MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) promise a great potential for regenerative medicine due to their unique properties of self-renewal, high plasticity, modulation of immune response and the flexibility for genetic modification. Therefore, the increasing demand for cellular therapy necessitates a larger-scale production of MSC; however, the technical and ethical issues had put a halt on it. To date, studies have shown that MSC could be derived from human UC (umbilical cord), which is once considered as clinical waste. We have compared the two conventional methods which are classic enzymatic digestion and explant method with our newly tailored enzymatic-mechanical disassociation method to generate UC-MSC. The generated UC-MSCs from the methods above were characterized based on their immunophenotyping, early embryonic transcription factors expression and mesodermal differentiation ability. Our results show that enzymatic-mechanical disassociation method increase the initial nucleated cell yield greatly (approximately 160-fold) and maximized the successful rate of UC-MSC generation. Enzymatic-mechanical disassociation-derived UC-MSC exhibited fibroblastic morphology and surface markers expression of CD105, CD73, CD29, CD90 and MHC class I. Furthermore, these cells constitutively express early embryonic transcription factors (Nanog, Oct-4, Sox-2 and Rex-1), as confirmed by RT-PCR, indicating their multipotency and high self-renewal capacity. They are also capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and adipocytes when given an appropriate induction. The present study demonstrates a new and efficient approach in generating MSC from UC, hence serving as ideal alternative source of mesenchymal stem cell for clinical and research use.
Articular cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in regulating chondrocyte functions via cell-matrix interaction, cytoskeletal organization and integrin-mediated signaling. Factors such as interleukins, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) have been shown to modulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix in vitro. However, the effects of TGF-beta1 and beta-estradiol in ECM regulation require further investigation, although there have been suggestions that these factors do play a positive role. To establish the role of these factors on chondrocytes derived from articular joints, a study was conducted to investigate the effects of TGF-beta1 and beta-estradiol on glycosaminoglycan secretion and type II collagen distribution (two major component of cartilage ECM in vivo). Thus, chondrocyte cultures initiated from rabbit articular cartilage were treated with 10ng/ml of TGF-beta1, 10nM of beta-estradiol or with a combination of both factors. Sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and type II collagen levels were then measured in both these culture systems. The results revealed that the synthesis of GAG and type II collagen was shown to be enhanced in the TGF-beta1 treated cultures. This increase was also noted when TGF-beta1 and beta-estradiol were both used as culture supplements. However, beta-estradiol alone did not appear to affect GAG or type II collagen deposition. There was also no difference between the amount of collagen type II and GAG being expressed when chondrocyte cultures were treated with TGF-beta1 when compared with cultures treated with combined factors. From this, we conclude that although TGF-beta1 appears to stimulate chondrocyte ECM synthesis, beta-estradiol fails to produce similar effects. The findings of this study confirm that contrary to previous claims, beta-estradiol has little or no effect on chondrocyte ECM synthesis. Furthermore, the use of TGF-beta1 may be useful in future studies looking into biological mechanisms by which ECM synthesis in chondrocyte cultures can be augmented, particularly for clinical application.
Studies showed that co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cord blood-derived CD34+hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) offered greater therapeutic effects but little is known regarding the effects of human Wharton's jelly derived MSCs on HSC expansion and red blood cell (RBC) generation in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the effects of MSCs on HSC expansion and differentiation. HSCs were co-cultured with MSCs or with 10% MSCs-derived conditioned medium, with HSCs cultured under standard medium served as a control. Cell expansion rates, number of mononuclear cell post-expansion and number of enucleated cells post-differentiation were evaluated. HSCs showed superior proliferation in the presence of MSC with mean expansion rate of 3.5 × 108 ± 1.8 × 107after day 7 compared to the conditioned medium and the control group (8.9 × 107 ± 1.1 × 108and 7.0 × 107 ± 3.3 × 106respectively, P
Hypothyroidism has been linked to infertility, but the mechanisms underlying infertility-related hypothyroidism have yet to be fully elucidated. Therefore, in this study, effects of hypothyroidism on expression of the proteins related to thyroid hormone function in the uterus, which were thought to play a role implantation, including thyroid hormone receptor (TR), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and extracellular kinase (ERK) were identified. Pregnant female rats were rendered hypothyroid by giving methimazole (MMI), orally. Following hypothyroid induction, rats were grouped into control (non-treated) and received subcutaneous thyroxine at 20, 40, and 80 μg/kg/day for five consecutive days. At Day 6, which is the day of implantation (GD 6), rats were sacrificed and the number of embryo implantation site in the uterus was calculated. Then, uterine horns were harvested and expression of the above proteins and their mRNAs were identified by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. In non-treated hypothyroid pregnant rats, the number of embryo implantation sites decreased as compared to euthyroid and hypothyroid rats receiving thyroxine treatment. Similarly, expression of TRα-1, TRβ-1, TSHR, ERK1/2 and RAR proteins and mRNA in the uterus of non-treated hypothyroid rats also decreased (P
Mesangial cells are one of the three major cell types of the kidney glomerulus that provide physical support for the glomerular capillary lumen of the kidney. Loss of mesangial cells due to pathologic conditions, such as glomerulonephritis and diabetic nephropathy, can impair renal function. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are attractive candidates for kidney repair therapy since they can enhance recovery and protect against kidney failure. MSC can differentiate into mesangial cells in vivo. We have investigated the ability of MSC to differentiate into mesangial cells in vitro; they were co-cultured with oxidant-injured mesangial cells before being analysed by flow cytometry and for contractility. MSC co-cultured with injured mesangial cells had a mesangial cell-like morphology and contracted in response to angiotensin II. They expressed CD54(-) CD62E(+) in direct contrast to the CD54(+) CD62E(-) of pure MSC. In conclusion, MSC can differentiate into mesangial cells in vitro when co-cultured with injured mesangial cells.
Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) obtained from the dental pulp of human extracted tooth were cultured and characterized to confirm that these were mesenchymal stem cells. The proliferation rate was assessed using AlamarBlue® cell assay. The differentially expressed genes in SHED and DPSCs were identified using the GeneFishing™ technique. The proliferation rate of SHED (P < 0.05) was significantly higher than DPSCs while SHED had a lower multiplication rate and shorter population doubling time (0.01429, 60.57 h) than DPSCs (0.00286, 472.43 h). Two bands were highly expressed in SHED and three bands in DPSCs. Sequencing analysis showed these to be TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1), and ribosomal protein s8, (RPS8) in SHED and collagen, type I, alpha 1, (COL1A1), follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1), lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 1, (LGALS1) in DPSCs. TIMP1 is involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix, cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic function and RPS8 is involved as a rate-limiting factor in translational regulation; COL1A1 is involved in the resistance and elasticity of the tissues; FSTL1 is an autoantigen associated with rheumatoid arthritis; LGALS1 is involved in cell growth, differentiation, adhesion, RNA processing, apoptosis and malignant transformation. This, along with further protein expression analysis, holds promise in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Stem cell biology has gained remarkable interest in recent years, driven by the hope of finding cures for numerous diseases including skin wound healing through transplantation medicine. Initially upon transplantation, these cells home to and differentiate within the injured tissue into specialised cells. Contrariwise, it now appears that only a small percentage of transplanted cells integrate and survive in host tissues. Thus, the foremost mechanism by which stem cells participate in tissue repair seems to be related to their trophic factors. Indeed, stem cells provide the microenvironment with a wide range of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines, which can broadly defined as the stem cells secretome. In in vitro condition, these molecules can be traced from the conditioned medium or spent media harvested from cultured cells. Conditioned medium now serves as a new treatment modality in regenerative medicine and has shown a successful outcome in some diseases. With the emergence of this approach, we described the possibility of using stem cells conditioned medium as a novel and promising alternative to skin wound healing treatment. Numerous pre-clinical data have shown the possibility and efficacy of this treatment. Despite this, significant challenges need to be addressed before translating this technology to the bedside.
At the early stages of mammalian development, a number of developmentally plastic cells appear that possess the ability to give rise to all of the differentiated cell types normally derived from the three primary germ layers - unique character known as pluripotency. To date, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been shown to be truly pluripotent. However, recent studies have revealed a variety of other cells that demonstrate pluripotentiality, including very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs), marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible cells (MIAMI) and multipotent adult precursor cells (MAPCs). This review summarises key features of these six kinds of pluripotent and potentially pluripotent stem cells (ESCs, iPSCs, VSELs, AFSCs, MIAMI and MAPCs) and the evidence for their pluripotency properties.
Nanotechnology has provided new technological opportunities, which could help in challenges confronting stem cell research. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers, a new class of macromolecular polymers with high molecular uniformity, narrow molecular distribution specific size and shape and highly functionalised terminal surface have been extensively explored for biomedical application. PAMAM dendrimers are also nanospherical, hyperbranched and monodispersive molecules exhibiting exclusive properties which make them potential carriers for drug and gene delivery.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) generated from human umbilical cord (UC-MSC) and placenta (PLC-MSC) were assessed and compared for their immunomodulatory function on T cells proliferation by analysis of the cell cycle. Mitogen stimulated or resting T cells were co-cultured in the presence or absence of MSC. T-cell proliferation was assessed by tritiated thymidine ((3) H-TdR) assay and the mechanism of inhibition was examined bycell cycle and apoptosis assay. Both UC-MSC and PLC-MSC profoundly inhibited the proliferation of T-cell, mainly via cell-to-cell contact. MSC-mediated anti-proliferation does not lead to apoptosis,but prevented T cells from entering S phase and they therefore accumulated in the G(0) /G(1) phases. The anti-proliferative activity of MSC was related to this cell cycle arrest of T-cell. UC-MSC produced a greater inhibition than PLC-MSC in all measured parameters.
Cell-based therapy using stem cells has emerged as one of the pro-angiogenic methods to enhance blood vessel growth and sprouting in ischaemic conditions. This study investigated the endogenous and induced angiogenic characteristics of hCDSC (human chorion-derived stem cell) using QPCR (quantitative PCR) method, immunocytochemistry and fibrin-matrigel migration assay. The results showed that cultured hCDSC endogenously expressed angiogenic-endogenic-associated genes (VEGF, bFGF, PGF, HGF, Ang-1, PECAM-1, eNOS, Ve-cad, CD34, VEGFR-2 and vWF), with significant increase in mRNA levels of PGF, HGF, Ang-1, eNOS, VEGFR-2 and vWF following induction by bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). These enhanced angiogenic properties suggest that induced hCDSC provides a stronger angiogenic effect for the treatment of ischaemia. After angiogenic induction, hCDSC showed no reduction in the expression of the stemness genes, but had significantly higher levels of mRNA of Oct-4, Nanog (3), FZD9, ABCG-2 and BST-1. The induced cells were positive for PECAM-1 (platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1) and vWF (von Willebrand factor) with immunocytochemistry staining. hCDSC also showed endothelial migration behaviour when cultured in fibrin-matrigel construct and were capable of forming vessels in vivo after implanting into nude mice. These data suggest that hCDSC could be the cells of choice in the cell-based therapy for pro-angiogenic purpose.
hUCB-MSC (human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells) offer an attractive alternative to bone marrow-derived MSC for cell-based therapy by being less invasive a source of biological material. We have evaluated the effect of hUCB-MSC on the proliferation of K562 (an erythromyeloblastoid cell line) and the cytokine secretion pattern of hUCB-MSC. Co-culturing of hUCB-MSC and K562 resulted in inhibition of proliferation of K562 in a dose-dependent manner. However, the anti-proliferative effect was reduced in transwells, suggesting the importance of direct cell-to-cell contact. hUCB-MSC inhibited proliferation of K562, arresting them in the G0 /G1 phase. NO (nitric oxide) was not involved in the hUCB-MSC-mediated tumour suppression. The presence of IL-6 (interleukin 6) and IL-8 were obvious in the hUCB-MSC conditioned media, but no significant increase was found in 29 other cytokines. Th1 cytokines, IFNα (interferon α), Th2 cytokine IL-4 and Th17 cytokine, IL-17 were not secreted by hUCB-MSC. There was an increase in the number of hUCB-MSC expressing the latent membrane-bound form of TGFβ1 co-cultured with K562. The anti-proliferative effect of hUCB-MSC was due to arrest of the growth of K562 in the G0 /G1 phase. The mechanisms underlying increased IL-6 and IL-8 secretion and LAP (latency-associated peptide; TGFβ1) by hUCB-MSC remains unknown.
Since the discovery of PrPC (cellular prion protein), most studies have focused on its role in neurodegenerative diseases, whereas its function outside the nervous system remains obscure. We investigated the ability of PrPC in resisting TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) apoptosis in three PrPC-transiently transfected cancer cell lines, renal adenocarcinoma ACHN, oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 and colon adenocarcinoma LS174T. PrPC-expressing ACHN and LS174T cells had higher viabilities compared with the mock-transfected cells, while the transient overexpression of PrPC had minimal overall effect on HSC-2 cells due to its high endogenous PrPC expression. Cell cycles were also analysed, with both PrPC expressing ACHN and LS174T cells having a significantly higher proliferative index than mock-transfected cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated a G1/S-phase cell cycle transition in both PrPC-expressing ACHN and LS174T cells. PrPC resists TNFα apoptosis due to a modest, but statistically significant, cell-specific cytoprotection compared with mock-transfected cells.
We have previously shown that human MSC (mesenchymal stem cells) inhibit the proliferation of most of the immune cells. However, there are innate immune cells such as neutrophils and other PMN (polymorphonuclear) cells that do not require an extensive proliferation prior to their effector function. In this study, the effect of MSC on neutrophils in the presence of complete and serum-deprived culture media was investigated. In the presence of MSC, the viability of neutrophils increase as measured in 24 h of incubation at various supplementation of serum concentration. We have utilized Annexin V and PI (propidium iodide) staining to confirm whether the enhancement of neutrophil's viability is due to a reduction in PCD (programmed cell death). MSC significantly rescue neutrophils from apoptosis at 1, 5 and 10% of FBS (fetal bovine serum) supplementation. The fractions of viable and dead cells were increased and decreased respectively in the presence of MSC. Our results indicate MSC rescue neutrophils from nutrient- or serum-deprived cell death. However, whether this effect is exerted through a specific signalling pathway or confining neutrophils in resting state by MSC requires further investigation.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have garnered vast interests in clinical settings, especially in regenerative medicine due to their unique properties-they are reliably isolated and expanded from various tissue sources; they are able to differentiate into mesodermal tissues such as bones, cartilages, adipose tissues, and muscles; and they have unique immunosuppressive properties. However, there are some concerns pertaining to the role of MSCs in the human body. On one hand, they are crucial component in the regeneration and repair of the human body. On the contrary, they are shown to transform into sarcomas. Although the exact mechanisms are still unknown, many new leads have pointed to the belief that MSCs do play a role in sarcomagenesis. This review focuses on the current updates and findings of the role of MSCs in their transformation process into sarcomas.
Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). Apart from playing vital roles as sentinel cells, they are crucial in physiological processes such as synaptic pruning during brain development. CNS disorders require an understanding of the contribution of each cellular compartment to the pathogenesis. Elucidating the role of microglia in disease development and progression in the intricate CNS environment is technically challenging and requires the establishment of reliable, reproducible techniques to isolate and culture microglia. A number of different protocols have been developed for isolation of neonatal microglia and here we compare two widely used methods, namely, mild trypsinization and EasySep® magnetic separation. EasySep® magnetic separation provided higher microglia yield, and flow cytometric evaluation of CD11b and F4/80 markers revealed that EasySep® separation method also produced significantly higher purity compared to mild trypsinization. Microglia isolated using EasySep® separation method were functional, as demonstrated by the generation of nitric oxide, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In summary, this study has revealed that magnetic separation is superior to mild trypsinization in terms of yield and purity of microglia.
Our work cautions against the use of serum-supplemented culture media in a transwell migration assay when using chemoattractants other than FBS. At 24 h, a 5% foetal bovine serum (FBS) gradient caused BV2 microglia to migrate toward the lower compartment of the transwell apparatus. Interestingly, FBS-supplemented media in the absence of a gradient also resulted in notable microglia migration. Serum can therefore confound the interpretation of a transwell migration assay when another chemoattractant is used.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most lethal urogenital cancers and effective treatment of metastatic RCC remains an elusive target. Cell lines enable the in vitro investigation of molecular and genetic changes leading to renal carcinogenesis and are important for evaluating cellular drug response or toxicity. This study details a fast and easy protocol of establishing epithelial and fibroblast cell cultures or cell lines concurrently from renal cancer nephrectomy tissue. The protocol involves mechanical disaggregation, collagenase digestion and cell sieving for establishing epithelial cells while fibroblast cells were grown from explants. This protocol has been modified from previous published reports with additional antibiotics and washing steps added to eliminate microbial contamination from the surgical source. Cell characterisation was carried out using immunofluorescence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Eleven stable epithelial renal tumour cell lines of various subtypes, including rare subtypes, were established with a spontaneous immortalisation rate of 21.6% using this protocol. Eight fibroblast cell cultures grew successfully but did not achieve spontaneous immortalisation. Cells of epithelial origin expressed higher expressions of epithelial markers such as pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 8 and E-cadherin whereas fibroblast cells expressed high α-smooth muscle actin. Further mutational analysis is needed to evaluate the genetic or molecular characteristics of the cell lines.
This study demonstrates both the antioxidant and anticancer potential of the novel short molecule YT12 derived from peroxiredoxin (Prx) of spirulina, Arthrospira platensis (Ap). ApPrx showed significant reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) against hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) stress. The complementary DNA sequence of ApPrx contained 706 nucleotides and its coding region possessed 546 nucleotides between position 115 and 660. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the messenger RNA expression of ApPrx due to H2 O2 exposure in spirulina cells at regular intervals, in which the highest expression was noticed on Day 20. Cytotoxicity assay was performed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and revealed that at 10 μM, the YT12 did not exhibit any notable toxicity. Furthermore, ROS scavenging activity of YT12 was performed using DCF-DA assay, in which YT12 scavenged a significant amount of ROS at 25 μM in H2 O2 -treated blood leukocytes. The intracellular ROS in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) was regulated by oxidative stress, where the YT12 scavenges ROS in HT-29 cells at 12.5 μM. Findings show that YT12 peptide has anticancer activity, when treated against HT-29 cells. Through the MTT assay, YT12 showed vital cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells. These finding suggested that YT12 is a potent antioxidant molecule which defends ROS against oxidative stress and plays a role in redox balance.
In peripheral nerve injuries, Schwann cells (SC) play pivotal roles in regenerating damaged nerve. However, the use of SC in clinical cell-based therapy is hampered due to its limited availability. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of using an established induction protocol for human bone marrow derived-MSC (hBM-MSCs) transdifferentiation into a SC lineage. A relatively homogenous culture of hBM-MSCs was first established after serial passaging (P3), with profiles conforming to the minimal criteria set by International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT). The cultures (n = 3) were then subjected to a series of induction media containing β-mercaptoethanol, retinoic acid, and growth factors. Quantitative RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry analyses were performed to quantify the expression of specific SC markers, that is, S100, GFAP, MPZ and p75 NGFR, in both undifferentiated and transdifferentiated hBM-MSCs. Based on these analyses, all markers were expressed in undifferentiated hBM-MSCs and MPZ expression (mRNA transcripts) was consistently detected before and after transdifferentiation across all samples. There was upregulation at the transcript level of more than twofolds for NGF, MPB, GDNF, p75 NGFR post-transdifferentiation. This study highlights the existence of spontaneous expression of specific SC markers in cultured hBM-MSCs, inter-donor variability and that MSC transdifferentiation is a heterogenous process. These findings strongly oppose the use of a single marker to indicate SC fate. The heterogenous nature of MSC may influence the efficiency of SC transdifferentiation protocols. Therefore, there is an urgent need to re-define the MSC subpopulations and revise the minimal criteria for MSC identification.