Displaying all 17 publications

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  1. Raghav K, Van Wijk AJ, Abdullah F, Islam MN, Bernatchez M, De Jongh A
    BMC Oral Health, 2016 Feb 27;16:25.
    PMID: 26920573 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-016-0186-z
    BACKGROUND: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is found to be a promising and a viable alternative for in vivo exposure in the treatment of specific phobias. However, its usefulness for treating dental phobia is unexplored. The aims of the present study are to determine: (a) the efficacy of VRET versus informational pamphlet (IP) control group in terms of dental trait and state anxiety reductions at 1 week, 3 months and 6 months follow-up (b) the real-time physiological arousal [heart rate (HR)] of VRET group participants during and following therapy (c) the relation between subjective (presence) and objective (HR) measures during VRET.

    METHODS: This study is a single blind, randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms in which participants will be allocated to VRET or IP with a ratio of 1:1. Thirty participants (18-50 years) meeting the Phobia Checklist criteria of dental phobia will undergo block randomization with allocation concealment. The primary outcome measures include participants' dental trait anxiety (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and Dental Fear Survey) and state anxiety (Visual Analogue Scale) measured at baseline (T0), at intervention (T1), 1-week (T2), 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T4) follow-up. A behavior test will be conducted before and after the intervention. The secondary outcome measures are real-time evaluation of HR and VR (Virtual Reality) experience (presence, realism, nausea) during and following the VRET intervention respectively. The data will be analyzed using intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis.

    DISCUSSION: This study uses novel non-invasive VRET, which may provide a possible alternative treatment for dental anxiety and phobia.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN25824611 , Date of registration: 26 October 2015.

  2. Haque SE, Rahman M, Itsuko K, Mutahara M, Kayako S, Tsutsumi A, et al.
    BMC Oral Health, 2016 Mar 25;16:44.
    PMID: 27016080 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-016-0202-3
    BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of published literature that demonstrates the impact and effectiveness of school-based oral health education (OHE) program in Bangladesh and it is one of the most neglected activities in the field of public health. Keeping this in mind, the objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of OHE program in: 1) increasing oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices and 2) decreasing the prevalence of untreated dental caries among 6-8 grade school students in Bangladesh.

    METHODS: This intervention study was conducted in Araihazar Thana, Narayanganj district, Bangladesh during April 2012 to March 2013. The total participants were 944 students from three local schools. At baseline, students were assessed for oral health knowledge, attitude and practices using a self-administered structured questionnaire and untreated dental caries was assessed using clinical examination. Follow up study was done after 6 months from baseline. McNemar's chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the impact of OHE program on four recurrent themes of oral health between the baseline and follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the impact of the intervention group on our outcome variables.

    RESULTS: Significant improvement was observed regarding school aged adolescents' self-reported higher knowledge, attitude and practices scores (p < 0.001) at follow-up compared with baseline. The prevalence of untreated dental caries of the study population after the OHE program was significantly (p < 0.01) reduced to 42.5 %. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the OHE intervention remained a significant predictor in reducing the risk of untreated dental caries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.51; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.37, 0.81). In the follow-up period participants were 2.21 times (95 % CI = 1.87, 3.45) more likely to have higher level of knowledge regarding oral health compared to baseline. Compared with baseline participants in the follow-up were 1.89 times (95 % CI = 1.44-2.87) more likely to have higher attitude towards oral health. In addition, OHE intervention was found to be significantly associated with higher level of practices toward oral health (AOR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.12, 3.38).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that OHE intervention was effective in increasing i) knowledge, ii) attitude, and iii) practices towards oral health; it also significantly reduced the prevalence of untreated dental caries among school aged adolescents from grade 6-8 in a deprived rural area of Bangladesh.

  3. Khan S, Saub R, Vaithilingam RD, Safii SH, Vethakkan SR, Baharuddin NA
    BMC Oral Health, 2015;15:114.
    PMID: 26419358 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-015-0098-3
    Chronic periodontitis (CP) is a global public health issue. Studies have suggested CP could be linked to obesity due to their similar pathophysiological pathway. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of CP and to assess the predictors for CP among the obese Malaysian population.
  4. Esa R, Hashim NA, Ayob Y, Yusof ZY
    BMC Oral Health, 2015 Mar 10;15:28.
    PMID: 25886943 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-015-0013-y
    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDASf) Malay version in 5-6 and 9-12 year-old children.
    METHODS: The MCDASf was cross culturally adapted from English into Malay. The Malay version was tested for reliability and validity in 3 studies. In the Study 1, to determine test-retest reliability of MCDASf scale, 166 preschool children aged 5-6 years were asked to rank orders five cartoons faces depicting emotions from 'very happy' to 'very sad' faces on two separate occasions 3 weeks apart. A total of 87 other 5-6 year-old children completed the Malay-MCDASf on two separate occasions 3 weeks apart to determine test-retest reliability for Study 2. In study 3, 239 schoolchildren aged 9-12 years completed the Malay-MCDASf and the Malay-Dental Subscale of the Children Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS) at the same sitting to determine the criterion and construct validity.
    RESULTS: In study 1, Kendall W test showed a high degree of concordance in ranking the cartoon faces picture cards on each of the 2 occasions (time 1, W = 0.955 and time 2, W = 0.954). The Malay-MCDASf demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.63, p <0.001) and acceptable internal consistency for all the 6 items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77) and 8 items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73). The highest MCDASf scores were observed for the items 'injection in the gum' and 'tooth taken out' for both age groups. The MCDASf significantly correlated with the CFSS-DS (Pearson r = 0.67, p < 0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: These psychometric findings support for the inclusion of a cartoon faces rating scale to assess child dental anxiety and the Malay-MCDASf is a reliable and valid measure of dental anxiety in 5-12 year-old children.
  5. Ab-Murat N, Sheiham A, Watt R, Tsakos G
    BMC Oral Health, 2015 Mar 13;15:36.
    PMID: 25887142 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-015-0015-9
    The traditional measure for assessing dental treatment needs and workforce requirements based solely on normative need (NN) has major shortcomings. The sociodental approach (SDA) to assess needs overcomes some of the shortcomings as it combines normative and subjective needs assessments and also incorporates behavioural propensity (Sheiham and Tsakos 2007). The objective of this study was to estimate and compare prosthodontic treatment needs and workforce requirements, using the normative and the sociodental approaches for different skill mix models.
  6. Raman RP, Taiyeb-Ali TB, Chan SP, Chinna K, Vaithilingam RD
    BMC Oral Health, 2014;14:79.
    PMID: 24965218 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-79
    40 subjects with type 2 diabetes and moderate to severe CP were randomly distributed to groups receiving either NSPT or OHI. Periodontal parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were evaluated at baseline, 2- and 3-months intervals.
  7. Chua EG, Parolia A, Ahlawat P, Pau A, Amalraj FD
    BMC Oral Health, 2014;14:53.
    PMID: 24886335 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-53
    To investigate the antifungal activity of propolis, triple antibiotic paste (TAP), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide with propylene glycol on Candida albicans-infected root canal dentinal tubules at two different depths (200 μm and 400 μm) and two time intervals (day 1 and 7).
  8. Mohd-Dom T, Ayob R, Mohd-Nur A, Abdul-Manaf MR, Ishak N, Abdul-Muttalib K, et al.
    BMC Oral Health, 2014;14:56.
    PMID: 24884465 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-56
    The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components.
  9. Esa R, Ong AL, Humphris G, Freeman R
    BMC Oral Health, 2014;14:19.
    PMID: 24621226 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-19
    To investigate the role of geography (place of residence) as a moderator in the relationship between dental caries disease and treatment experience and dental fear in 16-year-olds living in Malaysia.
  10. Tan JM, Parolia A, Pau AK
    BMC Oral Health, 2013;13:52.
    PMID: 24098931 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-13-52
    This study compared the effectiveness of a Specially Designed Paste Carrier technique with the Syringe-Spreader technique and the Syringe-Lentulo spiral technique in the intracanal placement of calcium hydroxide.
  11. Al-Marzok MI, Majeed KR, Ibrahim IK
    BMC Oral Health, 2013;13:9.
    PMID: 23347800 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-13-9
    The maxillary anterior teeth are important in achieving pleasing dental aesthetics. Various methods are used to measure the size and form of them, including the golden proportion between their perceived widths, and the width-to-height ratio, referred to as the golden standard. The purpose of this study was conducted to evaluate whether consistent relationships exist between tooth width and height of the clinical crown dimensions; and to investigate the occurrence of the golden proportion of the maxillary anterior teeth.
  12. Tin-Oo MM, Saddki N, Hassan N
    BMC Oral Health, 2011;11:6.
    PMID: 21342536 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-11-6
    We assessed factors influencing patients' satisfaction with their dental appearance and the treatments they desired to improve dental aesthetics.
  13. Ismail A, Razak IA, Ab-Murat N
    BMC Oral Health, 2018 07 27;18(1):126.
    PMID: 30053849 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-018-0589-0
    BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the impact of anticipatory guidance on the caries incidence of 2-3-year-old preschool children and their 4-6-year-old siblings, as well as on their mothers' oral health literacy, as compared to the conventional Ministry of Health (MOH) programme.

    METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at two government dental clinics in Batu Pahat District, Malaysia. The samples comprised of 478 mother-child-sibling trios (233 families in the intervention group, and 245 families in the control group). An oral health package named the Family Dental Wellness Programme (FDWP) was designed to provide dental examinations and oral health education through anticipatory guidance technique to the intervention group at six-month intervals over 3 years. The control group received the standard MOH oral health education activities. The impact of FDWP on net caries increment, caries prevented fraction, and mother's oral health literacy was assessed after 3 years of intervention.

    RESULTS: Children and siblings in the intervention group had a significantly lower net caries increment (0.24 ± SD0.8; 0.20 ± SD0.7) compared to the control group (0.75 ± SD1.2; 0.55 ± SD0.9). The caries prevented fraction for FDWP was 68% for the younger siblings and 63.6% for the older children. The 2-3-year-old children in the intervention group had a significantly lower incidence of white spot lesions than their counterpart (12% vs 25%, p 

  14. Wong HC, Ooi Y, Pulikkotil SJ, Naing C
    BMC Oral Health, 2018 Oct 22;18(1):171.
    PMID: 30348144 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-018-0637-9
    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a major oral health problem and it is considered as one of the reasons for tooth loss in developing and developed nations. The objective of the current review was to investigate the association between IL10 polymorphisms - 1082 A > G (rs1800896), -819C > T (rs1800871), - 592 A > C (rs1800872) and the risk of either chronic periodontitis or aggressive periodontitis.

    METHODS: This is a meta- analysis study, following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta- analyses (PRISMA). Relevant studies were searched in the health related electronic databases. Methodological quality of the included studies were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. For individual studies, odds ratio (OR) and its 95%confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the strength of association between IL10 polymorphisms (- 1082 A > G, -819C > T, - 592 A > C) and the risk of periodontitis. For pooling of the estimates across studies included, the summary OR and its 95% CIs were calculated with random-effects model. The pooled estimates were done under four genetic models such as the allelic contrast model, the recessive model, the dominant model and the additive model. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was done for estimation of the required information size for this meta-analysis study.

    RESULTS: Sixteen studies were identified for this review. The included studies were assessed to be of moderate to good methodological quality. A significant association between polymorphism of IL10-1082 A > G polymorphism and the risk of chronic periodontitis in the non-Asian populations was observed only in the recessive model (OR,1.42; 95% CI:1.11, 1.8,I2: 43%). The significant associations between - 592 A > C polymorphism and the risk of aggressive periodontitis in the non-Asian populations were observed in particular genetic models such as allele contrast (OR, 4.34; 95%CI:1.87,10.07,I2: 65%) and recessive models (OR, 2.1; 95% CI:1.16, 3.82,I2: 0%). The TSA plot revealed that the required information size for evidence of effect was sufficient to draw a conclusion.

    CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested that the IL10-1082 A > G polymorphism was associated with chronic periodontitis CP risk in non-Asians. Thus, in order to further establish the associations between IL10 (- 819 C > T, - 592 A > C) in Asian populations, future studies should include larger sample sizes with multi-ethnic groups.

  15. Mohamed N, Saddki N, Yusoff A, Mat Jelani A
    BMC Oral Health, 2017 Aug 22;17(1):119.
    PMID: 28830386 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-017-0409-y
    BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a multidimensional construct that refers to an individual's self-perceived well-being. This study used the revised Wilson and Cleary HRQOL model to investigate the associations among oral symptoms, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL), and HRQOL of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 121 PLWHA receiving medical care in Kota Bharu (Kelantan, Malaysia) participated in this cross-sectional study. The Malay version of the short Oral Health Impact Profile (S-OHIP(M)) and the Malay version of the 36-item Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-36) were used to assess OHRQOL and HRQOL, respectively. A higher S-OHIP(M) score indicates greater oral impact and worse OHRQOL; a higher SF-36 score indicates better HRQOL. An additional structured self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain other variables of interest from the participants.

    RESULTS: Most participants had at least one oral symptom (69.4%), and the most common oral symptom was a cavitated tooth (55.4%). The prevalence of oral impacts was 33.9%, and the mean S-OHIP(M) score was 8.8 (SD = 7.92). The mean S-OHIP(M) score was significantly higher in participants who had toothaches, cavitated teeth, gum abscesses, and bad breath. In addition, participants with lower S-OHIP(M) scores had significantly higher scores in all SF-36 domains.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence for an association among oral symptoms, OHRQOL, and HRQOL in PLWHA from Malaysia. In particular, the presence of oral symptoms was significantly associated with more severe oral impacts and poorer OHRQOL. The presence of less severe oral impacts was associated with a better HRQOL.

  16. Ab Halim N, Esa R, Chew HP
    BMC Oral Health, 2018 01 12;18(1):11.
    PMID: 29329566 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-017-0451-9
    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of general tooth wear (GTW), i.e. tooth wear irrespective of etiology and erosive tooth wear (ETW), i.e. tooth wear predominantly due to erosion; and also to investigate the relationship between ETW and dental caries experience in 16-year-old adolescents in Kuantan, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A multi-staged cluster sampling method was employed. A total of 598 16-year-old adolescents participated in this study. Participants' demographic profile was assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. Clinical examinations were carried out under standardized conditions by a single examiner. The level of GTW was recorded using the modified Smith and Knight's Tooth Wear Index (TWI) whilst ETW were recorded using the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. This index was developed to record clinical findings and assist in the decision-making process for the management of erosive tooth wear. Dental caries was recorded using the D3MFT index whereby D3 denotes obvious dental decay into dentine detected visually.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of GTW, ETW and dental caries, i.e. percentage of individuals found to have at least one lesion, was 99.8%, 45.0% and 27.8% respectively. Two thirds of affected teeth with GTW were observed to have a TWI score of 1 whereas almost all of the affected teeth with ETW had a BEWE score of 2. The mean D3MFT was 0.62 (95% CI 0.50, 0.73) with Decayed (D) teeth being the largest component, mean D3T was 0.36 (95% CI 0.30, 0.43). There was no significant association between socio-demographic factors and prevalence of ETW. Logistic regression analysis also showed no significant relationship between the prevalence of ETW and D3MFT (p > 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Almost all adolescents examined had GTW but they were mainly early lesions. However, nearly half were found to have ETW of moderate severity (BEWE score 2). No significant relationship between the occurrence of erosive tooth wear and caries was observed in this population.

  17. Pan JYY, Parolia A, Chuah SR, Bhatia S, Mutalik S, Pau A
    BMC Oral Health, 2019 Jan 14;19(1):14.
    PMID: 30642318 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-019-0710-z
    BACKGROUND: To determine the root canal morphology of human permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth in a Malaysian subpopulation using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

    METHODS: A total of 208 CBCT images were examined retrospectively. Prevalence of an extra root/canal and internal morphology based on Vertucci's classification were observed in human maxillary and mandibular permanent teeth. Variations in the external and internal morphology were compared in relation to gender and tooth side (left vs right) using Pearson Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with significance level set at p 

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