Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Marilyn Charlene Montini Maluda, Michelle May D. Goroh, Tan, Eric Chee How, Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim, Richard Avoi, Mohammad Saffree Jeffree, et al.
    Introduction: Melioidosis, also known as Whitmore disease, is caused by the gram-negative bacillus, Burkholderia pseudomallei and remains a public health concern in Southeast Asia and northern parts of Australia. This study attempts to identify all possible complications of melioidosis and its outcomes.
    Methods: Literature search was conducted from databases such as PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus from 1st January 2000 to 31st August 2019. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) search strategy was used with the terms ‘Melioidosis’ or ‘Burkholderia pseudomallei’ and ‘Complications’.
    Results: A total of 162 titles were identified and 22 articles were included in the review. Findings showed that among the 22 articles, the ratio of male to female melioidosis incidence was 2.3 to 1, with most cases (86.4%) aged older than 14 years old and showed a mean age of 46 years old. A third (7/22) of the papers reported the involvement of the nervous system as a complication of melioidosis followed by cardiovascular complications. Among the 23 cases reported, 13 had underlying medical conditions with most of them (84.6%) having diabetes mellitus or newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Overall, only one case (4.3%) had resulted in mortality, while 17.4% developed complications and 78.3% managed a full recovery after undergoing treatment for melioidosis.
    Conclusion: The most commonly found complication of melioidosis involved the nervous system but patient outcomes were favourable. Rare complications included mycotic aneurysm that can be fatal. Melioidosis can affect almost any organ leading to various complications.
  2. Nur Asheila Abdul Taib, Razitasham Safii
    Borneo Epidemiology Journal, 2020;1(1):16-34.
    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), rabies is one of the 18 neglected tropical diseases, together with dengue, leprosy, and trachoma, among others. Despite being a vaccine-preventable disease, the latest estimate of annual human rabies mortality from a 2015 study is as high as 59,000 throughout 150 countries. In human rabies, more than 95% of the cases are due to dog bites, making the elimination of canine rabies a global priority by fighting the disease at its animal source. World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC) have warranted the One Health framework with the objective of complete eradication of dog-related human rabies by the year 2030. In an effort to rationalise the One Health approach, this scoping review found 17 studies on assessing the effectiveness of control interventions of human and canine rabies. Different strategies were implemented based on the endemicity of rabies in a particular country. Overall, the combined strategies using the One Health approach, which allows effectiveparticipation and communication between different agencies, have shown promising results in reducing rabies cases. These strategies will hopefully realise the goal in the Global Strategic Plan to achieve zero canine-mediated human rabies death by the year2030.
  3. Norfazilah Ahmad, Santhna Letchmi Panduragan, Yee,San Khor, Kalaiarasan Gemini, Nur Atikah Bahrin, Nur Husnina Azhar, et al.
    Borneo Epidemiology Journal, 2020;1(1):35-45.
    Strategising, which is an effective workplace intervention to curb cardiovascular disease (CVD), requires understanding of the CVD risk related to a specific working population. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is widely used in predicting the ten-year CVD risk of various working populations. This study aimed to use FRS to determine the ten-year CVD risk amongst workers in a tertiary healthcare setting and its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on workers who participated in the special health check programme at the staff clinic of a tertiary healthcare institution in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A set of data sheets was used to retrieve the workers’ sociodemographic and CVD risk information. The prevalence of high, moderate and low ten-year CVD risk was 12.8%, 20.0% and 67.2%, respectively. Workers in the high-risk group were older [mean age: 54.81 (standard deviation, 5.72) years], male (44%), smokers (72.7%) and having hyperglycaemia (46.7%) and hypertriglyceridemia [median triglycerides: 1.75 (interquartile range, 1.45) mmol/L]. Diastolic blood pressure (aOR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01,1.14), hyperglycaemia (aOR 8.80, 95% CI: 1.92,40.36) and hypertriglyceridemia (aOR 4.45, 95% CI: 1.78,11.09) were significantly associated with high ten-year CVD risk. Diastolic blood pressure (aOR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03,1.13) and hypertriglyceridemia (aOR 2.51, 95% CI: 1.12-5.61) were significantly associated with moderate ten-year CVD risk. The prevalence of high and moderate ten-year CVD risk was relatively high. Amongst the workers in the high-risk group, they were older, male, smokers and with high fasting blood sugar and triglyceride. Understanding the ten-year CVD risk and its associated factors could be used to plan periodic workplace health assessment and monitor to prevent CVD
  4. Naing Oo Tha, Wendy Diana Shoesmith, Chrystalle B. Y. Tan, Mohd Yusof Ibrahim, Syed Shajee Hussein
    Borneo Epidemiology Journal, 2020;1(1):45-54.
    Introduction: One of the aims outlined in Malaysia’s Health Vision 2020 is to be a nation of healthy individuals, families, and communities through an equitable, affordable, efficient, environmentally adaptable, and consumer friendly healthcare system. Sabah faces tremendous challenges to provide the best care for patients. For example, Sabah's unique geographical location and landscape, such as steep hills and rivers, is one of the challenges that health staff faces. Objectives of this study aimed to examine the prevalence of geographical accessibility, types of healthcare services, and the types of health seeking behaviour in 2 northern rural areas of Sabah to assess the geographic accessibility and availability of healthcare services.
    Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural areas in Sabah—Kudat and Pitas. Data collection was done by using questionnaire and face–to-face interviews
    Results: It was found that 48% of the study population sought healthcare and they mainly chose healthcare services from hospitals and health clinics.
    Conclusion: Half of the population in the areas studied used healthcare in the last year. The choice of using a public hospital or community health clinics was determined by distance from residence
  5. Syahrizal Abdul Halim, Rosalia Saimon, Parveen Kaur Sarjeet Singh, Razitasham Safii
    Borneo Epidemiology Journal, 2020;1(1):67-78.
    Introduction: Rabies is a highly fatal disease that is mostly caused by a dog bite. The Dog Bite Prevention KAP scale is a 30-item scale that is designed to measure children’s level of safety knowledge on dog’s behaviour, precautionary behaviour around dogs, perceived vulnerability towards dogs and help-seeking behaviour following a dog bite. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability and validity of outcome measures
    Methods: This questionnaire was administered to samples of school student aged from 13 years to 14 years at a secondary school located in Bau District, Sarawak. They were purposively selected for a baseline interview (Time 1) anda ten-day follow-up (Time 2). This study was conducted within four months, which were from 10 April to 31 August 2018. Descriptive analysis, content analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, intra-class correlation and exploratory factor analysis were performed in thisstudy.Results: A total of 64 boys and 114 girls were involved in the study, whereby 79.2%, 10.1%, 7.9%, 2.2% and 0.6% of them were of Bidayuh ethnic, Chinese, Iban, Malays and other ethnic, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.796. The test-retest intra-class correlation was adequate, with 0.84 for perceived vulnerability towards dogs and 0.81 for precautionary behaviour around dogs. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation resulted in two factors, which explained 39% of the variance (perceived vulnerability towards dogs) and 49% of the variance (precautionary behaviour around dogs)
    Conclusion: The questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for a dog-bite prevention survey
  6. Lee,Sze Chet, Ng,Chun Keat, Mohd Amiruddin Mohd Kassim, Pang,Nicholas Tze Ping
    Borneo Epidemiology Journal, 2020;1(1):79-87.
    COVID-19 has impacted the world in many ways due to fears of contracting the pandemic, social distancing, and large-scale movement control rules. These have especially grave consequences for inpatient psychiatry. This article reviews measures taken to adapt to the new norm in inpatient care, both for standalone psychiatry units and consultation-liaison units. For inpatient units, changes have been made for personal protective equipment usage, screening and triaging policies, and training and educational policies. Consultation liaison units together with inpatient units have been required to expand the scope of coverage and difficulties by providing certain teleconsultation services. As the new norm takes precedence, Sabah has to embrace and empower community-based psychiatry services for better outreach and coverage. This article discusses the issues underlying the new norm in the management of inpatient psychiatry patients in both units and presents some points and practical solutions on the ground to instil hope
  7. Mohd Amiruddin Mohd Kassim, Pang, Nicholas Tze Ping, Sandi James
    Introduction: The current COVID-19 pandemic has sequelae reverberating around Malaysia, particularly in university students, as Malaysian university students are isolated in their university campuses in semi-quarantine status. This article seeks to review the existing literature on the specialized issue of university student-related psychological sequelae of COVID-19, and seeks to offer some recommendations through the process.
    Methods: Existing literature demonstrates that COVID-19 has affected university students psychosocially, with the rate of anxiety and depression markedly increased. There have been significant alterations of lifestyle related to education, in accordance with the new normal, resulting in isolation and feelings of disengagement with education. Moreover, with the current uncertainties regarding their studies and possible financial depression postpandemic, the future is deeply worrying and will adversely affect their mental health.
    Results: Quantitatively, recent findings indicate 33.3% of the undergraduates in a higher education institution are noted to be in stress. Therefore, multiple interventions have been implemented; a customized ultra-brief psychological module, an online tele psychiatry hotline (COVID Cares) and tele-counselling, which have received universally positive feedback.
    Conclusion: In conclusion, the review demonstrates that undergraduates’ psychological health is an aspect that needs urgent attention as it is not merely limited to the fear of COVID-19, but also related to the social aspects of the pandemic. Multiple interventions have been seen to be efficacious in reducing the psychological sequelae
  8. Michal Christina Steven
    Borneo Epidemiology Journal, 2020;1(2):104-115.
    Introduction:Plasmodium knowlesi(P.knowlesi) is a zoonotic malaria parasite, transmitted between non-factors” or “individual factors” or “ecological factors” and “P.knowlesi” and “human” including human primate hosts by the Anopheles (An.) mosquitos, and causing spill-over infections in humans where the parasite, vector, host, and human converge
    Methods:The search was done electronically toexplore for appropriate papers viaPubMed, and Science Direct for articles published up to March 2020, containing the words “factors associated” or “environmental synonyms and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms. A total of 27 articles from PubMed Databases and 18 articles from Science Direct were selected to be assessed for eligibility. Out of it, a total of 13 articles were selected to be analysed.
    Results:Host factors such as sex and age, as well as occupation as individual factors, while environmental factors such as rainfall and geographic elevation have some association with P.knowlesiinfection in humans. This zoonotic malaria poses unique challenges that will need to be addressed if all forms of malaria are to be eliminated based on the sustainable development goal (SDG)
    Conclusion:This article highlights the importance of disease ecologies such as climate and landscape and human-environment interactions such as the land use patterns, such as agriculture or infrastructure activities) to reduce the further increase of cases and mortality globally due to P.knowlesiinfection. This review focuses mainly on the host and environmental factors that influence P.knowlesiMalaria Infection in Humans
  9. Mohd Amiruddin Mohd Kassim, Friska Ayu, Assis Kamu, Pang,Nicholas Tze Ping, Ho,Chong Mun, Hafid Algristian, et al.
    Borneo Epidemiology Journal, 2020;1(2):124-135.
    Background and Objective: The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) is a seven-item uni-dimensional scale assessing the severity of COVID-19 concerns. A translation and validation of the FCV-19S in Bahasa Indonesia language was expedited in view of the worrying trends of COVID-19 in Indonesia as well as its psychological squeal.
    Methods:Formal WHO forward and backward translation sequences were applied in translating the English FCV-19S into Bahasa Indonesia. Indonesian university participants were recruited viaconvenience sampling online using snowball methods. The reliability and validity of the Indonesian FCV-19S was psychometrically evaluated by applying confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis in relation to sociodemographic variables and response to the depression, anxiety, and stress components of the Indonesian version of DASS-21. The sample consisted of 434 Indonesian participants.
    Results:The Cronbach α value for the Indonesia FCV-19-I was 0.819 indicated very good internal reliability. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the uni-dimensional factor structure of the FCV19S fitted well with the data. The FCV-19-I was significantly correlated with anxiety (r=0.705, p
  10. Syaza Zainudin, Mohd Amiruddin Mohd Kassim, Nor Nadia Mohamad Ridza
    Borneo Epidemiology Journal, 2020;1(2):145-156.
    Background and Objective: Countries all over the world respect the election process as one of the fundamental steps in forming a government. However, the exponential spread of COVID-19 has been deeply alarming, with a high number of positive cases and total deaths, forcing World Health Organization to declare it as a pandemic on 11thMarch 2020. During these unprecedented events, governments have had a tough decision to balance between the constitutional obligation to hold an election and the safety of the people. As such, electoral commissions have implemented numerous approaches to allow election to proceed in a safe and controlled setting during the pandemic.
    Methods: The preventative measures and standard operating procedures in the Sabah state of Malaysia, NewZealand and the United States elections are discussed, as well as COVID-19 post-election situation in respective countries. Innovative approaches and election flexibilities shall be considered to allow voting in the safest way possible, following the new normal.
    Discussion:Nevertheless, countries need to evaluate its strength of public health response when deciding to hold elections due to potential devastating outbreaks following elections despite measures taken.
    Conclusion: The election is a fundamental process in a democracy. Countries are required to be flexible and innovative in their approach to hold a safe election. Nevertheless, it may be prudent for countries with fewer resources and poor pandemic control to postpone election as a rise in cases will be catastrophic, putting many lives at risk.
  11. Pang,Nicholas Tze Ping, Koh,Eugene Boon Yau, Sandi James, Mohd Amiruddin Mohd Kassim
    Borneo Epidemiology Journal, 2020;1(2):157-162.
    Background and Objective: Biostatistics and epidemiology have been integral subjects in any postgraduate courses, including medical specialties Master programs. Both are widely accepted as among the difficult and confusing subjects, which worsen by lack of adequate exposure and often, time constraints. Hence, peer-led learning approach was proposed as a viable option to the traditional lecturer-driven learning style
    Method: The peer-led approach intends to promote targeted learning and conceptual understanding, instead of widely sweeping learning, which is rather directionless and could cause information overload
    Discussion: Students were divided into two groups, namely humanities-inclined group and science inclined group. Different pedagogical methods to address the different groups were discussed.
    Conclusion: This approach helps to make the learning more palatable, boosting knowledge retention and fostering camaraderie spirit among colleagues
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