Tacrolimus (FK506) is a calcineurin inhibitor with a narrow therapeutic index that exhibits large interindividual variation. Seventy-eight kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus were recruited to study the correlation of dose adjusted trough level (level/dose; L/D) of tacrolimus with CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genotypes, as well as the mRNA copy number of ABCB1 in blood. Patients were genotyped for ABCB1 (C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T) and CYP3A5 (G6986A), while ABCB1 mRNA transcript copy number was determined by absolute quantification (real-time PCR) in 46 patients. CYP3A5*3 genotypes were found to be a good predictor of tacrolimus L/D in kidney-transplant patients. Significantly higher L/D was observed among non-expressors (2.85, 95%: 2.05-3.70 (ng·mL(-1))/(mg·kg(-1))) as compared with the expressors (1.15, 95%: 0.95-1.80 (ng·mL(-1))/(mg·kg(-1))) of CYP3A5 (Mann-Whitney U test; P < 0.001). No correlation was observed between L/D and the ABCB1 genotypes. A significant inverse correlation of blood ABCB1 mRNA level with L/D was demonstrated (Spearman's Rank Order correlation; P = 0.016, rs = -0.348). However, in multiple regression analysis, only CYP3A5*3 genotype groups were found to be significantly correlated with tacrolimus L/D (P < 0.001). These findings highlight the importance of CYP3A5*3 pharmacogenotyping among kidney-transplant patients treated with tacrolimus, and confirm the role of blood cell P-glycoprotein in influencing the L/D for tacrolimus.
This study was carried out to determine the antinociceptive activity of a novel synthetic oxopyrrolidine-based compound, (2R,3R,4S)-ethyl 4-hydroxy-1,2-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-3-carboxylate (ASH21374), and to elucidate the involvement of the opioid, vanilloid, glutamate, and nitric oxide - cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) systems in modulating the observed antinociception. ASH21374, in the doses of 2, 10, and 100 mg/kg body mass, was administered orally to mice 60 mins prior to exposure to various antinociceptive assays. From the results obtained, ASH21374 exhibited significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity in the abdominal constriction, hot-plate, and formalin tests that was comparable with 100 mg/kg acetylsalicylic acid or 5 mg/kg morphine, respectively. ASH21374 also attenuated capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking. Pre-treatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the activity in all assays, while pretreatment with 10 mg/kg β-funaltraxamine, 1 mg/kg naltrindole, or 1 mg/kg nor-binaltorphimine significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the activity in the abdominal constriction test. l-Arginine, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl esters (l-NAME), methylene blue, and their combinations, failed to inhibit the ASH21374 antinociceptive activity. In conclusion, ASH21374 demonstrated antinociceptive activities on the peripheral and central nervous systems, mediated through the activation of opioid receptors, inhibition of the glutamatergic system, and attenuation of vanilloid-mediated nociceptive transmission. Further studies have been planned to determine the pharmacological potential of ASH21374.
The present study was carried out to establish the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of the aqueous extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves in experimental animals. The antinociceptive activity was measured using abdominal constriction, hot-plate, and formalin tests, whereas the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities were measured using carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. The extract, which was obtained after soaking the air-dried leaves in distilled water for 72 h and then preparing in concentrations of 10%, 50%, and 100% (v/v), was administered subcutaneously 30 min prior to subjection to the above mentioned assays. At all concentrations tested, the extract was found to exhibit significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities in a concentration-independent manner. Our findings that the aqueous extract of M. malabathricum possesses antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities supports previous claims on its traditional uses to treat various ailments.
The effects of an aqueous supernatant of haruan (ASH) (Channa striatus) fillet extract on various antinociception receptor system activities were examined using a mouse abdominal-constriction model. Mice that were pretreated with distilled water, s.c., followed 10 min later by administration of 25%, 50%, and 100% concentration ASH, s.c., produced a significant concentration-dependent antinociceptive activity (p < 0.001). Pretreatment with naloxone (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg body mass), 10 min before ASH administration, failed to block the extract antinociception. Pretreatment of the 100% concentration ASH with mecamylamine (5 mg/kg), pindolol (10 mg/kg), and haloperidol (1 mg/kg) also did not cause any significant change in its antinociception. However, pretreatment with atropine (5 mg/kg), bicuculline (10 mg/kg), phenoxybenzamine (10 mg/kg), and methysergide (5 mg/kg) were found to reverse ASH antinociception. Based on the above findings, the ASH is suggested to contain different types of bioactive compounds that act synergistically on muscarinic, GABAA, alpha-adrenergic, and serotonergic receptor systems to produce the observed antinociception.
This study investigated the role of α1D-adrenoceptor in the modulation of renal haemodynamics in rats with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). LVH was established in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats with isoprenaline (5.0 mg · (kg body mass)(-1), by subcutaneous injection every 72 h) and caffeine (62 mg · L(-1) in drinking water, daily for 14 days). Renal vasoconstrictor responses were measured for noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), and methoxamine (ME) before and immediately after low or high dose intrarenal infusions of BMY 7378, a selective α1D-adrenoceptor blocker. The rats with LVH had higher mean arterial blood pressure and circulating NA levels, but lower renal cortical blood perfusion compared with the control group (all P < 0.05). In the LVH group, the magnitude of the renal vasoconstrictor response to ME was blunted, but not the response to NA or PE (P < 0.05), compared with the control group (LVH vs. C, 38% vs. 50%). The magnitude of the drop in the vasoconstrictor responses to NA, PE, and ME in the presence of a higher dose of BMY 7378 was significantly greater in the LVH group compared with the control group (LVH vs. C, 45% vs. 25% for NA, 52% vs. 33% for PE, 66% vs. 53% for ME, all P < 0.05). These findings indicate an impaired renal vasoconstrictor response to adrenergic agonists during LVH. In addition, the α1D-adrenoceptor subtype plays a key role in the modulation of vascular responses in this diseased state.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs), regulatory molecules that repress protein expression, have attracted considerable attention in CVD research. The vasculature plays a big role in CVD development and progression and dysregulation of vascular cells underlies the root of many vascular diseases. This review provides a brief introduction of the biogenesis of miRNAs and exosomes, followed by overview of the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) intracellular signaling during phenotypic switching, senescence, calcification and neointimal hyperplasia. Evidence of extracellular signaling of VSMCs and other cells via exosomal and circulating miRNAs was also presented. Lastly, current drawbacks and limitations of miRNA studies in CVD research and potential ways to overcome these disadvantages were discussed in detail. In-depth understanding of VSMC regulation via miRNAs will add substantial knowledge and advance research in diagnosis, disease progression and/or miRNA-derived therapeutic approaches in CVD research.