Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Das K, Anis M, Azemi BM, Ismail N
    Biotechnol Bioeng, 1995 Dec 5;48(5):551-5.
    PMID: 18623521
    Glutamic acid produced from palm waste hydrolysate by fermentation with Brevibacterium lactofermentum ATCC 13869 is produced with a remarkably high yield compared with that produced from pure glucose as a carbon source. The produce yield is 70 g/L with glucose, wherease, when palm waste hydrolysate is the fermentation medium in the same bioreactor under same conditions, it is 88 g/L. The higher yield may be attributed to the fact that this organism has the ability to convert sugars other than only glucose present in the hydrolysate. Bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production are pH 7.5, temperature of 30 degrees rmentation period of 48 h, inoculum size 6%, substrate concentration of 10 g per 100 mL, yeast extract 0.5 g per 100 mL as a suitable N source, and biotin at a concentration of 10 pg/L. Palm waste hydrolysate used in this study was prepared by enzymic saccharification of treated palm press fiber under conditions that yielded a maximum of 30 g/L total reducing sugars. Glutamic acid from fermentation broth was recovered by using a chromatographic column (5cm x 60 cm) packed with a strong ion-exchange resin. The filtered broth containing glutamic acid and other inorganic ions was fed to the fully charged column. The broth was continuously recycled at a flow rate of 50 mL/min (retention time of 55 min) until glutamic acid was fully adsorbed on the column leaving other ions in the effluent. Recovery was done by eluting with urea and sodium hydroxide for total displacement of glutamic acid from the resin. The eluent containing 88 g/L of glutamic acid was concentrated by evaporation to obtain solid crystals of the product. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  2. Ho YK, Doshi P, Yeoh HK, Ngoh GC
    Biotechnol Bioeng, 2015 Oct;112(10):2084-105.
    PMID: 25899009 DOI: 10.1002/bit.25616
    Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) is a process where microbes have to first excrete extracellular enzymes to break polymeric substrates such as starch or cellulose into edible nutrients, followed by in situ conversion of those nutrients into more valuable metabolites via fermentation. As such, SSF is very attractive as a one-pot synthesis method of biological products. However, due to the co-existence of multiple biochemical steps, modeling SSF faces two major challenges. The first is to capture the successive chain-end and/or random scission of the polymeric substrates over time, which determines the rate of generation of various fermentable substrates. The second is to incorporate the response of microbes, including their preferential substrate utilization, to such a complex broth. Each of the above-mentioned challenges has manifested itself in many related areas, and has been competently but separately attacked with two diametrically different tools, i.e., the Population Balance Modeling (PBM) and the Cybernetic Modeling (CM), respectively. To date, they have yet to be applied in unison on SSF resulting in a general inadequacy or haphazard approaches to examine the dynamics and interactions of depolymerization and fermentation. To overcome this unsatisfactory state of affairs, here, the general linkage between PBM and CM is established to model SSF. A notable feature is the flexible linkage, which allows the individual PBM and CM models to be independently modified to the desired levels of detail. A more general treatment of the secretion of extracellular enzyme is also proposed in the CM model. Through a case study on the growth of a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of excreting a chain-end scission enzyme (glucoamylase) on starch, the interlinked model calibrated using data from the literature (Nakamura et al., Biotechnol. Bioeng. 53:21-25, 1997), captured features not attainable by existing approaches. In particular, the effect of various enzymatic actions on the temporal evolution of the polymer distribution and how the microbes respond to the diverse polymeric environment can be studied through this framework.
  3. George M, Farooq M, Dang T, Cortes B, Liu J, Maranga L
    Biotechnol Bioeng, 2010 Aug 15;106(6):906-17.
    PMID: 20589670 DOI: 10.1002/bit.22753
    The majority of influenza vaccines are manufactured using embryonated hens' eggs. The potential occurrence of a pandemic outbreak of avian influenza might reduce or even eliminate the supply of eggs, leaving the human population at risk. Also, the egg-based production technology is intrinsically cumbersome and not easily scalable to provide a rapid worldwide supply of vaccine. In this communication, the production of a cell culture (Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)) derived live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in a fully disposable platform process using a novel Single Use Bioreactor (SUB) is presented. The cell culture and virus infection was maintained in a disposable stirred tank reactor with PID control of pH, DO, agitation, and temperature, similar to traditional glass or stainless steel bioreactors. The application of this technology was tested using MDCK cells grown on microcarriers in proprietary serum free medium and infection with 2006/2007 seasonal LAIV strains at 25-30 L scale. The MDCK cell growth was optimal at the agitation rate of 100 rpm. Optimization of this parameter allowed the cells to grow at a rate similar to that achieved in the conventional 3 L glass stirred tank bioreactors. Influenza vaccine virus strains, A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1 strain), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2 strain), and B/Malaysia/2506/04 (B strain) were all successfully produced in SUB with peak virus titers > or =8.6 log(10) FFU/mL. This result demonstrated that more than 1 million doses of vaccine can be produced through one single run of a small bioreactor at the scale of 30 L and thus provided an alternative to the current vaccine production platform with fast turn-around and low upfront facility investment, features that are particularly useful for emerging and developing countries and clinical trial material production.
  4. Opitz L, Lehmann S, Reichl U, Wolff MW
    Biotechnol Bioeng, 2009 Aug 15;103(6):1144-54.
    PMID: 19449393 DOI: 10.1002/bit.22345
    Strategies to control outbreaks of influenza, a contagious respiratory tract disease, are focused mainly on prophylactic vaccinations in conjunction with antiviral medications. Currently, several mammalian cell culture-based influenza vaccine production processes are being established, such as the technologies introduced by Novartis Behring (Optaflu) or Baxter International Inc. (Celvapan). Downstream processing of influenza virus vaccines from cell culture supernatant can be performed by adsorbing virions onto sulfated column chromatography beads, such as Cellufine sulfate. This study focused on the development of a sulfated cellulose membrane (SCM) chromatography unit operation to capture cell culture-derived influenza viruses. The advantages of the novel method were demonstrated for the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell-derived influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). Furthermore, the SCM-adsorbers were compared directly to column-based Cellufine sulfate and commercially available cation-exchange membrane adsorbers. Sulfated cellulose membrane adsorbers showed high viral product recoveries. In addition, the SCM-capture step resulted in a higher reduction of dsDNA compared to the tested cation-exchange membrane adsorbers. The productivity of the SCM-based unit operation could be significantly improved by a 30-fold increase in volumetric flow rate during adsorption compared to the bead-based capture method. The higher flow rate even further reduced the level of contaminating dsDNA by about twofold. The reproducibility and general applicability of the developed unit operation were demonstrated for two further MDCK cell-derived influenza virus strains: A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/2004. Overall, SCM-adsorbers represent a powerful and economically favorable alternative for influenza virus capture over conventional methods using Cellufine sulfate.
  5. Abdullah N, Chase HA
    Biotechnol Bioeng, 2005 Nov 20;92(4):501-13.
    PMID: 16080185
    Enzymatic methods have been used to cleave the C- or N-terminus polyhistidine tags from histidine tagged proteins following expanded bed purification using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). This study assesses the use of Factor Xa and a genetically engineered exopeptidase dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-1 (DAPase-1) for the removal of C-terminus and N-terminus polyhistidine tags, respectively. Model proteins consisting of maltose binding protein (MBP) having a C- or N-terminal polyhistidine tag were used. Digestion of the hexahistidine tag of MBP-His(6) by Factor Xa and HT15-MBP by DAPase-1 was successful. The time taken to complete the conversion of MBP-His(6) to MBP was 16 h, as judged by SDS-PAGE and Western blots against anti-His antibody. When the detagged protein was purified using subtractive IMAC, the yield was moderate at 71% although the overall recovery was high at 95%. Likewise, a yield of 79% and a recovery of 97% was obtained when digestion was performed with using "on-column" tag digestion. On-column tag digestion involves cleavage of histidine tag from polyhistidine tagged proteins that are still bound to the IMAC column. Digestion of an N-terminal polyhistidine tag from HT15-MBP (1 mg/mL) by the DAPase-I system was superior to the results obtained with Factor Xa with a higher yield and recovery of 99% and 95%, respectively. The digestion by DAPase-I system was faster and was complete at 5 h as opposed to 16 h for Factor Xa. The detagged MBP proteins were isolated from the digestion mixtures using a simple subtractive IMAC column procedure with the detagged protein appearing in the flowthrough and washing fractions while residual dipeptides and DAPase-I (which was engineered to exhibit a poly-His tail) were adsorbed to the column. FPLC analysis using a MonoS cation exchanger was performed to understand and monitor the progress and time course of DAPase-I digestion of HT15-MBP to MBP. Optimization of process variables such as temperature, protein concentration, and enzyme activity was developed for the DAPase-I digesting system on HT15-MBP to MBP. In short, this study proved that the use of either Factor Xa or DAPase-I for the digestion of polyhistidine tags is simple and efficient and can be carried out under mild reaction conditions.
  6. Marpani F, Sárossy Z, Pinelo M, Meyer AS
    Biotechnol Bioeng, 2017 12;114(12):2762-2770.
    PMID: 28832942 DOI: 10.1002/bit.26405
    Enzymatic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to methanol (CH3 OH) can be accomplished using a designed set-up of three oxidoreductases utilizing reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADH) as cofactor for the reducing equivalents electron supply. For this enzyme system to function efficiently a balanced regeneration of the reducing equivalents during reaction is required. Herein, we report the optimization of the enzymatic conversion of formaldehyde (CHOH) to CH3 OH by alcohol dehydrogenase, the final step of the enzymatic redox reaction of CO2 to CH3 OH, with kinetically synchronous enzymatic cofactor regeneration using either glucose dehydrogenase (System I) or xylose dehydrogenase (System II). A mathematical model of the enzyme kinetics was employed to identify the best reaction set-up for attaining optimal cofactor recycling rate and enzyme utilization efficiency. Targeted process optimization experiments were conducted to verify the kinetically modeled results. Repetitive reaction cycles were shown to enhance the yield of CH3 OH, increase the total turnover number (TTN) and the biocatalytic productivity rate (BPR) value for both system I and II whilst minimizing the exposure of the enzymes to high concentrations of CHOH. System II was found to be superior to System I with a yield of 8 mM CH3 OH, a TTN of 160 and BPR of 24 μmol CH3 OH/U · h during 6 hr of reaction. The study demonstrates that an optimal reaction set-up could be designed from rational kinetics modeling to maximize the yield of CH3 OH, whilst simultaneously optimizing cofactor recycling and enzyme utilization efficiency.
  7. Azizan A, Sieben M, Wandrey G, Büchs J
    Biotechnol Bioeng, 2019 11;116(11):2983-2995.
    PMID: 31350917 DOI: 10.1002/bit.27132
    Shake flasks are still the most relevant experimental tool in the development of viscous fermentation processes. The phase number, which defines the onset of the unfavorable out-of-phase (OP) phenomenon in shake flasks, was previously defined via specific power input measurements. In the OP state, the bulk liquid no longer follows the orbital movement of the imposed centrifugal force, which is for example, detrimental to oxygen transfer. In this study, an optical fluorescence technique was used to measure the three-dimensional liquid distribution in shake flasks. Four new optically derived evaluation criteria for the phase transition between the in-phase and OP condition were established: (a) thickness of the liquid film left on the glass wall by the rotating bulk liquid, (b) relative slope of the leading edge of bulk liquid (LB) lines, (c) trend of the angular position of LB, and (d) very high angular position of the leading edge. In contrast to the previously applied power input measurements, the new optical evaluation criteria describe the phase transition in greater detailed. Instead of Ph = 1.26, a less conservative value of Ph = 0.91 is now suggested for the phase transfer, which implies a broader operating window for shake flask cultivations with higher viscosities.
  8. Ahamed F, Song HS, Ho YK
    Biotechnol Bioeng, 2021 05;118(5):1898-1912.
    PMID: 33547803 DOI: 10.1002/bit.27705
    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulose is a cost-effective route to produce valuable biochemicals by integrating saccharification, fermentation and cellulase synthesis in a single step. However, the lack of understanding of governing factors of interdependent saccharification and fermentation in CBP eludes reliable process optimization. Here, we propose a new framework that synergistically couples population balances (to simulate cellulose depolymerization) and cybernetic models (to model enzymatic regulation of fermentation) to enable improved understanding of CBP. The resulting framework, named the unified cybernetic-population balance model (UC-PBM), enables simulation of CBP driven by coordinated control of enzyme synthesis through closed-loop interactions. UC-PBM considers two key aspects in controlling CBP: (1) heterogeneity in cellulose properties and (2) cellular regulation of competing cell growth and cellulase secretion. In a case study on Clostridium thermocellum, UC-PBM not only provides a decent fit with various exometabolomic data, but also reveals that: (i) growth-decoupled cellulase-secreting pathways are only activated during famine conditions to promote the production of growth substrates, and (ii) starting cellulose concentration has a strong influence on the overall flux distribution. Equipped with mechanisms of cellulose degradation and fermentative regulations, UC-PBM is practical to explore phenotypic functions for primary evaluation of microorganisms' potential for metabolic engineering and optimal design of bioprocess.
  9. Shene C, Leyton A, Flores L, Chavez D, Asenjo JA, Chisti Y
    Biotechnol Bioeng, 2024 Mar 18.
    PMID: 38500406 DOI: 10.1002/bit.28689
    Marine thraustochytrids produce metabolically important lipids such as the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, and sterols. The growth and lipid production in thraustochytrids depends on the composition of the culture medium that often contains yeast extract as a source of amino acids. This work discusses the effects of individual amino acids provided in the culture medium as the only source of nitrogen, on the production of biomass and lipids by the thraustochytrid Thraustochytrium sp. RT2316-16. A reconstructed metabolic network based on the annotated genome of RT2316-16 in combination with flux balance analysis was used to explain the observed growth and consumption of the nutrients. The culture kinetic parameters estimated from the experimental data were used to constrain the flux via the nutrient consumption rates and the specific growth rate of the triacylglycerol-free biomass in the genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) to predict the specific rate of ATP production for cell maintenance. A relationship was identified between the specific rate of ATP production for maintenance and the specific rate of glucose consumption. The GEM and the derived relationship for the production of ATP for maintenance were used in linear optimization problems, to successfully predict the specific growth rate of RT2316-16 in different experimental conditions.
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