Drug addiction is a multifactorial disorder. Researchers have posited that an individual's inherited behavioral propensity or temperament contributes to the disorder by shaping a personality strongly linked with the risk of drug abuse. Further, they hypothesize that the polymorphism of dopamine D2 receptor increases the susceptibility to and severity of addiction. We, therefore, investigated possible associations between dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and personality traits among intravenous heroin addicts.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used for the treatment of inflammation. However, despite their effectiveness, most NSAIDs cause various side effects that negatively affect the management of inflammation and, in part, pain. Thus, there is a need to search for new anti-inflammatory agents with few, or no, side effects. Natural products of plant, animal, or microorganism origin have been good sources of new bioactive compounds. The present study was carried out to evaluate the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of the rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet (Zingiberaceae) using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tests, respectively. The effect of the essential oil on inflammatory- and noninflammatory-mediated pain was also assessed using the formalin test. Essential oil of Z. zerumbet, at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, was administered intraperitoneally to rats. The substance exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity both in acute and chronic animal models. The essential oil also inhibited inflammatory- and noninflammatory-mediated pain when assessed using the formalin test. In conclusion, the essential oil of Z. zerumbet possessed anti-inflammatory activity, in addition to its antinociceptive activity, which may explain its traditional uses to treat inflammatory-related ailments.
Ficus deltoidea (Family Moraceae) leaves have been used traditionally by the Malays to treat ailments such as wounds, sores, and rheumatism. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of F. deltoidea leaf (FDA) using acute and chronic inflammatory models. FDA, in the doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, was administered intraperitoneally in rats (n = 6) before the animals were subjected to the carrageenan-induced paw edema test, cotton pellet-induced granuloma test, and formalin test. The first two tests represent acute and chronic models of inflammation, respectively. The first and second phases of the formalin test represent neurogenic pain and inflammatory-mediated pain, respectively; thus, only the second phase was measured in the present study. Results showed that FDA exerted significant (p < .05) anti-inflammatory activity in all assays, with dose-response effects seen in the paw edema and formalin tests. In conclusion, the leaf of F. deltoidea possesses anti-inflammatory activity against acute and chronic inflammatory responses and against pain-associated inflammatory response. These findings justify the traditional uses of F. deltoidea leaves for treatment of inflammatory-mediated ailments.
The current study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties of andrographolide isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata using two animal models. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid- induced writhing and the hot-plate tests, while antiedematogenic activity was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of andrographolide (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) did not affect the motor coordination of the experimental animals but produced significant (p < .05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using both tests. However, 2 mg/kg naloxone failed to affect the 25 mg/kg andrographolide activity in both tests, indicating that the activity was modulated via nonopioid mechanisms. Furthermore, andrographolide showed significant (p < .05) antiedematogenic activity. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that andrographolide has antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities; it may be useful for treating pain and inflammation once human studies are conducted.