Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Karthik D, Majumder P, Palanisamy S, Khairunnisa K, Venugopal V
    Bioinformation, 2014;10(9):580-5.
    PMID: 25352726 DOI: 10.6026/97320630010580
    Kinase Suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a molecular scaffold that interacts with the core kinase components of the ERK cascade, Raf, MEK, ERK to provide spatial and temporal regulation of Ras-dependent ERK cascade signaling. Interruption of this mechanism can have a high influence in inhibiting the downstream signaling of the mutated tyrosine kinase receptor kinase upon ligand binding. Still none of the studies targeted to prevent the binding of Raf, MEK binding on kinase suppressor of RAS. In that perspective the cysteine rich C1 domain of scaffold proteins kinase suppressor of Ras-1 was targeted rather than its ATP binding site with small ligand molecules like flavones and anthocyanidins and analyzed through insilico docking studies. The binding energy evaluation shows the importance of hydroxyl groups at various positions on the flavone and anthocyanidin nucleus. Over all binding interaction shows these ligands occupied the potential sites of cysteine rich C1 domain of scaffold protein KSR.
  2. Wang E, Chinni S, Bhore SJ
    Bioinformation, 2014;10(3):130-7.
    PMID: 24748752 DOI: 10.6026/97320630010130
    The fatty-acid profile of the vegetable oils determines its properties and nutritional value. Palm-oil obtained from the African oil-palm [Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Tenera)] contains 44% palmitic acid (C16:0), but, palm-oil obtained from the American oilpalm [Elaeis oleifera] contains only 25% C16:0. In part, the b-ketoacyl-[ACP] synthase II (KASII) [EC: 2.3.1.179] protein is responsible for the high level of C16:0 in palm-oil derived from the African oil-palm. To understand more about E. guineensis KASII (EgKASII) and E. oleifera KASII (EoKASII) proteins, it is essential to know its structures. Hence, this study was undertaken.
  3. Khairudin NB, Mazlan NS
    Bioinformation, 2013;9(16):813-7.
    PMID: 24143051 DOI: 10.6026/97320630009813
    Beta-glucosidase (3.2.1.21) plays an essential role in the removal of non-reducing terminal glucosyl residues from glycosides. Recently, beta-glucosidase has been of interest for biomass conversion that acts in synergy with two other enzymes, endoglucanase and exo-glucanase. However, there is not much information available on the catalytic interactions of beta-glucosidase with its substrates. Thus, this study reports on the binding modes between beta-glucosidase from glycoside hydrolase family 1 namely BglB with cellobiose, cellotetraose and cellotetriose via molecular docking simulation. From the results, the binding affinities of BglB-cellobiose, BglB-cellotetraose, and BglB-cellotetriose complexes were reported to be -6.2kJ/mol , -5.68 kJ/mol and -5.63 kJ/mol, respectively. The detail interactions were also been investigated that revealed the key residues involved in forming hydrogen bonds (h-bond) with the substrates. These findings may provide valuable insigths in designing beta-glucosidase with higher cellobiose-hydrolyzing efficiency.
  4. Rohini K, Srikumar PS
    Bioinformation, 2013;9(13):685-9.
    PMID: 23930020 DOI: 10.6026/97320630009685
    A great challenge is posed to the treatment of tuberculosis due to the evolution of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drugresistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in recent times. The complex cell envelope of the bacterium contains unusual structures of lipids which protects the bacterium from host enzymes and escape immune response. To overcome the drug resistance, targeting "drug targets" which have a critical role in growth and virulence factor is a novel approach for better tuberculosis treatment. The enzyme Phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PptT) is an attractive drug target as it is primarily involved in post translational modification of various types-I polyketide synthases and assembly of mycobactin, which is required for lipid virulence factors. Our in silico studies reported that the structural model of M.tuberculosis PptT characterizes the structure-function activity. The refinement of the model was carried out with molecular dynamics simulations and was analyzed with root mean square deviation (RMSD), and radius of gyration (Rg). This confirmed the structural behavior of PptT in dynamic system. Molecular docking with substrate coenzyme A (CoA) identified the binding pocket and key residues His93, Asp114 and Arg169 involved in PptT-CoA binding. In conclusion, our results show that the M.tuberculosis PptT model and critical CoA binding pocket initiate the inhibitor design of PptT towards tuberculosis treatment.
  5. Razmara J, Deris SB, Illias RB, Parvizpour S
    Bioinformation, 2013;9(7):345-8.
    PMID: 23750078 DOI: 10.6026/97320630009345
    A hidden Markov model (HMM) has been utilized to predict and generate artificial secretory signal peptide sequences. The strength of signal peptides of proteins from different subcellular locations via Lactococcus lactis bacteria correlated with their HMM bit scores in the model. The results show that the HMM bit score +12 are determined as the threshold for discriminating secreteory signal sequences from the others. The model is used to generate artificial signal peptides with different bit scores for secretory proteins. The signal peptide with the maximum bit score strongly directs proteins secretion.
  6. Bhore SJ, Amelia K, Wang E, Priyadharsini S, Shah FH
    Bioinformation, 2013;9(4):197-206.
    PMID: 23519320 DOI: 10.6026/97320630009197
    The identification of genes and understanding of genes' expression and regulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is necessary in order to strategize its improvement using genetic engineering techniques. Generation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is useful in rapid isolation, identification and characterization of the genes. To study the gene expression in P. vulgaris pods tissue, ESTs generation work was initiated. Early stage and late stage bean-pod-tissues cDNA libraries were constructed using CloneMiner cDNA library construction kit. In total, 5972 EST clones were isolated using random method of gene isolation. While processing ESTs, we found lycopene β-cyclase (PvLCY-β) and β-carotene hydroxylase (PvCHY-β) gene's cDNA. In carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, PvLCY-β catalyzes the production of carotene; and PvCHY-β is known to function as a catalyst in the production of lutein and zeaxanthin. To understand more about PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β, both strands of both cDNA clones were sequenced using M13 forward and reverse primers. Nucleotide and deduced protein sequences were analyzed and annotated using online bioinformatics tools. Results showed that PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β cDNAs are 1639 and 1107 bp in length, respectively. Analysis results showed that PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β gene's cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) that encodes for 502 and 305 amino acid residues, respectively. The deduced protein sequence analysis results also showed the presence of conserved domains needed for PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β functions. The phylogenetic analysis of both PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β proteins showed it's closeness with the LCY-β and CHY-β proteins from Glycine max, respectively. The nucleotide sequence of PvLCY-β and PvCHY-β gene's cDNA and it's annotation is reported in this paper.
  7. Misman MF, Mohamad MS, Deris S, Abdullah A, Hashim SZ
    Bioinformation, 2011;7(4):169-75.
    PMID: 22102773
    Pathway analysis has lead to a new era in genomic research by providing further biological process information compared to traditional single gene analysis. Beside the advantage, pathway analysis provides some challenges to the researchers, one of which is the quality of pathway data itself. The pathway data usually defined from biological context free, when it comes to a specific biological context (e.g. lung cancer disease), typically only several genes within pathways are responsible for the corresponding cellular process. It also can be that some pathways may be included with uninformative genes or perhaps informative genes were excluded. Moreover, many algorithms in pathway analysis neglect these limitations by treating all the genes within pathways as significant. In previous study, a hybrid of support vector machines and smoothly clipped absolute deviation with groups-specific tuning parameters (gSVM-SCAD) was proposed in order to identify and select the informative genes before the pathway evaluation process. However, gSVM-SCAD had showed a limitation in terms of the performance of classification accuracy. In order to deal with this limitation, we made an enhancement to the tuning parameter method for gSVM-SCAD by applying the B-Type generalized approximate cross validation (BGACV). Experimental analyses using one simulated data and two gene expression data have shown that the proposed method obtains significant results in identifying biologically significant genes and pathways, and in classification accuracy.
  8. Hussein ZA, Loke KK, Abidin RA, Othman R
    Bioinformation, 2011;7(4):157-62.
    PMID: 22102771
    Functional genomics has proven to be an efficient tool in identifying genes involved in various biological functions. However the availability of commercially important seaweed Eucheuma denticulatum functional resources is still limited. EuDBase is the first seaweed online repository that provides integrated access to ESTs of Eucheuma denticulatum generated from samples collected from Kudat and Semporna in Sabah, Malaysia. The database stored 10,031 ESTs that are clustered and assembled into 2,275 unique transcripts (UT) and 955 singletons. Raw data were automatically processed using ESTFrontier, an in-house automated EST analysis pipeline. Data was collected in MySQL database. Web interface is implemented using PHP and it allows browsing and querying EuDBase through search engine. Data is searchable via BLAST hit, domain search, Gene Ontology or KEGG Pathway. A user-friendly interface allows the identification of sequences either using a simple text query or similarity search. The development of EuDBase is initiated to store, manage and analyze the E. denticulatum ESTs and to provide accumulative digital resources for the use of global scientific community. EuDBase is freely available from http://www.inbiosis.ukm.my/eudbase/.
  9. Moorthy K, Mohamad MS
    Bioinformation, 2011;7(3):142-6.
    PMID: 22125385
    A random forest method has been selected to perform both gene selection and classification of the microarray data. In this embedded method, the selection of smallest possible sets of genes with lowest error rates is the key factor in achieving highest classification accuracy. Hence, improved gene selection method using random forest has been proposed to obtain the smallest subset of genes as well as biggest subset of genes prior to classification. The option for biggest subset selection is done to assist researchers who intend to use the informative genes for further research. Enhanced random forest gene selection has performed better in terms of selecting the smallest subset as well as biggest subset of informative genes with lowest out of bag error rates through gene selection. Furthermore, the classification performed on the selected subset of genes using random forest has lead to lower prediction error rates compared to existing method and other similar available methods.
  10. Bhore SJ, Ravichantar N, Loh CY
    Bioinformation, 2010 Nov 01;5(5):191-7.
    PMID: 21364796
    Endophytic bacteria are harmless in most plant species; and known to boost the growth and development of the host plants probably by secreting growth hormones. The isolation, identification and screening of endophytic bacteria for the plant growth regulators like cytokinin are needed to get the leads for their applications in agriculture sector. We describe the isolation and identification of the bacterial endophytes from the leaves of Sambung Nyawa [Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr.] and their screening for cytokinin-like compounds. We isolated three endophytic bacteria from the leaves of G. procumbens collected from the forest research institute of Malaysia (FRIM). They were further identified using amplified 16S rRNA gene sequence based method of bacterial identification. The ethyl acetate extracts of the isolates-broth were analyzed using cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay (CCGB) to determine the presence of cytokinin-like compounds. Consequently, the bacterial putative endophytes were identified as Psuedomonas resinovorans, Paenibacillus polymaxa, and Acenitobacter calcoaceticus. Broth-extracts from two (Psuedomonas resinovorans and Paenibacillus polymaxa) of the three putative bacterial endophytes show the positive results in their screening for cytokinin-like compounds using CCGB. Thus, we hypothesize that the bacterial putative endophytes of G. procumbens that produce cytokinin-like compounds might have a role in the growth and development of G. procumbens.

    ABBREVIATIONS: CCGB - Cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay, rDNA - Ribosomal DNA, K12, BAP - 6-Benzylaminopurine, Db1, MSA - Multiple sequence alignment. 8081.

  11. Bhore SJ, Kassim A, Shah FH
    Bioinformation, 2010 Sep 20;5(4):141-5.
    PMID: 21364775
    South American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) is not cultivated in tropical countries like Malaysia on large scale due to low yield of palm oil derived from its fruit mesocarp. However, its fruit mesocarp oil contains about 68.6 % oleic acid (C(18:1)) which is more than double in comparison to commercially cultivated oilpalm, E. guineensis Jacq Tenera (hybrid of Dura (♀) x Pisifera (♂)). It is also known that E. oleifera is a good source of tocotrienols and carotenoids. Therefore, it is of interest to know the genome sequence of E. oleifera. The objective of this study is to generate genome survey sequences (GSS) to get GC content insight in the E. oleifera genome. The nuclear genomic DNA isolated from young leaf-tissues was digested with EcoRI and NdeI/DraI restriction enzymes; and three genomic DNA libraries were constructed using Lambda ZAP-II, pGEM®-T Easy, and pDONR 222™ as cloning vectors. Generated 76 GSSs were analyzed by using Bioinformatics tools. The analysis result indicates that the adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine content in generated GSSs are 30%, 20%, 20%, and 30% respectively. In conclusion, based on the precise GC content analysis of the randomly isolated 76 GSSs by using Bioinformatics tools we hypothesize that GC content in E. oleifera genome is 40%. The hypothesized 40% GC content in E. oleifera genome is expected to remain close to the GC content based on the whole genome analysis.(ψ)The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper have been submitted to dbGSS division of the international DNA database (GenBank/DDBJ/EMBL) under accession numbers: DX575945- DX575972 and EI798032-EI798079.

    ABBREVIATIONS: gDNA - Nuclear genomic DNA, GSSs - Genome survey sequences K12, SAOP - South American oil-palm Db1.

  12. Mohamad SB, Ong AL, Ripen AM
    Bioinformation, 2008 Jun 18;2(9):369-72.
    PMID: 18795108
    Laccase belongs to the family of blue multi-copper oxidases and are capable of oxidizing a wide range of aromatic compounds. Laccases have industrial applications in paper pulping or bleaching and hydrocarbon bioremediation as a biocatalyst. We describe the design of a laccase with broader substrate spectrum in bioremediation. The application of evolutionary trace (ET) analysis of laccase at the ligand binding site for optimal design of the enzyme is described. In this attempt, class specific sites from ET analysis were mapped onto known crystal structure of laccase. The analysis revealed 162PHE as a critical residue in structure function relationship studies.
  13. Suresh A, Karthikraja V, Lulu S, Kangueane U, Kangueane P
    Bioinformation, 2009 Nov 17;4(5):197-205.
    PMID: 20461159
    The formation of protein homodimer complexes for molecular catalysis and regulation is fascinating. The homodimer formation through 2S (2 state), 3SMI (3 state with monomer intermediate) and 3SDI (3 state with dimer intermediate) folding mechanism is known for 47 homodimer structures. Our dataset of forty-seven homodimers consists of twenty-eight 2S, twelve 3SMI and seven 3SDI. The dataset is characterized using monomer length, interface area and interface/total (I/T) residue ratio. It is found that 2S are often small in size with large I/T ratio and 3SDI are frequently large in size with small I/T ratio. Nonetheless, 3SMI have a mixture of these features. Hence, we used these parameters to develop a decision tree model. The decision tree model produced positive predictive values (PPV) of 72% for 2S, 58% for 3SMI and 57% for 3SDI in cross validation. Thus, the method finds application in assigning homodimers with folding mechanism.
  14. Wasito I, Hashim SZ, Sukmaningrum S
    Bioinformation, 2007 Dec 30;2(5):175-81.
    PMID: 18305825
    Gene expression profiling plays an important role in the identification of biological and clinical properties of human solid tumors such as colorectal carcinoma. Profiling is required to reveal underlying molecular features for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. A non-parametric density-estimation-based approach called iterative local Gaussian clustering (ILGC), was used to identify clusters of expressed genes. We used experimental data from a previous study by Muro and others consisting of 1,536 genes in 100 colorectal cancer and 11 normal tissues. In this dataset, the ILGC finds three clusters, two large and one small gene clusters, similar to their results which used Gaussian mixture clustering. The correlation of each cluster of genes and clinical properties of malignancy of human colorectal cancer was analysed for the existence of tumor or normal, the existence of distant metastasis and the existence of lymph node metastasis.
  15. Heng CK, Othman RY
    Bioinformation, 2006 Mar 27;1(4):118-20.
    PMID: 17597869
    A scFv (single chain variable fragment) antibody clone from anti-CMV (anti-cucumber mosaic virus) was successfully constructed from immunized mouse and the DNA sequence was submitted to GenBank (AY337618 and AY337619). The expression of a 32 kDa recombinant antibody in bacteria was verified using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunoassay) and western blot. However, elucidation of specific anti-CMV scFv function requires detailed and time consuming immuno-assays. Alternatively, useful functional information on anti-CMV scFV antibody can be obtained using available Bioinformatics tools and techniques without performing tedious assays. Here, we use the commonly used Bioinformatics tools and databases such as BLAST (basic local alignment search tool), GenBank, PDB (protein databank), KABAT numbering, SWISS-MODEL and Insight II to gain specific functional insights into anti-CMV scFv.
  16. Islam MM, Aktaruzzaman M, Mohamed Z
    Bioinformation, 2015;11(2):67-72.
    PMID: 25848166 DOI: 10.6026/97320630011067
    Normal blood glucose level depends on the availability of insulin and its ability to bind insulin receptor (IR) that regulates the downstream signaling pathway. Insulin sequence and blood glucose level usually vary among animals due to species specificity. The study of genetic variation of insulin, blood glucose level and diabetics symptoms development in Aves is interesting because of its optimal high blood glucose level than mammals. Therefore, it is of interest to study its evolutionary relationship with other mammals using sequence data. Hence, we compiled 32 Aves insulin from GenBank to compare its sequence-structure features with phylogeny for evolutionary inference. The analysis shows long conserved motifs (about 14 residues) for functional inference. These sequences show high leucine content (20%) with high instability index (>40). Amino acid position 11, 14, 16 and 20 are variable that may have contribution to binding to IR. We identified functionally critical variable residues in the dataset for possible genetic implication. Structural models of these sequences were developed for surface analysis towards functional representation. These data find application in the understanding of insulin function across species.
  17. Kumar S
    Bioinformation, 2015;11(1):11-6.
    PMID: 25780274 DOI: 10.6026/97320630011011
    Rubisco is a very large, complex and one of the most abundant proteins in the world and comprises up to 50% of all soluble protein in plants. The activity of Rubisco, the enzyme that catalyzes CO2 assimilation in photosynthesis, is regulated by Rubisco activase (Rca). In the present study, we searched for hypothetical protein of Vitis vinifera which has putative Rubisco activase function. The Arabidopsis and tobacco Rubisco activase protein sequences were used as seed sequences to search against Vitis vinifera in UniprotKB database. The selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera were subjected to sequence, structural and functional annotation. Subcellular localization predictions suggested it to be cytoplasmic protein. Homology modelling was used to define the three-dimensional (3D) structure of selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera. Template search revealed that all the hypothetical proteins share more than 80% sequence identity with structure of green-type Rubisco activase from tobacco, indicating proteins are evolutionary conserved. The homology modelling was generated using SWISS-MODEL. Several quality assessment and validation parameters computed indicated that homology models are reliable. Further, functional annotation through PFAM, CATH, SUPERFAMILY, CDART suggested that selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera contain ATPase family associated with various cellular activities (AAA) and belong to the AAA+ super family of ring-shaped P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases. This study will lead to research in the optimization of the functionality of Rubisco which has large implication in the improvement of plant productivity and resource use efficiency.
  18. Muthu N, Lee SY, Phua KK, Bhore SJ
    Bioinformation, 2016;12(12):420-424.
    PMID: 28405126 DOI: 10.6026/97320630012420
    Plants are very complex organisms that produce medicinally important natural products. The Star-fruit producing plant (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a species of woody plant in the family Oxalidaceae native to the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka; but, cultivated in many parts of the world. Star-fruits are popular tropical fruits and used commonly in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) in India, China, and Brazil to relieve ailments such as chronic headache, fever, cough, gastro-enteritis, diarrhoea, ringworm infections, and skin inflammations. However, this fruit contains high amount of oxalate, which is hazardous for uremic patients, and caramboxin (CBX), which is neurotoxic. The aim of this review is to highlight the nutritional, medicinal and toxicological traits of the star-fruits.
  19. Hamid MH, Rozano L, Yeong WC, Abdullah JO, Saidi NB
    Bioinformation, 2017;13(2):31-41.
    PMID: 28642634 DOI: 10.6026/97320630013031
    Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MPK4) interacts with the (Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1) MEKK1/ Mitogenactivated protein kinase kinase 1 (MKK1)/ Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (MKK2) complex to affect its function in plant development or against pathogen attacks. The KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) network analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana revealed close interactions between those four genes in the same plant-pathogen interaction pathway, which warrants further study of these genes due to their evolutionary conservation in different plant species. Through targeting the signature sequence in MPK4 of papaya using orthologs from Arabidopsis, the predicted sequence of MPK4 was studied using a comparative in silico approach between different plant species and the MAP cascade complex of MEKK1/MKK1/MKK2. This paper reported that MPK4 was highly conserved in papaya with 93% identical across more than 500 bases compared in each species predicted. Slight variations found in the MEKK1/MKK1/MKK2 complex nevertheless still illustrated sequence similarities between most of the species. Localization of each gene in the cascade network was also predicted, potentiating future functional verification of these genes interactions using knock out or/and gene silencing tactics.
  20. Husin NA, Rahman S, Karunakaran R, Bhore SJ
    Bioinformation, 2018;14(6):265-270.
    PMID: 30237671 DOI: 10.6026/97320630014265
    Durian (Durio zibethinus L.; Family Bombacaceae) is an iconic tropical fruit plant cultivated in Malaysia and the Southeast Asian countries. In Malaysia, durian is recognised as the King of fruits and well known as a rich source of volatile sulphur compounds that make it unique. Fruit pulp of this fruit is an excellent source of nutrients as it contains proteins, dietary fat, fibers, and carbohydrates. Durian leaf and root decoctions are known to have a febrifuge and anti-malarial properties. The understanding of this plant's molecular biology will help breeders to develop a strategy for its further improvements. Hence, there is a need to identify and understand the genes necessary for the quality improvement of the durian fruits. Its genome contains about 46,000 genes which is almost double that of humans (Homo sapiens). The understanding of durian genes will be useful not only in the molecular breeding but also in the microbial production of novel proteins and or enzymes. This review highlights nutritional and medicinal attributes of durian. The molecular studies including the importance of undertaking transcriptomics work and the insights from the most recently reported genome draft are also highlighted.
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