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  1. Fatimah SS, Tan GC, Chua K, Tan AE, Nur Azurah AG, Hayati AR
    Burns, 2013 Aug;39(5):905-15.
    PMID: 23273814 DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2012.10.019
    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of KGF on the differentiation of cultured human amnion epithelial cells (HAECs) towards skin keratinocyte. HAECs at passage 1 were cultured in medium HAM's F12: Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (1:1) supplemented with different concentrations of KGF (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 ng/ml KGF). Dose-response of KGF on HAECs was determined by morphological assessment; growth kinetic evaluation; immunocytochemical analysis; stemness and epithelial gene expression quantification with two step real time RT-PCR. KGF promotes the proliferation of HAECs with maximal effect observed at 10 ng/ml KGF. However, KGF decreased the stemness genes expression: Oct-3/4, Sox-2, Nanog3, Rex-1, FGF-4, FZD-9 and BST-1. KGF also down-regulates epithelial genes expression: CK3, CK18, CK19, Integrin-β1, p63 and involucrin in cultured HAECs. No significant difference on the gene expression was detected for each Nestin, ABCG-2, CK1 and CK14 in KGF-treated HAECs. Immunocytochemical analysis for both control and KGF-treated HAECs demonstrated positive staining against CK14 and CK18 but negative staining against involucrin. The results suggested that KGF stimulates an early differentiation of HAECs towards epidermal cells. Differentiation of KGF-treated HAECs to corneal lineage is unfavourable. Therefore, further studies are needed to elucidate the roles of KGF in the differentiation of HAECs towards skin keratinocytes.
  2. Mazlyzam AL, Aminuddin BS, Fuzina NH, Norhayati MM, Fauziah O, Isa MR, et al.
    Burns, 2007 May;33(3):355-63.
    PMID: 17321690
    Our aim of this study was to develop a new methodology for constructing a bilayer human skin equivalent to create a more clinical compliance skin graft composite for the treatment of various skin defects. We utilized human plasma derived fibrin as the scaffold for the development of a living bilayer human skin equivalent: fibrin-fibroblast and fibrin-keratinocyte (B-FF/FK SE). Skin cells from six consented patients were culture-expanded to passage 1. For B-FF/FK SE formation, human fibroblasts were embedded in human fibrin matrix and subsequently another layer of human keratinocytes in human fibrin matrix was stacked on top. The B-FF/FK SE was then transplanted to athymic mice model for 4 weeks to evaluate its regeneration and clinical performance. The in vivo B-FF/FK SE has similar properties as native human skin by histological analysis and expression of basal Keratin 14 gene in the epidermal layer and Collagen type I gene in the dermal layer. Electron microscopy analysis of in vivo B-FF/FK SE showed well-formed and continuous epidermal-dermal junction. We have successfully developed a technique to engineer living bilayer human skin equivalent using human fibrin matrix. The utilization of culture-expanded human skin cells and fibrin matrix from human blood will allow a fully autologous human skin equivalent construction.
  3. Aziz Z, Abu SF, Chong NJ
    Burns, 2012 May;38(3):307-18.
    PMID: 22030441 DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2011.09.020
    Silver preparations are commonly used for burns, but evidence of their effectiveness remains poorly defined. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of silver-containing dressings and topical silver for preventing infection and promoting healing in burns wounds through a meta-analysis of the available evidence. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and relevant databases were searched. Drug companies and experts in this field were also contacted. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of silver dressings or topical silver (used with dressings) compared with non-silver dressings were eligible for inclusion. We identified 14 RCTs involving 877 participants. One small trial of a silver-containing dressing showed significantly better healing time compared to the control [MD -3.6; 95% CI -4.94 to -2.26 for partial thickness burns and MD -3.9; 95% CI -4.54 to -3.26 for superficial burns]. Topical silver showed significantly worse healing time compared to the non-silver group [WMD 3.96; 95% CI 2.41-5.51] and showed no evidence of effectiveness in preventing wounds infection [WMD 2.48; 95% CI 0.39-15.73]. Our review suggests that silver-containing dressings and topical silver were either no better or worse than control dressings in preventing wound infection and promoting healing of burn wounds.
  4. Tay YG, Tan KK
    Burns, 1996 Aug;22(5):409-12.
    PMID: 8962663
    Six hands from five patients were seen with full-thickness burns following a ritual practice between June 1993 and June 1994. Three hands were treated with excision and medium-thickness split-skin grafts, one patient was treated with a medium-thickness split skin graft taken from the instep of the foot. The first patient with bilateral burns of the palms refused surgery and returned 3 months later with contractures of the palms. The results of the treated hands are presented.
  5. Tan KK, Lee JK, Tan I, Sarvesvaran R
    Burns, 1993 Aug;19(4):360-1.
    PMID: 8357487
    A 27-year old male sustained a 60 per cent TBSA burn with inhalation injury following a road traffic accident. He developed respiratory distress on day 3 postburn, and was intubated and ventilated. He was noted to have greenish aspirate from his trachea on day 17 of ventilation. He succumbed from sepsis and died on day 21 post injury. At post-mortem, a large tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF) was found at the level of the cuff of the nasotracheal tube.
  6. Aziz Z, Abdul Rasool Hassan B
    Burns, 2017 Feb;43(1):50-57.
    PMID: 27576926 DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2016.07.004
    Evidence from animal studies and trials suggests that honey may accelerate wound healing. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of honey compared with silver dressings on the healing of burn wounds. Relevant databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of honey compared with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) were searched. The quality of the selected trials was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. The primary endpoints considered were wound healing time and the number of infected wounds rendered sterile. Nine RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Based on moderate quality evidence there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups, favoring honey in healing time (MD -5.76days, 95% CI -8.14 to -3.39) and the proportions of infected wounds rendered sterile (RR 2.59; 95% CI 1.58-2.88). The available evidence suggests that honey dressings promote better wound healing than silver sulfadiazine for burns.
  7. Rashid RA, Heidary F, Hussein A, Hitam WH, Rashid RA, Ghani ZA, et al.
    Burns, 2011 Feb;37(1):170-3.
    PMID: 20576358 DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2010.05.019
    This study aims to describe the epidemiology of ocular burns and related injuries due to fireworks during the Aidil Fitri celebration on the East Coast of the Peninsular Malaysia. A prospective analysis of all patients with ocular burns and related injuries due to fireworks attended three tertiary hospitals in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia during Aidil Fitri, which was from 10 September to 17 October 2008. We observed the demographic and injury characteristics, extent of the injuries and presenting visual symptoms. Thirty patients with 34 eyes with ocular burns and related injuries were identified. Patients ranged between 2 and 43 years of age. 70.00% of the patients were 12 years old and below. Of the 30 patients, 29 (96.67%) were male and the left eye was affected in 14 (46.70%). Thermal injuries accounted for 60.0% of the injuries whereas 40.0% were due to exploding firework. Burns to the eyelid and cornea (35.29%) were the most common injuries noted. Fifteen patients (50%) were bystanders whilst a majority of patients (96.67%) had no eye protection. At presentation, 15 (44.12%) eyes had a visual acuity of 6/6 to 6/9 in the injured eyes, while 3 out of 34 eyes (8.82%) had vision acuity 6/60 or worse. In conclusion, fireworks cause serious preventable ocular burns and related injuries especially in children who are the most affected age group. It affects mainly eyelid and anterior segment structures which result in moderate visual loss on presentation. Health education, public awareness and tighter legislation are essential preventive measures to limit the effect of fireworks to the public.
  8. Khoo TL, Halim AS, Saad AZ, Dorai AA
    Burns, 2010 Sep;36(6):897-904.
    PMID: 20299154 DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2009.03.007
    Glycerol-preserved skin allograft (GPA) plays a crucial role in the management of burns. Its indications include wound-bed preparation, definitive dressing and sandwich grafting technique.
  9. Bujang-Safawi E, Halim AS, Khoo TL, Dorai AA
    Burns, 2010 Sep;36(6):876-82.
    PMID: 20236771 DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2009.07.001
    Facial burns are common and have a significant impact on patient function and psychosocial well being. Human amnion has been used for many years as a temporary biological wound dressing in the management of partial thickness burns. The observed advantages of human amnion treatment include pain relief, ease of use, prevention of infection and acceleration of wound healing.
  10. Lee SZ, Halim AS
    Burns, 2019 Sep;45(6):1386-1400.
    PMID: 31054957 DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2019.04.011
    INTRODUCTION: Autologous skin grafting is the mainstay of treatment in burn patients. Extensive full thickness burns remains a challenge to the burns surgeon due to the lack of autologous skin donor sites. The conventional split thickness skin grafting (SSG) and the Meek micrografting (Meek) technique are part of the armamentarium of the burns surgeon to curtail the challenge of paucity of donor sites. With advances in burn care, mortality rates of burn patients have reduced. As a result, with more patients surviving acute burn, there is a paradigm shift of research towards assessment of functional outcomes and quality of life of the burn survivors. As there is lack of research regarding the functional outcome of the Meek technique, this study was designed to examine the long term functional outcome of the Meek technique and SSG in burns.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia to assess patients with burns between 10 to 40% total body surface area (TBSA) and with at least one year after injury. The Burn Specific Health Score-brief (BSHS-B) was utilized to compare the functional outcome whilst the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) was used for comparison on the scar outcome of the two skin grafting techniques.

    RESULTS: Forty three patients (Meek,15; SSG,28) were included. The mean current age (years old) of Meek and SSG was 24.7 (range, 7-75) and 25.9 (range, 7-65) respectively. The mean TBSA (%) of the Meek group was 26.7 (range, 13-40) while that of the SSG group was 16.1 (range, 10-32). A simplified domain structure was used for the BSHS-B questionnaire. The work and sexuality subscale were analyzed separately due to missing data. There mean scores of affect and relations was higher in Meek compared to SSG (Meek, 3.86; SSG, 3.75; p > 0.05). Function domain was also better in Meek compared to SSG (Meek, 3.88; SSG, 3.73; p > 0.05). The Meek group displayed superior scar outcome compared to SSG as evidenced by the statistically significant difference in score for the pigmentation, pliability, height and total VSS score.

    CONCLUSION: The Meek group showed more favorable BSHS-B scores compared to the SSG group. The scar outcome of the Meek technique is significantly superior to SSG. Therefore, the Meek technique is superior in the management of burns because the long term scar and functional outcome of this technique is better compared to conventional SSG.

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