The renal artery is known to exhibit variations in its number and position. The present study was performed on 50 cadaveric kidneys to observe the topographical anatomy of the accessory renal arteries (ARA) entering the upper or lower poles of the kidney. Out of 50 kidney cadaveric specimens (irrespective of sex) studied, 2 kidneys (4%) showed the presence of ARA. The presence of ARA was observed on the left and right kidneys, respectively. In one left kidney, we observed in addition to the usual renal artery, an ARA near the lower pole of the kidney which divided into anterior and posterior branches. Another right kidney specimen exhibited the presence of single and double ARA at the upper and the lower poles, respectively. The presence of ARA, both at the upper and lower poles is a rare entity. No medical history of the cadavers was available to corroborate the clinical findings. Additional renal vessels may signify a developmental defect. Anatomical knowledge of the variations in the renal vascular supply may be important for abdominal imaging studies and surgical operations involving renal transplantations. The present study discusses in detail the anatomical features and clinical implications of ARA located at both the upper and lower poles of the kidney (Fig. 2, Ref. 15). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.
In the current study we evaluated adverse effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on memory formation and its retrieval as well as the role of ascorbic acid (Vitamin-C) in prevention of MSG-induced alteration of neurobehavioral performance in periadolescent rats.
Atlanto-occipital fusion may be symptomatic or asymptomatic in nature. The anomaly may be incidentally detected at autopsies or during routine cadaveric dissections. The fusion of the atlas with occipital bone may result in the compression of vertebral artery and first cervical nerve.
Abnormal peritoneal folds near the liver are very rare. This case report presents an observation of an abnormal fold of peritoneum that extended from the upper right part of the greater omentum and stomach to the fossa for gallbladder. This fold merged with the lesser omentum on the left and extended to the right kidney when traced posteriorly. The epiploic foramen was entirely absent due to the presence of this fold. However, the lesser sac was there behind the liver, lesser omentum and stomach. The knowledge of abnormal folds like this may be important for surgeons (Fig. 3, Ref. 7). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.
Forearm fractures are common in the paediatric age group. Closed reduction and casting are the primary means of treatment in over 90% of these fractures. Resultant deformities are usually a product of indirect trauma involving angular loading combined with rotational deformity and fragment displacement.
The occipital sinus (OS) lies in the attached margin of the faix cerebelli in the internal occipital crest of the occipital bone. The OS extends from the foramen magnum to the confluence of sinuses. Standard textbooks and research reports do not describe in detail any variation in the groove for the occipital sinus.
In literature, there is paucity of information on the different shapes of styloid processes of the temporal bone of the skull. Textbooks of anatomy describe the styloid process to be slender, approximately 2.5 cm in length and concave on the anterior aspect only. In the present case, we observed the styloid process to be much longer than usual, bearing a concavity on the anterior, as well as the posterior aspects as a consequence of which, the bone was constricted in its proximal part. The mastoid process which is usually conical, was found to be rounded in this case. The length of the styloid process measured 2.8 and 2.7 cm on left and right sides, respectively. The skiagram displayed the biconcave profile of the styloid process and the rounded appearance of the mastoid process, thus substantiated the findings on gross examination of the skull. The anatomical knowledge of the mastoid process is important for surgeons assessing the mastoid air cells. The elongated styloid process is often a feature of Eagle's syndrome. An enlarged and calcified styloid process is often asymptomatic, unless detected radiologically. An abnormally elongated styloid process or its calcification may cause recurrent throat pain, foreign body sensation, dysphagia, or facial pain. An enlarged styloid process may also compress upon the internal carotid artery, leading to transient ischemic attack and may pose a threat to anesthetists performing intubation procedures. Awareness of such variations may be of clinical importance to radiologists and surgeons (Fig. 2, Ref. 11). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.
The extensor digitorum (ED) muscle of the hand originates from the lateral condyle of the humerus and splits into four tendons; each for one phalanx except the thumb. Literature reports have described multiple tendons (usually two) to each digit but in the presented study we observed four tendons to the ring finger, what is rare. During a routine dissection of the cadavers, we observed an anomalous arrangement of the ED tendon on the left hand of a 42-year-old male. The anomalous tendons to the ring finger were studied in detail, the surrounding structures were carefully delineated and the specimen was photographed. The ED muscle originated as usual from the lateral condyle of the humerus, continued downwards, passing inferiorly to the extensor retinaculum to split into individual tendons for each of the digits. There was a single tendon to the index, middle and ring finger as usual but the ring finger displayed four tendons. All the tendons attached to the phalanges were as described in anatomy textbooks. The arrangement of the anomalous tendons of ED to each of the digits is not uncommon, but existence of four tendons to the ring finger is extremely rare. The increased number of tendons to the ring finger may increase the extension component of the ring finger. Anatomical knowledge of the tendons of the extensor muscles of the hand may be also beneficial for hand surgeons performing graft operations (Fig. 2, Ref. 11). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.
The present cadaveric study, describes asymmetrical right cerebral hemisphere and anomalous posterior horn of the right lateral ventricle and discusses its clinical implications. The occipital lobe of right cerebral hemisphere extended more posteriorly as compared to the left and so did the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle, resulting in the thinning of the occipital cortex. Till now, the dimension and volumetric study of the lateral ventricles have been usually performed by MRI and CT scans. A gross anatomical study of such a case, is the rarest of its kind. The abnormal anatomy of the lateral ventricles may be of great academic interest regarding CSF circulation and also important for clinical, radiological and surgical interventions (Fig. 2, Ref 8). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.