant association between socio-demographic factors and prevalence of ETW. Logistic regression analysis also showed no significant relationship between the prevalence of ETW and D3MFT (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Almost all adolescents examined had GTW but they were mainly early lesions. However, nearly half were found to have ETW of moderate severity (BEWE score 2). No significant relationship between the occurrence of erosive tooth wear and caries was observed in this population.
METHODS: Ten subjects (n = 10) who had upper and lower fixed appliances (MBT, 3 M Unitek, 0.022″ × 0.028″) were recruited for this study. Human gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was obtained using periopaper strips at pre-treatment (T0), 1 month (T1), 3 months (T3), and 6 months (T6) of orthodontic treatment. Periapical radiographs of the upper permanent central incisors were taken at T0 and T6 to measure the amount of root resorption. Identification of changes in PA was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Student's t-test was then performed to determine the significance of the differences in protein abundance before and after orthodontic treatment.
RESULTS: Our findings showed that all ten subjects had mild root resorption, with an average resorption length of 0.56 ± 0.30 mm. A total of 186 proteins were found to be commonly present at T0, T1, T3, and T6. There were significant changes in the abundance of 16 proteins (student's t-test, p ≤ 0.05). The increased PA of S100A9, immunoglobulin J chain, heat shock protein 1A, immunoglobulin heavy variable 4-34 and vitronectin at T1 suggested a response to stress that involved inflammation during the early phase of orthodontic treatment. On the other hand, the increased PA of thymidine phosphorylase at T3 suggested growth promotion and, angiogenic and chemotactic activities.
CONCLUSIONS: The identified proteins can be potential early markers for root resorption based on the increase in their respective PA and predicted roles during the early phase of orthodontic treatment. Non-invasive detection of root resorption using protein markers as early as possible is extremely important as it can aid orthodontists in successful orthodontic treatment.
METHODS: Two independent reviewers (KY and SJ) screened two electronic databases, PubMed and Scopus, for randomized clinical trials on the use of systemic doxycycline as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in improving periodontal status and glycemic control in diabetic patients with periodontitis using predetermined selection criteria within a 3-month period. The reviewers independently did data screening, data selection, data extraction and risk of bias. Quality of studies involved was analysed using the revised Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0. Weighted standard mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a random effects meta-analysis model. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot. Quality of evidence was evaluated by Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.
RESULTS: Electronic searches provided 1358 records and six studies were selected. The meta-analyses indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in the improvement of periodontal status with the use of systemic doxycycline as an adjunct for scaling and root planing (SRP). SMD of clinical attachment levels (- 0.22 [- 0.52, 0.08]) and HbA1c levels (- 0.13 [- 0.41, 0.15]) were calculated. Overall risk of bias is high in 2 out of 6 studies involved.
CONCLUSION: Systemic doxycycline when used in addition to scaling and root planing yields no significant improvement of clinical attachment levels for periodontal status and reduction of HbA1c levels in treatment of diabetic patients with periodontitis when comparing the test group to the control group.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study had randomly and systematically recruited facial burn patients from the Burn Care Center, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from June of 2016 to July of 2017. Intraoral examination recorded the DMFT, CPI and OHI-S. Information on the socio-demographic status, self-perceived oral health, oral health behaviours were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and; the burn characteristics were obtained from the patients' medical record. The t-test, ANOVA, SLR, and chi-square test were used to examine the relationship between oral health and each factor. A parameter was derived from the clinical indices using the principal component analysis and used in the multiple linear regression analysis to determine the important factors associated with oral health status.
RESULTS: A total of 271 burn patients (69% female and 31% male) had participated in the study. All of the participants had caries with mean DMFT = 10.96 (95%CI: 10.67, 11.25). There were 59.0% (95%CI: 53.15, 64.93%) and 66.1% (95%CI: 60.38, 71.73%) of the participants who had periodontitis and poor oral hygiene respectively. About 79 and 80% of the participants rated their dental and periodontal status as poor. About 78% reported brushing once daily and 89% did not practice regular dental visit. The DMFT, CPI and OHI-S were associated with the burn characteristics and oral health behaviours (p
AIM: To assess the oral health status, related behaviours, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among OA children in Cameron Highlands (CH), Malaysia, and to identify the predictor(s) for poor OHRQoL.
DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study involving 249, 11-12 year old OA children from 4 OA primary schools in CH. The children completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising information on socio-demographics, oral health-related behaviours, and the Malay Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Malay Child-OIDP) index followed by an oral examination. Data were entered into the SPSS version 23.0 software. Non-parametric tests and multiple logistic regression were used for data analysis.
RESULTS: The response rate was 91.2% (n = 227/249). The prevalence of caries was 61.6% (mean DMFT = 1.36, mean dft = 1.01) and for gingivitis was 96.0%. Despite the majority reported brushing their teeth ≥ 2x/day (83.7%) with fluoride toothpaste (80.2%), more than two-thirds chewed betel nut ≥ 1/day (67.4%). Majority of the children (97.8%) had a dental check-up once a year. Nearly three-fifths (58.6%) reported experiencing oral impacts on their daily performances in the past 3 months (mean score = 5.45, SD = 8.5). Most of the impacts were of "very little" to "moderate" levels of impact intensity with 90.2% had up to 4 daily performances affected. Most of the impacts were on eating (35.2%), cleaning teeth (22.0%) and relaxing activities (15.9%). Caries in primary teeth is associated with oral impacts among the OA children.
CONCLUSIONS: The 11-12 year old OA children in Cameron Highland had high prevalence of caries and gingivitis with the majority chewed betel nut regularly. Caries in primary teeth is associated with poor OHRQoL. Future programmes should target younger age group children to promote positive oral hygiene practices, reduce caries, and improve quality of life.