A series of compounds consisting of 25 novel oxadiazole-benzohydrazone hybrids (6-30) were synthesized through a five-step reaction sequence and evaluated for their β-glucuronidase inhibitory potential. The IC50 values of compounds 6-30 were found to be in the range of 7.14-44.16μM. Compounds 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 18, and 25 were found to be more potent than d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (48.4±1.25μM). These compounds were further subjected for molecular docking studies to confirm the binding mode towards human β-d-glucuronidase active site. Docking study for compound 13 (IC50=7.14±0.30μM) revealed that it adopts a binding mode that fits within the entire pocket of the binding site of β-d-glucuronidase. Compound 13 has the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the residues of the active site as compared to the other compounds, that is, the ortho-hydroxyl group forms hydrogen bond with carboxyl side chain of Asp207 (2.1Å) and with hydroxyl group of Tyr508 (2.6Å). The other hydroxyl group forms hydrogen bond with His385 side chain (2.8Å), side chain carboxyl oxygen of Glu540 (2.2Å) and Asn450 side-chain's carboxamide NH (2.1Å).
Potent, selective antitumour AhR ligands 5F 203 and GW 610 are bioactivated by CYPs 1A1 and 2W1. Herein we reason that DNA adducts' generation resulting in lethal DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) underlies benzothiazoles' activity. Treatment of sensitive carcinoma cell lines with GW 610 generated co-eluting DNA adducts (R(2)>0.7). Time-dependent appearance of γ-H2AX foci revealed subsequent DNA double strand breaks. Propensity for systemic toxicity of benzothiazoles steered development of prodrugs' hydrogels for localised delivery. Clinical applications of targeted therapies include prevention or treatment of recurrent disease after surgical resection of solid tumours. In vitro evaluation of 5F 203 prodrugs' activity demonstrated nanomolar potency against MCF-7 breast and IGROV-1 ovarian carcinoma cell lines.
Disulfide analogs (1-20) have been synthesized, characterized by HR-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR and screened for urease inhibitory potential. All compounds were found to have varied degree of urease inhibitory potential ranging in between 0.4 ± 0.01 and 18.60 ± 1.24 μM when compared with standard inhibitor thiourea with IC50 19.46 ± 1.20 μM. Structure activity relationship has been established. The binding interactions of compounds with enzyme were confirmed through molecular docking. All the synthesized compounds 1-20 are new. Our compounds are cheaply synthesizable with high yield and can further be studied to discovery lead compounds. We further, tested for carbonic anhydrase, PDE1 and butyrylcholinesterase but they show no activity. On the other hand we evaluated all compounds for cytotoxicity they showed no toxicity.
We describe here the synthesis of dihydropyrimidines derivatives 3a-p, and evaluation of their α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition activities. Compounds 3b (IC50=62.4±1.5 μM), 3c (IC50=25.3±1.26 μM), 3d (IC50=12.4±0.15 μM), 3e (IC50=22.9±0.25 μM), 3g (IC50=23.8±0.17 μM), 3h (IC50=163.3±5.1 μM), 3i (IC50=30.6±0.6 μM), 3m (IC50=26.4±0.34 μM), and 3o (IC50=136.1±6.63 μM) were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors in comparison to the standard drug acarbose (IC50=840±1.73 μM). The compounds were also evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against PC-3, HeLa, and MCF-3 cancer cell lines, and 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. All compounds were found to be non cytotoxic, except compounds 3f and 3m (IC50=17.79±0.66-20.44±0.30 μM), which showed a weak cytotoxic activity against the HeLa, and 3T3 cell lines. In molecular docking simulation study, all the compounds were docked into the active site of the predicted homology model of α-glucosidase enzyme. From the docking result, it was observed that most of the synthesized compounds showed interaction through carbonyl oxygen atom and polar phenyl ring with active site residues of the enzyme.
In the present study, a series of 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for their anti-cholinesterase activity. Among the forty-one analogs, four compounds (38, 39, 40 and 41) have been identified as lead compounds due to their highest inhibition on both AChE and BChE activities. Compounds 39 and 40 in particular exhibited highest inhibition on both AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 1.6μM and 0.6μM, respectively. Further structure-activity relationship study suggested that presence of a long-chain heterocyclic in one of the rings played a critical role in the dual enzymes' inhibition. The Lineweaver-Burk plots and docking results suggest that both compounds could simultaneously bind to the PAS and CAS regions of the enzyme. ADMET analysis further confirmed the therapeutic potential of both compounds based upon their high BBB-penetrating. Thus, 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone containing long-chain heterocyclic amine analogs represent a new class of cholinesterase inhibitor, which deserve further investigation for their development into therapeutic agents for cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer.
A series of new α,β-unsaturated carbonyl-based cyclohexanone derivatives was synthesized by simple condensation method and all compounds were characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. New compounds were evaluated for their effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). These compounds were also screened for in vitro cytotoxicity and for inhibitory activity for self-induced Aβ1-42 aggregation. The effect of these compounds against amyloid β-induced cytotoxicity was also investigated. The findings of in vitro experiment revealed that most of these compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activity against AChE and self-induced Aβ1-42 aggregation. The compound 3o exhibited best AChE (IC50=0.037μM) inhibitory potential. Furthermore, compound 3o disassembled the Aβ fibrils produced by self-induced Aβ aggregation by 76.6%. Compounds containing N-methyl-4-piperidone linker, showed high acetylcholinesterase and self-induced Aβ aggregation inhibitory activities as compared to reference drug donepezil. The pre-treatment of cells with synthetic compounds protected them against Aβ-induced cell death by up to 92%. Collectively, these findings suggest that some compounds from this series have potential to be promising multifunctional agents for AD treatment and our study suggest the cyclohexanone derivatives as promising new inhibitors for AChE and BuChE, potentially useful to treat neurodegenerative diseases.
Dihydropyrimidones 1-37 were synthesized via a 'one-pot' three component reaction according to well-known Biginelli reaction by utilizing Cu(NO3)2·3H2O as catalyst, and screened for their in vitro β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity. It is worth mentioning that amongst the active molecules, compounds 8 (IC50=28.16±.056μM), 9 (IC50=18.16±0.41μM), 10 (IC50=22.14±0.43μM), 13 (IC50=34.16±0.65μM), 14 (IC50=17.60±0.35μM), 15 (IC50=15.19±0.30μM), 16 (IC50=27.16±0.48μM), 17 (IC50=48.16±1.06μM), 22 (IC50=40.16±0.85μM), 23 (IC50=44.16±0.86μM), 24 (IC50=47.16±0.92μM), 25 (IC50=18.19±0.34μM), 26 (IC50=33.14±0.68μM), 27 (IC50=44.16±0.94μM), 28 (IC50=24.16±0.50μM), 29 (IC50=34.24±0.47μM), 31 (IC50=14.11±0.21μM) and 32 (IC50=9.38±0.15μM) found to be more potent than the standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50=48.4±1.25μM). Molecular docking study was conducted to establish the structure-activity relationship (SAR) which demonstrated that a number of structural features of dihydropyrimidone derivatives were involved to exhibit the inhibitory potential. All compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques such as (1)H, (13)C NMR, EIMS and HREI-MS.
Thirty N-arylidenequinoline-3-carbohydrazides (1-30) have been synthesized and evaluated against β-glucuronidase inhibitory potential. Twenty four analogs showed outstanding β-glucuronidase activity having IC50 values ranging between 2.11±0.05 and 46.14±0.95 than standard d-saccharic acid 1,4 lactone (IC50=48.4±1.25μM). Six analogs showed good β-glucuronidase activity having IC50 values ranging between 49.38±0.90 and 80.10±1.80. Structure activity relationship and the interaction of the active compounds and enzyme active site with the help of docking studies were established. Our study identifies novel series of potent β-glucuronidase inhibitors for further investigation.
The spread of drug-resistant bacteria has imparted a sense of urgency in the search for new antibiotics. In an effort to develop a new generation of antibacterial agents, we have designed de novo charged lipopeptides inspired by natural antimicrobial peptides. These short lipopeptides are composed of cationic lysine and hydrophobic lipoamino acids that replicate the amphiphilic properties of natural antimicrobial peptides. The resultant lipopeptides were found to self-assemble into nanoparticles. Some were effective against a variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including strains resistant to methicillin, daptomycin and/or vancomycin. The lipopeptides were not toxic to human kidney and liver cell lines and were highly resistant to tryptic degradation. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of bacteria cells treated with lipopeptide showed membrane-damage and lysis with extrusion of cytosolic contents. With such properties in mind, these lipopeptides have the potential to be developed as new antibacterial agents against drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria.
A bioassay-guided investigation of Melicope ptelefolia Champ ex Benth (Rutaceae) resulted in the identification of an acyphloroglucinol, 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone or tHGA, as the active principle inhibiting soybean 15-LOX. The anti-inflammatory action was also demonstrated on human leukocytes, where the compound showed prominent inhibitory activity against human PBML 5-LOX, with an IC(50) value of 0.42 μM, very close to the effect produced by the commonly used standard, NDGA. The compound concentration-dependently inhibited 5-LOX product synthesis, specifically inhibiting cysteinyl leukotriene LTC(4) with an IC(50) value of 1.80 μM, and showed no cell toxicity effects. The anti-inflammatory action does not seem to proceed via redox or metal chelating mechanism since the compound tested negative for these bioactivities. Further tests on cyclooxygenases indicated that the compound acts via a dual LOX/COX inhibitory mechanism, with greater selectivity for 5-LOX and COX-2 (IC(50) value of 0.40 μM). The molecular features that govern the 5-LOX inhibitory activity was thus explored using in silico docking experiments. The residues Ile 553 and Hie 252 were the most important residues in the interaction, each contributing significant energy values of -13.45 (electrostatic) and -5.40 kcal/mol (electrostatic and Van der Waals), respectively. The hydroxyl group of the phloroglucinol core of the compound forms a 2.56Å hydrogen bond with the side chain of the carboxylate group of Ile 553. Both Ile 553 and Hie 252 are crucial amino acid residues which chelate with the metal ion in the active site. Distorting the geometry of these ligands could be the reason for the inhibition activity shown by tHGA. The molecular simulation studies supported the bioassay results and served as a good model for understanding the way tHGA binds in the active site of human 5-LOX enzyme.
A significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity was observed for the hexane extract from the bark of Mesua elegans (Clusiaceae). Thus, the hexane extract was subjected to chemical investigation, which led to the isolation of nine 4-phenylcoumarins, in which three are new; mesuagenin A (1), mesuagenin C (3), mesuagenin D (4) and one new natural product; mesuagenin B (2). The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by spectroscopic data interpretation, especially 1D and 2D NMR. Four compounds showed significant AChE inhibitory activity, with mesuagenin B (2) being the most potent (IC(50)=0.7μM).
A Montana soil actinomycete, Streptomyces anulatus, produced (1 x 10(-2)% yield) a new cancer cell growth inhibitory cyclooctadepsipeptide named montanastatin (1) accompanied by the potent anticancer antibiotic valinomycin (2) in very high (5.1%) yields. Valinomycin but not montanastatin inhibited growth of a number of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Interpretation of high-field (500 MHz) NMR and high-resolution FAB mass spectral data allowed assignment of the structure cyclo-(D-Val-L-Lac-L-Val-D-Hiv) to montanastatin. Valinomycin (2) was also isolated from actinomycetes cultured from a tree branch and animal feces collected in Malaysia. Streptomyces exfoliatus, isolated from the tree branch, was found to contain valinomycin in 1.6% yield, while the fecal isolate, S. anulatus, gave valinomycin in 0.9% yield.
Peptides are of great interest to be used as vaccine antigens due to their safety, ease of manufacturing and specificity in generating immune response. There have been massive discoveries of peptide antigens over the past decade. However, peptides alone are poorly immunogenic, which demand co-administration with strong adjuvant to enhance their immunogenicity. Recently, fibril-forming peptides such as Q11 and lipoamino acid-based carrier have been identified to induce substantial immune responses when covalently linked to peptide epitope. In this study, we have incorporated either Q11 or lipoamino acids to a peptide epitope (J14) derived from M protein of group A streptococcus to develop self-adjuvanting vaccines. J14, Q11 and lipoamino acids were also conjugated together in a single vaccine construct in an attempt to evaluate the synergy effect of combining multiple adjuvants. Physicochemical characterization demonstrated that the vaccine constructs folded differently and self-assembled into nanoparticles. Significantly, only vaccine constructs containing double copies of lipoamino acids (regardless in conjugation with Q11 or not) were capable to induce significant dendritic cells uptake and subsequent J14-specific antibody responses in non-sizes dependent manners. Q11 had minimal impact in enhancing the immunogenicity of J14 even when it was used in combination with lipoamino acids. These findings highlight the impact of lipoamino acids moiety as a promising immunostimulant carrier and its number of attachment to peptide epitope was found to have a profound effect on the vaccine immunogenicity.
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) play diverse roles in various cellular processes that involve DNA repair and programmed cell death. Amongst these polymerases is PARP-1 which is the key DNA damage-sensing enzyme that acts as an initiator for the DNA repair mechanism. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is an enzyme in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway which is an important target for anti-hyperproliferative and anti-inflammatory drug design. Since these enzymes share a common role in the DNA replication and repair mechanisms, it may be beneficial to target both PARP-1 and DHODH in attempts to design new anti-cancer agents. Benzimidazole derivatives have shown a wide variety of pharmacological activities including PARP and DHODH inhibition. We hereby report the design, synthesis and bioactivities of a series of benzimidazole derivatives as inhibitors of both the PARP-1 and DHODH enzymes.
In this study 36 new compounds were synthesized by condensing barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid and respective anilines (bearing different substituents) in the presence of triethyl orthoformate in good yields. In vitro urease inhibition studies against jack bean urease revealed that barbituric acid derived compounds (1-9 and 19-27) were found to exhibit low to moderate activity however thiobarbituric acid derived compounds (10-18 and 28-36) showed significant inhibition activity at low micro-molar concentrations. Among the synthesized compounds, compounds (15), (12), (10), (36), (16) and (35) showed excellent urease inhibition with IC50 values 8.53 ± 0.027, 8.93 ± 0.027, 12.96 ± 0.13, 15 ± 0.098, 18.9 ± 0.027 and 19.7 ± 0.63 μM, respectively, even better than the reference compound thiourea (IC50 = 21 ± 0.011). The compound (11) exhibited comparable activity to the standard with IC50 value 21.83 ± 0.19 μM. In silico molecular docking studies for most active compounds (10), (12), (15), (16), (35) and (36) and two inactive compounds (3) and (6) were performed to predict the binding patterns.
A library of novel 2,5-disubtituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles with benzimidazole backbone (3a-3r) was synthesized and evaluated for their potential as β-glucuronidase inhibitors. Several compounds such as 3a-3d, 3e-3j, 3l-3o, 3q and 3r showed excellent inhibitory potentials much better than the standard (IC50=48.4±1.25μM: d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone). All the synthesized compounds were characterized satisfactorily by using different spectroscopic methods. We further evaluated the interaction of the active compounds and the enzyme active site with the help of docking studies.
A series of thiobarbituric acid derivatives 1-27 were synthesized and evaluated for their urease inhibitory potential. Exciting results were obtained from the screening of these compounds 1-27. Compounds 5, 7, 8, 11, 16, 17, 22, 23 and 24 showed excellent urease inhibition with IC50 values 18.1 ± 0.52, 16.0 ± 0.45, 16.0 ± 0.22, 14.3 ± 0.27, 6.7 ± 0.27, 10.6 ± 0.17, 19.2 ± 0.29, 18.2 ± 0.76 and 1.61 ± 0.18 μM, respectively, much better than the standard urease inhibitor thiourea (IC₅₀=21 ± 0.11 μM). Compound 3, 4, 10, and 26 exhibited comparable activities to the standard with IC₅₀ values 21.4 ± 1.04 and 21.5 ± 0.61 μM, 22.8 ± 0.32, 25.2 ± 0.63, respectively. However the remaining compounds also showed prominent inhibitory potential The structure-activity relationship was established for these compounds. This study identified a novel class of urease inhibitors. The structures of all compounds were confirmed through spectroscopic techniques such as EI-MS and (1)H NMR.
Arachidonic acid and its metabolites have generated high level of interest among researchers due to their vital role in inflammation. The inhibition of enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism has been considered as synergistic anti-inflammatory effect. A series of novel α,β-unsaturated carbonyl based compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity on secretory phospholipase A₂ (sPLA₂), cyclooxygenases (COX), soybean lipoxygenase (LOX) in addition to proinflammatory cytokines comprising IL-6 and TNF-α. Six α,β-unsaturated carbonyl based compounds (2, 3, 4, 12, 13 and 14) exhibited strong inhibition of sPLA₂ activity, with IC₅₀ values in the range of 2.19-8.76 μM. Nine compounds 1-4 and 10-14 displayed inhibition of COX-1 with IC₅₀ values ranging from 0.37 to 1.77 μM (lower than that of reference compound), whereas compounds 2, 10, 13 and 14 strongly inhibited the COX-2. The compounds 10-14 exhibited strong inhibitory activity against LOX enzyme. All compounds were evaluated for the inhibitory activities against LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 release in the macrophages. On the basis of screening results, five active compounds 3, 4, 12, 13 and 14 were found strong inhibitors of TNF-α and IL-6 release in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking experiments were performed to clarify the molecular aspects of the observed COX and LOX inhibitory activities of the investigated compounds. Present findings increases the possibility that these α,β-unsaturated carbonyl based compounds might serve as beneficial starting point for the design and development of improved anti-inflammatory agents.
2-Arylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones 1-25 were synthesized by reacting anthranilamide with various benzaldehydes using CuCl2·2H2O as a catalyst in ethanol under reflux. Synthetic 2-arylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones 1-25 were evaluated for their β-glucuronidase inhibitory potential. A trend of inhibition IC50 against the enzyme in the range of 0.6-198.2μM, was observed and compared with the standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50=45.75±2.16μM). Compounds 13, 19, 4, 12, 14, 22, 23, 25, 15, 8, 17, 11, 21, 1, 3, 18, 9, 2, and 24 with the IC50 values within the range of 0.6-44.0μM, indicated that the compounds have superior activity than the standard. The compounds showed no cytotoxic effects against PC-3 cells. A structure-activity relationship is established.
One pot, three-component reaction of 1-acryloyl-3,5-bisarylmethylidenepiperidin-4-ones with isatin and sarcosine in molar ratios of 1:1:1 and 1:2:2 furnished to mono- and bis-spiropyrrolidine heterocyclic hybrids comprising functionalized piperidine, pyrrolidine and oxindole structural motifs. Both mono and bis-spiropyrrolidines displayed good inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with IC₅₀ values of 2.36-9.43 μM. For butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), mono-cycloadducts in series 8 with IC₅₀ values of lower than 10 μM displayed better inhibitory activities than their bis-cycloadduct analogs in series 9 with IC₅₀ values of 7.44-19.12 μM. The cycloadducts 9j and 8e were found to be the most potent AChE and BChE inhibitors with IC₅₀ values of 2.35 and 3.21 μM, respectively. Compound 9j was found to be competitive inhibitor of AChE while compound 8e was a mixed-mode inhibitor of BChE with calculated Ki values of 2.01 and 6.76 μM, respectively. Molecular docking on Torpedo californica AChE and human BChE showed good correlation between IC₅₀ values and free binding energy values of the synthesized compounds docked into the active site of the enzymes.