Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 70 in total

  1. Raman RP, Taiyeb-Ali TB, Chan SP, Chinna K, Vaithilingam RD
    BMC Oral Health, 2014;14:79.
    PMID: 24965218 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-79
    40 subjects with type 2 diabetes and moderate to severe CP were randomly distributed to groups receiving either NSPT or OHI. Periodontal parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were evaluated at baseline, 2- and 3-months intervals.
  2. Esa R, Ong AL, Humphris G, Freeman R
    BMC Oral Health, 2014;14:19.
    PMID: 24621226 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-19
    To investigate the role of geography (place of residence) as a moderator in the relationship between dental caries disease and treatment experience and dental fear in 16-year-olds living in Malaysia.
  3. Chua EG, Parolia A, Ahlawat P, Pau A, Amalraj FD
    BMC Oral Health, 2014;14:53.
    PMID: 24886335 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-53
    To investigate the antifungal activity of propolis, triple antibiotic paste (TAP), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide with propylene glycol on Candida albicans-infected root canal dentinal tubules at two different depths (200 μm and 400 μm) and two time intervals (day 1 and 7).
  4. Mohd-Dom T, Ayob R, Mohd-Nur A, Abdul-Manaf MR, Ishak N, Abdul-Muttalib K, et al.
    BMC Oral Health, 2014;14:56.
    PMID: 24884465 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-56
    The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components.
  5. Tan JM, Parolia A, Pau AK
    BMC Oral Health, 2013;13:52.
    PMID: 24098931 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-13-52
    This study compared the effectiveness of a Specially Designed Paste Carrier technique with the Syringe-Spreader technique and the Syringe-Lentulo spiral technique in the intracanal placement of calcium hydroxide.
  6. Tin-Oo MM, Saddki N, Hassan N
    BMC Oral Health, 2011;11:6.
    PMID: 21342536 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-11-6
    We assessed factors influencing patients' satisfaction with their dental appearance and the treatments they desired to improve dental aesthetics.
  7. Al-Marzok MI, Majeed KR, Ibrahim IK
    BMC Oral Health, 2013;13:9.
    PMID: 23347800 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-13-9
    The maxillary anterior teeth are important in achieving pleasing dental aesthetics. Various methods are used to measure the size and form of them, including the golden proportion between their perceived widths, and the width-to-height ratio, referred to as the golden standard. The purpose of this study was conducted to evaluate whether consistent relationships exist between tooth width and height of the clinical crown dimensions; and to investigate the occurrence of the golden proportion of the maxillary anterior teeth.
  8. Khan S, Saub R, Vaithilingam RD, Safii SH, Vethakkan SR, Baharuddin NA
    BMC Oral Health, 2015;15:114.
    PMID: 26419358 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-015-0098-3
    Chronic periodontitis (CP) is a global public health issue. Studies have suggested CP could be linked to obesity due to their similar pathophysiological pathway. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of CP and to assess the predictors for CP among the obese Malaysian population.
    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study on obese participants. Obesity is defined as an individual who has Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 27.5 kg/m(2). A convenience sampling method was used. A total of 165 paricipants were recruited. This study involved answering questionnaires, obtaining biometric and clinical measurements of Visible plaque index (VPI), Gingival bleeding index (GBI), Probing pocket depth (PPD) and Clinical attachment loss (CAL). Data analysis was carried out using SPSS statistical software (SPSS Inc., version 20, US).
    RESULTS: A total of 165 participants; 67 (40.6%) males and 98 (59.4%) females participated in the study. Mean age of the participants was 43.9 (± 8.9). The prevalence of CP among the obese population was found to be 73.9%. Out of this, 43 and 55% were categorised as moderate and severe CP respectively. Around 64% of participants had sites with CAL ≥ 4 mm and participants with sites with PPD ≥ 4 mm were reported to be 25%. Around 83% of the participants had sites with GBI ≥ 30 and 92% of participants had sites with VPI ≥ 20%. GBI and VPI were found to have significantly higher odds for CP.
    CONCLUSION: Prevalence of CP was high among obese Malaysians. GBI and VPI were potential predictors for CP in this obese population.
  9. Haque SE, Rahman M, Itsuko K, Mutahara M, Kayako S, Tsutsumi A, et al.
    BMC Oral Health, 2016 Mar 25;16:44.
    PMID: 27016080 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-016-0202-3
    BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of published literature that demonstrates the impact and effectiveness of school-based oral health education (OHE) program in Bangladesh and it is one of the most neglected activities in the field of public health. Keeping this in mind, the objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of OHE program in: 1) increasing oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices and 2) decreasing the prevalence of untreated dental caries among 6-8 grade school students in Bangladesh.

    METHODS: This intervention study was conducted in Araihazar Thana, Narayanganj district, Bangladesh during April 2012 to March 2013. The total participants were 944 students from three local schools. At baseline, students were assessed for oral health knowledge, attitude and practices using a self-administered structured questionnaire and untreated dental caries was assessed using clinical examination. Follow up study was done after 6 months from baseline. McNemar's chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the impact of OHE program on four recurrent themes of oral health between the baseline and follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the impact of the intervention group on our outcome variables.

    RESULTS: Significant improvement was observed regarding school aged adolescents' self-reported higher knowledge, attitude and practices scores (p < 0.001) at follow-up compared with baseline. The prevalence of untreated dental caries of the study population after the OHE program was significantly (p < 0.01) reduced to 42.5 %. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the OHE intervention remained a significant predictor in reducing the risk of untreated dental caries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.51; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.37, 0.81). In the follow-up period participants were 2.21 times (95 % CI = 1.87, 3.45) more likely to have higher level of knowledge regarding oral health compared to baseline. Compared with baseline participants in the follow-up were 1.89 times (95 % CI = 1.44-2.87) more likely to have higher attitude towards oral health. In addition, OHE intervention was found to be significantly associated with higher level of practices toward oral health (AOR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.12, 3.38).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that OHE intervention was effective in increasing i) knowledge, ii) attitude, and iii) practices towards oral health; it also significantly reduced the prevalence of untreated dental caries among school aged adolescents from grade 6-8 in a deprived rural area of Bangladesh.

  10. Raghav K, Van Wijk AJ, Abdullah F, Islam MN, Bernatchez M, De Jongh A
    BMC Oral Health, 2016 Feb 27;16:25.
    PMID: 26920573 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-016-0186-z
    BACKGROUND: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is found to be a promising and a viable alternative for in vivo exposure in the treatment of specific phobias. However, its usefulness for treating dental phobia is unexplored. The aims of the present study are to determine: (a) the efficacy of VRET versus informational pamphlet (IP) control group in terms of dental trait and state anxiety reductions at 1 week, 3 months and 6 months follow-up (b) the real-time physiological arousal [heart rate (HR)] of VRET group participants during and following therapy (c) the relation between subjective (presence) and objective (HR) measures during VRET.

    METHODS: This study is a single blind, randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms in which participants will be allocated to VRET or IP with a ratio of 1:1. Thirty participants (18-50 years) meeting the Phobia Checklist criteria of dental phobia will undergo block randomization with allocation concealment. The primary outcome measures include participants' dental trait anxiety (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and Dental Fear Survey) and state anxiety (Visual Analogue Scale) measured at baseline (T0), at intervention (T1), 1-week (T2), 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T4) follow-up. A behavior test will be conducted before and after the intervention. The secondary outcome measures are real-time evaluation of HR and VR (Virtual Reality) experience (presence, realism, nausea) during and following the VRET intervention respectively. The data will be analyzed using intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis.

    DISCUSSION: This study uses novel non-invasive VRET, which may provide a possible alternative treatment for dental anxiety and phobia.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN25824611 , Date of registration: 26 October 2015.

  11. Esa R, Hashim NA, Ayob Y, Yusof ZY
    BMC Oral Health, 2015 Mar 10;15:28.
    PMID: 25886943 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-015-0013-y
    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDASf) Malay version in 5-6 and 9-12 year-old children.
    METHODS: The MCDASf was cross culturally adapted from English into Malay. The Malay version was tested for reliability and validity in 3 studies. In the Study 1, to determine test-retest reliability of MCDASf scale, 166 preschool children aged 5-6 years were asked to rank orders five cartoons faces depicting emotions from 'very happy' to 'very sad' faces on two separate occasions 3 weeks apart. A total of 87 other 5-6 year-old children completed the Malay-MCDASf on two separate occasions 3 weeks apart to determine test-retest reliability for Study 2. In study 3, 239 schoolchildren aged 9-12 years completed the Malay-MCDASf and the Malay-Dental Subscale of the Children Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS) at the same sitting to determine the criterion and construct validity.
    RESULTS: In study 1, Kendall W test showed a high degree of concordance in ranking the cartoon faces picture cards on each of the 2 occasions (time 1, W = 0.955 and time 2, W = 0.954). The Malay-MCDASf demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.63, p <0.001) and acceptable internal consistency for all the 6 items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77) and 8 items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73). The highest MCDASf scores were observed for the items 'injection in the gum' and 'tooth taken out' for both age groups. The MCDASf significantly correlated with the CFSS-DS (Pearson r = 0.67, p < 0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: These psychometric findings support for the inclusion of a cartoon faces rating scale to assess child dental anxiety and the Malay-MCDASf is a reliable and valid measure of dental anxiety in 5-12 year-old children.
  12. Ab-Murat N, Sheiham A, Watt R, Tsakos G
    BMC Oral Health, 2015 Mar 13;15:36.
    PMID: 25887142 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-015-0015-9
    The traditional measure for assessing dental treatment needs and workforce requirements based solely on normative need (NN) has major shortcomings. The sociodental approach (SDA) to assess needs overcomes some of the shortcomings as it combines normative and subjective needs assessments and also incorporates behavioural propensity (Sheiham and Tsakos 2007). The objective of this study was to estimate and compare prosthodontic treatment needs and workforce requirements, using the normative and the sociodental approaches for different skill mix models.
  13. Mohd Nasri FA, Zainal Ariffin SH, Karsani SA, Megat Abdul Wahab R
    BMC Oral Health, 2020 09 11;20(1):256.
    PMID: 32917196 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-020-01246-9
    BACKGROUND: Orthodontically-induced root resorption is an iatrogenic effect and it cannot be examined regularly due to the harmful effects of sequential doses of radiation with more frequent radiography. This study aims to compare protein abundance (PA) of pre-treatment and during orthodontic treatment for root resorption and to determine potential early markers for root resorption.

    METHODS: Ten subjects (n = 10) who had upper and lower fixed appliances (MBT, 3 M Unitek, 0.022″ × 0.028″) were recruited for this study. Human gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was obtained using periopaper strips at pre-treatment (T0), 1 month (T1), 3 months (T3), and 6 months (T6) of orthodontic treatment. Periapical radiographs of the upper permanent central incisors were taken at T0 and T6 to measure the amount of root resorption. Identification of changes in PA was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Student's t-test was then performed to determine the significance of the differences in protein abundance before and after orthodontic treatment.

    RESULTS: Our findings showed that all ten subjects had mild root resorption, with an average resorption length of 0.56 ± 0.30 mm. A total of 186 proteins were found to be commonly present at T0, T1, T3, and T6. There were significant changes in the abundance of 16 proteins (student's t-test, p ≤ 0.05). The increased PA of S100A9, immunoglobulin J chain, heat shock protein 1A, immunoglobulin heavy variable 4-34 and vitronectin at T1 suggested a response to stress that involved inflammation during the early phase of orthodontic treatment. On the other hand, the increased PA of thymidine phosphorylase at T3 suggested growth promotion and, angiogenic and chemotactic activities.

    CONCLUSIONS: The identified proteins can be potential early markers for root resorption based on the increase in their respective PA and predicted roles during the early phase of orthodontic treatment. Non-invasive detection of root resorption using protein markers as early as possible is extremely important as it can aid orthodontists in successful orthodontic treatment.

  14. Yap KCH, Pulikkotil SJ
    BMC Oral Health, 2019 09 05;19(1):209.
    PMID: 31488125 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-019-0873-7
    BACKGROUND: To compare the effectiveness of systemic doxycycline as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) with SRP alone in improving periodontal clinical attachment level and glycemic control in diabetic patients with periodontitis.

    METHODS: Two independent reviewers (KY and SJ) screened two electronic databases, PubMed and Scopus, for randomized clinical trials on the use of systemic doxycycline as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in improving periodontal status and glycemic control in diabetic patients with periodontitis using predetermined selection criteria within a 3-month period. The reviewers independently did data screening, data selection, data extraction and risk of bias. Quality of studies involved was analysed using the revised Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0. Weighted standard mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a random effects meta-analysis model. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot. Quality of evidence was evaluated by Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.

    RESULTS: Electronic searches provided 1358 records and six studies were selected. The meta-analyses indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in the improvement of periodontal status with the use of systemic doxycycline as an adjunct for scaling and root planing (SRP). SMD of clinical attachment levels (- 0.22 [- 0.52, 0.08]) and HbA1c levels (- 0.13 [- 0.41, 0.15]) were calculated. Overall risk of bias is high in 2 out of 6 studies involved.

    CONCLUSION: Systemic doxycycline when used in addition to scaling and root planing yields no significant improvement of clinical attachment levels for periodontal status and reduction of HbA1c levels in treatment of diabetic patients with periodontitis when comparing the test group to the control group.

  15. Chaudhary FA, Ahmad B, Bashir U
    BMC Oral Health, 2019 06 26;19(1):127.
    PMID: 31242898 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-019-0819-0
    BACKGROUND: There is a limited understanding about the oral health of patients with facial burn, hence the aim was to describe the oral health status and the related risks factors.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study had randomly and systematically recruited facial burn patients from the Burn Care Center, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from June of 2016 to July of 2017. Intraoral examination recorded the DMFT, CPI and OHI-S. Information on the socio-demographic status, self-perceived oral health, oral health behaviours were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and; the burn characteristics were obtained from the patients' medical record. The t-test, ANOVA, SLR, and chi-square test were used to examine the relationship between oral health and each factor. A parameter was derived from the clinical indices using the principal component analysis and used in the multiple linear regression analysis to determine the important factors associated with oral health status.

    RESULTS: A total of 271 burn patients (69% female and 31% male) had participated in the study. All of the participants had caries with mean DMFT = 10.96 (95%CI: 10.67, 11.25). There were 59.0% (95%CI: 53.15, 64.93%) and 66.1% (95%CI: 60.38, 71.73%) of the participants who had periodontitis and poor oral hygiene respectively. About 79 and 80% of the participants rated their dental and periodontal status as poor. About 78% reported brushing once daily and 89% did not practice regular dental visit. The DMFT, CPI and OHI-S were associated with the burn characteristics and oral health behaviours (p 

  16. Berhan Nordin EA, Shoaib LA, Mohd Yusof ZY, Manan NM, Othman SA
    BMC Oral Health, 2019 07 15;19(1):152.
    PMID: 31307462 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-019-0833-2
    BACKGROUND: Poor oral health among Malaysian indigenous Orang Asli (OA) children may impact on their daily performances.

    AIM: To assess the oral health status, related behaviours, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among OA children in Cameron Highlands (CH), Malaysia, and to identify the predictor(s) for poor OHRQoL.

    DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study involving 249, 11-12 year old OA children from 4 OA primary schools in CH. The children completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising information on socio-demographics, oral health-related behaviours, and the Malay Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Malay Child-OIDP) index followed by an oral examination. Data were entered into the SPSS version 23.0 software. Non-parametric tests and multiple logistic regression were used for data analysis.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 91.2% (n = 227/249). The prevalence of caries was 61.6% (mean DMFT = 1.36, mean dft = 1.01) and for gingivitis was 96.0%. Despite the majority reported brushing their teeth ≥ 2x/day (83.7%) with fluoride toothpaste (80.2%), more than two-thirds chewed betel nut ≥ 1/day (67.4%). Majority of the children (97.8%) had a dental check-up once a year. Nearly three-fifths (58.6%) reported experiencing oral impacts on their daily performances in the past 3 months (mean score = 5.45, SD = 8.5). Most of the impacts were of "very little" to "moderate" levels of impact intensity with 90.2% had up to 4 daily performances affected. Most of the impacts were on eating (35.2%), cleaning teeth (22.0%) and relaxing activities (15.9%). Caries in primary teeth is associated with oral impacts among the OA children.

    CONCLUSIONS: The 11-12 year old OA children in Cameron Highland had high prevalence of caries and gingivitis with the majority chewed betel nut regularly. Caries in primary teeth is associated with poor OHRQoL. Future programmes should target younger age group children to promote positive oral hygiene practices, reduce caries, and improve quality of life.

  17. Quadri MFA, Ahmad B
    BMC Oral Health, 2019 07 11;19(1):143.
    PMID: 31296203 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-019-0822-5
    As part of our study, we reviewed the report published in BMC-Oral Health, titled "An assessment of the impacts of child oral health in Indonesia and associations with self-esteem, school performance and perceived employability" by Maharani et.al, 2017. We noted a plausible error in the interpretation of results in the report and re-examined the published data. Contradictory to the published report, our analysis showed no evidence for the relationship between toothache and poor school performance. Significant relationship was only found between plaque accumulation and school performance. We argued that the error may have originated from an unclear objective and misclassification of school performance variable before applying statistical test to address the objective of this study.
  18. Pan JYY, Parolia A, Chuah SR, Bhatia S, Mutalik S, Pau A
    BMC Oral Health, 2019 01 14;19(1):14.
    PMID: 30642318 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-019-0710-z
    BACKGROUND: To determine the root canal morphology of human permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth in a Malaysian subpopulation using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

    METHODS: A total of 208 CBCT images were examined retrospectively. Prevalence of an extra root/canal and internal morphology based on Vertucci's classification were observed in human maxillary and mandibular permanent teeth. Variations in the external and internal morphology were compared in relation to gender and tooth side (left vs right) using Pearson Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with significance level set at p 

  19. Sathasivam HP, Saw CL, Lau SH
    BMC Oral Health, 2021 03 18;21(1):129.
    PMID: 33736630 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-020-01365-3
    BACKGROUND: Malignant odontogenic tumours are extremely rare tumours occurring within the jaws. Our study was performed to determine the demographic and clinico-pathological features of malignant odontogenic tumours amongst a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of malignant odontogenic tumours diagnosed at the Institute for Medical Research, Malaysia, from 2009 to 2019. All cases were independently reviewed and reclassified following the criteria set out in the latest edition of the World Health Organization 2017 reference text. Demographic and clinico-pathological data were recorded for each case.

    RESULTS: Twenty-four cases of malignant odontogenic tumours were identified. The patients' age ranged from 16 to 79 years with the mean age at diagnosis being 50.8 years (SD = 16.18). There was a male predominance (66.7%) in this cohort of patients. The ethnic distribution appeared to reflect the Malaysian population with most cases seen amongst the Malay ethnic group (66.7%). Ameloblastic carcinoma was the most frequently diagnosed malignant odontogenic tumour (45.8%) and was also predominantly seen in males (90.9%). All patients with clear cell odontogenic carcinoma were females. There was no obvious sex predilection in primary odontogenic carcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS). The mandible (79.2%) was more frequently involved compared to the maxilla.

    CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis and management of malignant odontogenic tumours are challenging due to the rarity of these tumours. Our study has elucidated the clinico-pathological features of malignant odontogenic tumours seen in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

  20. Abdul Hayei NA, Yahya NA, Safii SH, Saub R, Vaithilingam RD, Baharuddin NA
    BMC Oral Health, 2021 03 31;21(1):169.
    PMID: 33789646 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-021-01540-0
    BACKGROUND: The influence of scaler tip design on root surface roughness, tooth substance loss and patients' pain perception is investigated.

    METHODS: This article was divided into the following parts: Part 1 Surface roughness and substance loss: an in vitro study, which involves intact extracted teeth sectioned and treated using a piezoelectric ultrasonic device (PM200 EMS Piezon, Switzerland) with a conventional scaler tip (FS-407) and a Perio Slim (PS) scaler tip (Perio Slim DS-016A). All sectioned samples for tooth surface roughness (n = 20) and tooth substance loss (n = 46) analyses were measured and compared using a 3D surface texture analyser and scanning electron microscope (SEM) respectively, at baseline and following scaling. Part 2 Pain Perception: a clinical study, which was a split mouth study design including 30 participants with gingivitis and/or mild chronic periodontitis; treated with supra-gingival scaling from teeth #13 to #23. Subjects were randomised to group A or group B. Group A was treated first with PS scaler tips, whereas group B was treated first with conventional scaler tips. Pain perception was recorded using the visual analogue scale (VAS).

    RESULTS: In vitro study: both scaler tips caused significant reduction in root substance roughness after scaling (p  0.05) was observed. The PS scaler tip caused statistically significantly less root substance loss (p 

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