RESULTS: The mRNA expression of PPARα was significantly induced in HCT116 cells following treatment with chrysin for 36 h, but the mRNA expression of PPARα was inhibited, when the cells were treated with a combination of chrysin and MK886 (PPARα inhibitor). This phenomenon proved that the incorporation of MK886 lowers the expression levels of PPARα, thus enabling us to study the function of PPARα. The cell population of the G0/G1 phase significantly increased in chrysin-treated cells, which was accompanied by a decrease in the percentage of S phase cell population after 12 h of treatment. However, treatments of HCT116 cells with chrysin only or a combination of chrysin and MK886 did not show the opposite situation in the G0/G1 and S phase cell populations, indicating that the expression of PPARα may not be associated with the cell cycle in the treated cells. The migration rate in chrysin-treated HCT116 cells was reduced significantly after 24 and 36 h of treatments. However, the activity was revived, when the expression of PPARα was inhibited, indicating that the migration activity of chrysin-treated cells is likely correlated with the expression of PPARα. Comparison of the CYP2S1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression in chrysin only treated, and a combination of chrysin and MK886-treated HCT116 cells for 24 and 36 h showed a significant difference in the expression levels, indicating that PPARα inhibitor could also modify the expression of CYP2S1 and CYP1B1.
CONCLUSION: The study indicates that PPARα may play an essential role in regulating the migration activity, and the expression of CYP2S1 and CYP1B1 in chrysin-treated colorectal cancer cells.
RESULTS: Xylanase was successfully expressed in Lactococcus lactis. Recombinant xylanase fused to either signal peptide Usp45 or Spk1 showed halo zone on Remazol Brilliant Blue-Xylan plates. This indicated that the xylanase was successfully secreted from the cell. The culture supernatants of strains secreting the xylanase with help of the Spk1 and Usp45 signal peptides contained 49.7 U/ml and 34.4 U/ml of xylanase activity, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Although Usp45 is the most commonly used signal peptide when secreting heterologous proteins in Lactococcus lactis, this study shows that Spk1 isolated from Pediococcus pentosaceus was superior to Usp45 in regard to xylanase protein secretion.
RESULTS: Three acylated analogues were produced: quercetin 4'-oleate (C33H42O8), quercetin 3',4'-dioleate (C51H74O9) and quercetin 7,3',4'-trioleate (C69H106O10). Their identities were confirmed with UPLC-ESI-MS and (1)H NMR analyses. The effects of temperature, duration and molar ratio of substrates on the bioconversion yields varied across conditions. The regioselectivity of the acylated quercetin analogues was affected by the molar ratio of substrates. TLC showed the acylated analogues had higher lipophilicity (152% increase) compared to quercetin. Partition coefficient (log P) of quercetin 4'-oleate was higher than those of quercetin and oleic acid. Quercetin 4'-oleate was also stable over 28 days of storage.
CONCLUSIONS: Quercetin oleate esters with enhanced lipophilicity can be produced via lipase-catalyzed reaction using C. antarctica lipase B to be used in topical applications.