A double-lateral-gate p-type junctionless transistor is fabricated on a low-doped (10(15)) silicon-on-insulator wafer by a lithography technique based on scanning probe microscopy and two steps of wet chemical etching. The experimental transfer characteristics are obtained and compared with the numerical characteristics of the device. The simulation results are used to investigate the pinch-off mechanism, from the flat band to the off state. The study is based on the variation of the carrier density and the electric-field components. The device is a pinch-off transistor, which is normally in the on state and is driven into the off state by the application of a positive gate voltage. We demonstrate that the depletion starts from the bottom corner of the channel facing the gates and expands toward the center and top of the channel. Redistribution of the carriers due to the electric field emanating from the gates creates an electric field perpendicular to the current, toward the bottom of the channel, which provides the electrostatic squeezing of the current.
This work explores the potential use of commercially obtained, carboxylated, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-COOH) as nanocarriers for the antiparkinson drug, levodopa (LD). The resulting nanohybrid was characterized using materials characterization methods including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that SWCNT-COOH were able to form supramolecular complexes with LD via a π-π stacking interaction and exhibited favourable, slow, sustained-release characteristics as a drug carrier with a release period over more than 20 h. The results obtained from the drug release studies of LD at different pH values showed that the LD-loaded nanohybrid is pH activated. The release kinetics of LD from SWCNT-COOH were well-described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. A cytotoxicity assay of the synthesized nanohybrid was also carried out in PC12 cell lines (a widely used, in vitro Parkinson's model for neurotoxicity studies) using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in order to investigate their possible effects on normal neuronal cells in vitro. It was found that the synthesized nanohybrid did not compromise the cell viability and the PC12 cells remained stable throughout the experiments up to 72 h after treatment.
In this letter, we report results of a hydrosilylation carried out on bifunctional molecules by using two different approaches, namely through thermal treatment and photochemical treatment through UV irradiation. Previously, our group also demonstrated that in a mixed alkyne/alcohol solution, surface coupling is biased towards the formation of Si-O-C linkages instead of Si-C linkages, thus indirectly supporting the kinetic model of hydrogen abstraction from the Si-H surface (Khung, Y. L. et al. Chem. - Eur. J. 2014, 20, 15151-15158). To further examine the probability of this kinetic model we compare the results from reactions with bifunctional alkynes carried out under thermal treatment (<130 °C) and under UV irradiation, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements showed that under thermal conditions, the Si-H surface predominately reacts to form Si-O-C bonds from ethynylbenzyl alcohol solution while the UV photochemical route ensures that the alcohol-based alkyne may also form Si-C bonds, thus producing a monolayer of mixed linkages. The results suggested the importance of surface radicals as well as the type of terminal group as being essential towards directing the nature of surface linkage.
We report a sonochemical method of functionalizing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES). Mechanical stirring, localized hot spots and other unique conditions generated by an acoustic cavitation (sonochemical) process were found to induce a rapid silanization reaction between SPION and APTES. FTIR, XPS and XRD measurements were used to demonstrate the grafting of APTES on SPION. Compared to what was reported in literature, the results showed that the silanization reaction time was greatly minimized. More importantly, the product displayed superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature with a more than 20% higher saturation magnetization.
Carbon, in its variety of allotropes, especially graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), holds great potential for applications in variety of sensors because of dangling π-bonds that can react with chemical elements. In spite of their excellent features, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have not been fully exploited in the development of the nanoelectronic industry mainly because of poor understanding of the band structure of these allotropes. A mathematical model is proposed with a clear purpose to acquire an analytical understanding of the field-effect-transistor (FET) based gas detection mechanism. The conductance change in the CNT/graphene channel resulting from the chemical reaction between the gas and channel surface molecules is emphasized. NH3 has been used as the prototype gas to be detected by the nanosensor and the corresponding current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the FET-based sensor are studied. A graphene-based gas sensor model is also developed. The results from graphene and CNT models are compared with the experimental data. A satisfactory agreement, within the uncertainties of the experiments, is obtained. Graphene-based gas sensor exhibits higher conductivity compared to that of CNT-based counterpart for similar ambient conditions.
Graphene, which as a new carbon material shows great potential for a range of applications because of its exceptional electronic and mechanical properties, becomes a matter of attention in these years. The use of graphene in nanoscale devices plays an important role in achieving more accurate and faster devices. Although there are lots of experimental studies in this area, there is a lack of analytical models. Quantum capacitance as one of the important properties of field effect transistors (FETs) is in our focus. The quantum capacitance of electrolyte-gated transistors (EGFETs) along with a relevant equivalent circuit is suggested in terms of Fermi velocity, carrier density, and fundamental physical quantities. The analytical model is compared with the experimental data and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is calculated to be 11.82. In order to decrease the error, a new function of E composed of α and β parameters is suggested. In another attempt, the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm is implemented for optimization and development of an analytical model to obtain a more accurate capacitance model. To further confirm this viewpoint, based on the given results, the accuracy of the optimized model is more than 97% which is in an acceptable range of accuracy.
The hydrothermal method was used as a new approach to prepare a series of Ag-doped Cd0.1Zn0.9S photocatalysts. The effect of Ag doping on the properties and photocatalytic activity of Cd0.1Zn0.9S was studied for the hydrogen production from water reduction under visible light irradiation.
The effect of microwaves on the functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by the diazonium method was studied. The usage of a new approach led to the identification of the strength of the interaction (physical or chemical) between the functional groups and the carbon nanotube surface. Moreover, the nature (chemical formula) of the adsorbed/grafted functional groups was determined. According to thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, the optimal functionalization level was reached after 5 min of reaction. Prolonged reaction times can lead to undesired reactions such as defunctionalization, solvent addition and polymerization of the grafted functions. The strength (chemi- vs physisorption) of the bonds between the grafted functional groups and the SWNTs is discussed showing the occurrence of physical adsorption as a consequence of defunctionalization after 15 min of reaction under microwaves. Several chemical mechanisms of grafting could be identified, and it was possible to distinguish conditions leading to the desired chemical grafting from those leading to undesired reactions such as physisorption and polymerization.
We report a facile synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays using an optimized, chemical bath deposition method on glass, PET and Si substrates. The morphological and structural properties of the ZnO nanorod arrays were investigated using various techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, which revealed the formation of dense ZnO nanorods with a single crystal, hexagonal wurtzite structure. The aspect ratio of the single-crystal ZnO nanorods and the growth rate along the (002) direction was found to be sensitive to the substrate type. The lattice constants and the crystallite size of the fabricated ZnO nanorods were calculated based on the XRD data. The obtained results revealed that the increase in the crystallite size is strongly associated with the growth conditions with a minor dependence on the type of substrate. The Raman spectroscopy measurements confirmed the existence of a compressive stress in the fabricated ZnO nanorods. The obtained results illustrated that the growth of high quality, single-crystal ZnO nanorods can be realized by adjusting the synthesis conditions.
This work describes a fast, clean and low-cost approach to synthesize ZnS-PVA nanofluids consisting of ZnS nanoparticles homogeneously distributed in a PVA solution. The ZnS nanoparticles were formed by the electrostatic force between zinc and sulfur ions induced by gamma irradiation at a dose range from 10 to 50 kGy. Several experimental characterizations were conducted to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the samples. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine the chemical structure and bonding conditions of the final products, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for determining the shape morphology and average particle size, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for confirming the formation and crystalline structure of ZnS nanoparticles, UV-visible spectroscopy for measuring the electronic absorption characteristics, transient hot wire (THW) and photoacoustic measurements for measuring the thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity of the samples, from which, for the first time, the values of specific heat and thermal diffusivity of the samples were then calculated.
Freely assembled palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on titania (TiO2) nano photocatalysts were successfully synthesized through a photodeposition method using natural sunlight. This synthesized heterogeneous photocatalyst (Pd/TiO2) was characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-DRS), Raman and photoluminescence (PL) analyses. The simple and smart synthesis anchored well the deposition with controlled Pd NPs size ranging between 17 and 29 nm onto the surface of TiO2. Thus, it gives the characteristic for Pd NPs to absorb light in the visible region obtained through localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPRs). Apparently, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared photocatalysts was evaluated by degrading the endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) amoxicillin (AMX) excited under an artificial visible light source. In the preliminary run, almost complete degradation (97.5%) was achieved in 5 h with 0.5 wt % Pd loading and the degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reusability trend proved the photostability of the prepared photocatalysts. Hence, the study provides a new insight about the modification of TiO2 with noble metals in order to enhance the absorption in the visible-light region for superior photocatalytic performance.
Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is one of the more promising methods for syngas (synthetic gas) production and co-utilization of methane and carbon dioxide, which are the main greenhouse gases. Magnesium is commonly applied in a Ni-based catalyst in DRM to improve catalyst performance and inhibit carbon deposition. The aim of this review is to gain better insight into recent developments on the use of Mg as a support or promoter for DRM catalysts. Its high basicity and high thermal stability make Mg suitable for introduction into the highly endothermic reaction of DRM. The introduction of Mg as a support or promoter for Ni-based catalysts allows for good metal dispersion on the catalyst surface, which consequently facilitates high catalytic activity and low catalyst deactivation. The mechanism of DRM and carbon formation and reduction are reviewed. This work further explores how different constraints, such as the synthesis method, metal loading, pretreatment, and operating conditions, influence the dry reforming reactions and product yields. In this review, different strategies for enhancing catalytic activity and the effect of metal dispersion on Mg-containing oxide catalysts are highlighted.
Nanomaterials (NMs) have gained prominence in technological advancements due to their tunable physical, chemical and biological properties with enhanced performance over their bulk counterparts. NMs are categorized depending on their size, composition, shape, and origin. The ability to predict the unique properties of NMs increases the value of each classification. Due to increased growth of production of NMs and their industrial applications, issues relating to toxicity are inevitable. The aim of this review is to compare synthetic (engineered) and naturally occurring nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructured materials (NSMs) to identify their nanoscale properties and to define the specific knowledge gaps related to the risk assessment of NPs and NSMs in the environment. The review presents an overview of the history and classifications of NMs and gives an overview of the various sources of NPs and NSMs, from natural to synthetic, and their toxic effects towards mammalian cells and tissue. Additionally, the types of toxic reactions associated with NPs and NSMs and the regulations implemented by different countries to reduce the associated risks are also discussed.
We report that transparent mesostructured silica/gold nanocomposite materials with an interpore distance of 4.1 nm, as-synthesized from a templated sol-gel synthesis method using discotic trinuclear gold(I) pyrazolate complex, were successfully utilized for the fabrication of thin film mesoporous silica nanocomposites containing gold nanoparticles. The material exhibited a highly ordered hexagonal structure when subjected to a thermal hydrogen reduction treatment at 210 °C. In contrast, when the material was subjected to calcination as a heat treatment from 190 to 450 °C, the thin film nanocomposites showed an intense d100 X-ray diffraction peak. Moreover, gold nanoparticles inside the thin film nanocomposites were confirmed by the presence of the d111 diffraction peak at 2θ = 38.2°, a surface plasmon resonance peak between 500-580 nm, and the spherical shape observed in the transmission electron microscope images, as well as the visual change in color from pink to purple. Interestingly, by simply dipping the material into a reaction solution of 4-nitrophenol at room temperature, the highly ordered structure of the as-fabricated silica/gold nanoparticle thin film composite after thermal hydrogen reduction at 210 °C resulted in an improved catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol compared to the material calcined at 250 °C. Such catalytic activity is due to the presence of gold nanoparticles of smaller size in the silicate channels of the highly ordered mesoporous film nanocomposites.
Cuttlefish bones are an inexpensive source of calcium carbonate, which are produced in large amounts by the marine food industry, leading to environmental contamination and waste. The nontoxicity, worldwide availability and low production cost of cuttlefish bone products makes them an excellent calcium carbonate precursor for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite. In the present study, a novel oil-bath-mediated precipitation method was introduced for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (Hap) nanorods using cuttlefish bone powder as a precursor (CB-Hap NRs). The obtained CB-Hap NRs were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques to evaluate their physicochemical properties. The crystallite size (20.86 nm) obtained from XRD data and the elemental analysis (Ca/P molar ratio was estimated to be 1.6) showed that the Hap NRs are similar to that of natural human bone (≈1.67). Moreover, the FTIR data confirmed the presence of phosphate as a functional group and the TGA data revealed the thermal stability of Hap NRs. In addition, the antibacterial study showed a significant inhibitory effect of CB-Hap NRs against S. aureus (zone of inhibition - 14.5 ± 0.5 mm) and E. coli (13 ± 0.5 mm), whereas the blood compatibility test showed that the CB-Hap NRs exhibited a concentration-mediated hemolytic effect. These biogenic CB-Hap NRs with improved physicochemical properties, blood compatibility and antibacterial efficacy could be highly beneficial for orthopedic applications in the future.
Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a widely used material for transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films due to its good optical and electrical properties. Improving the optoelectronic properties of ITO films with reduced thickness is crucial and quite challenging. ITO-based multilayer films with an aluminium-silver (Al-Ag) interlayer (ITO/Al-Ag/ITO) and a pure ITO layer (as reference) were prepared by RF and DC sputtering. The microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the ITO/Al-Ag/ITO (IAAI) films were investigated before and after annealing at 400 °C. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the insertion of the Al-Ag intermediate bilayer led to the crystallization of an Ag interlayer even at the as-deposited stage. Peaks attributed to ITO(222), Ag(111) and Al(200) were observed after annealing, indicating an enhancement in crystallinity of the multilayer films. The annealed IAAI film exhibited a remarkable improvement in optical transmittance (86.1%) with a very low sheet resistance of 2.93 Ω/sq. The carrier concentration increased more than twice when the Al-Ag layer was inserted between the ITO layers. The figure of merit of the IAAI multilayer contact has been found to be high at 76.4 × 10-3 Ω-1 compared to a pure ITO contact (69.4 × 10-3 Ω-1). These highly conductive and transparent ITO films with Al-Ag interlayer can be a promising contact for low-resistance optoelectronics devices.
Among many other sustainable functional nanomaterials, nanocellulose is drawing increasing interest for use in environmental remediation technologies due to its numerous unique properties and functionalities. Nanocellulose is usually derived from the disintegration of naturally occurring polymers or produced by the action of bacteria. In this review, some invigorating perspectives on the challenges, future direction, and updates on the most relevant uses of nanocellulose in environmental remediation are discussed. The reported applications and properties of nanocellulose as an adsorbent, photocatalyst, flocculant, and membrane are reviewed in particular. However, additional effort will be required to implement and commercialize nanocellulose as a viable nanomaterial for remediation technologies. In this regard, the main challenges and limitations in working with nanocellulose-based materials are identified in an effort to improve the development and efficient use of nanocellulose in environmental remediation.
The utilisation of sunlight as an abundant and renewable resource has motivated the development of sustainable photocatalysts that can collectively harvest visible light. However, the bottleneck in utilising the low energy photons has led to the discovery of plasmonic photocatalysts. The presence of noble metal on the plasmonic photocatalyst enables the harvesting of visible light through the unique characteristic features of the noble metal nanomaterials. Moreover, the formation of interfaces between noble metal particles and semiconductor materials further results in the formation of a Schottky junction. Thereby, the plasmonic characteristics have opened up a new direction in promoting an alternative path that can be of value to the society through sustainable development derived through energy available for all for diverse applications. We have comprehensively prepared this review to specifically focus on fundamental insights into plasmonic photocatalysts, various synthesis routes, together with their strengths and weaknesses, and the interaction of the plasmonic photocatalyst with pollutants as well as the role of active radical generation and identification. The review ends with a pinnacle insight into future perspectives regarding realistic applications of plasmonic photocatalysts.
Various types of carbon-based and non-carbon-based catalyst supports for nitric oxide (NO) removal through selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with ammonia are examined in this review. A number of carbon-based materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), activated carbon (AC), and graphene (GR) and non-carbon-based materials, such as Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5), TiO2, and Al2O3supported materials, were identified as the most up-to-date and recently used catalysts for the removal of NO gas. The main focus of this review is the study of catalyst preparation methods, as this is highly correlated to the behaviour of NO removal. The general mechanisms involved in the system, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood or Eley-Riedeal mechanism, are also discussed. Characterisation analysis affecting the surface and chemical structure of the catalyst is also detailed in this work. Finally, a few major conclusions are drawn and future directions for work on the advancement of the SCR-NH3catalyst are suggested.
Carbon dots (CDs) and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites (CD/g-C3N4) were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method using urea and sugarcane juice as starting materials. The chemical composition, morphological structure and optical properties of the composites and CDs were characterized using various spectroscopic techniques as well as transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed new signals for carbonyl and carboxyl groups originating from the CDs in CD/g-C3N4composites while X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed distortion of the host matrix after incorporating CDs into g-C3N4. Both analyses signified the interaction between g-C3N4and CDs. The photoluminescence (PL) analysis indicated that the presence of too many CDs will create trap states at the CD/g-C3N4interface, decelerating the electron (e-) transport. However, the CD/g-C3N4(0.5) composite with the highest coverage of CDs still achieved the best bisphenol A (BPA) degradation rate at 3.87 times higher than that of g-C3N4. Hence, the charge separation efficiency should not be one of the main factors responsible for the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of CD/g-C3N4. Instead, the light absorption capability was the dominant factor since the photoreactivity correlated well with the ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) results. Although the CDs did not display upconversion photoluminescence (UCPL) properties, the π-conjugated CDs served as a photosensitizer (like organic dyes) to sensitize g-C3N4and injected electrons to the conduction band (CB) of g-C3N4, resulting in the extended absorption spectrum from the visible to the near-infrared (NIR) region. This extended spectral absorption allows for the generation of more electrons for the enhancement of BPA degradation. It was determined that the reactive radical species responsible for the photocatalytic activity were the superoxide anion radical (O2•-) and holes (h+) after performing multiple scavenging tests.