Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Yang WY, Burrows T, MacDonald-Wicks L, Williams LT, Collins CE, Chee WS, et al.
    Children (Basel), 2017 Jan 20;4(1).
    PMID: 28117690 DOI: 10.3390/children4010005
    Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study (n = 236) was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013-October 2014). Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s). Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg) compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001). A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified (r = 0.53, p < 0.001) after excluding energy intake mis-reporters (n = 95), highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.
  2. Abdul Samad NI, Md Isa Z, Hod R
    Children (Basel), 2017 Dec 14;4(12).
    PMID: 29240681 DOI: 10.3390/children4120109
    The main concern regarding mercury exposure is the adverse health effect on the developing nervous system. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine hair mercury levels and their association with socio-demographic characteristics, complaints about mercury poisoning symptoms and the fish consumption pattern among children in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 215 school children aged 11 years old. Hair was collected from the children and the total mercury was analyzed using oxygen combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Anthropometric data, a fish consumption questionnaire and mercury poisoning symptoms were collected during a personal interview. The mean hair mercury level among primary school children was 0.63 ± 0.59 µg/g with the geometric mean of 0.47 µg/g. A total of 14% of respondents had hair mercury levels above 1 µg/g. A multiple binary logistic regression analysis outlined that fish consumption of at least one meal per week increased the likelihood of having a high mercury level (odds ratio (OR) 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-10.4). This study confirms the existence of a mercury burden among Malaysian children and the level is high compared to other regional studies. This study provides important baseline data regarding the mercury level among children in Malaysia.
  3. Fadzil A
    Children (Basel), 2021 Feb 09;8(2).
    PMID: 33572155 DOI: 10.3390/children8020122
    Sleep quality is one of the domains of sleep. Having adequate quality sleep is defined as one's "feeling fresh" after waking-up. Inadequate sleep quality results in sleep insufficiency producing a variety of symptoms and signs. The central nervous system is affected the most in children, although other system too may be involved. Several factors affect sleep quality in children including genetics, sleep habits, medical problems, parents/caregiver factors, screen time and the child's environment. These factors are inter-related and dynamic. The outcome of sleep insufficiency is many involving neurocognitive and neurobehavior, mood and emotional issues and specific conditions, like pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale and obesity. Management should start with proper history taking to identify the multifaceted nature of the condition. Treatment is planned cognizant of the age of the patient and the associated etiological factors, and should involve both the children and their parents.
  4. Mohd Radzi NA, Saub R, Mohd Yusof ZY, Dahlui M, Sujak SL
    Children (Basel), 2021 Feb 14;8(2).
    PMID: 33672960 DOI: 10.3390/children8020144
    The prevalence of concurrent use of combustible and electronic cigarettes (dual-use) is on the rise among Malaysian adolescents. This study compares nicotine dependence among exclusive cigarette users, e-cigarette users, and dual adolescent users. A total of 227 adolescent smokers completed a self-administrated questionnaire with items based on Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) incorporated. Endorsement of at least one HONC item indicates nicotine dependence. Exhaled carbon monoxide readings and salivary cotinine data were also collected. Over half (52.9%) of the participants were exclusive e-cigarette users (EC). The prevalence of exclusive conventional cigarette smokers (CC) and dual users was 11.9% and 35.2%, respectively. Adolescents who have mothers with secondary school education were more likely to become addicted to nicotine (Adjusted Odd Ratio (aOR) = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.17-6.32). Adolescents' "mother's education" level predicted nicotine dependence. This highlighted the need to target families within the identified demography with a more supportive anti-tobacco program.
  5. Sahril N, Ahmad NA, Idris IB, Sooryanarayana R, Abd Razak MA
    Children (Basel), 2021 Feb 07;8(2).
    PMID: 33562212 DOI: 10.3390/children8020119
    Mental health problems are a major public health issue, particularly among children. They impair children's development, academic achievement, and ability to live a productive life. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with mental health problems among children aged 5 to 15 years old in Malaysia. Data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015 were analyzed. A validated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used. The overall prevalence of mental health problems among children in Malaysia was 11.1%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that for every year increment in age, mental health problems decreased by 5%. Further analysis found that children who had fathers with a non-formal education and worked in the private sector, had parents who were widowed or divorced, and had either parent with mental health problems were more likely to have mental health problems themselves. Children from the lower socioeconomic group and who had either parent with mental health problems had higher odds of having mental health problems in Malaysia.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2015)
  6. Schramm J, Sivalingam S, Moreno GE, Thanh DQL, Gauvreau K, Doherty-Schmeck K, et al.
    Children (Basel), 2021 Mar 06;8(3).
    PMID: 33800765 DOI: 10.3390/children8030198
    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare, but high mortality and resource intensive disease caused by mechanical obstruction or intraluminal myofibroproliferation, which can be post-surgical or idiopathic. There are increasing options for management including medications, cardiac catheterization procedures, and surgery. We queried the International Quality Improvement Collaborative for Congenital Heart Disease (IQIC) database for cases of PVS and described the cohort including additional congenital lesions and surgeries as well as infectious and mortality outcomes. IQIC is a quality improvement project in low-middle-income countries with the goal of reducing mortality after congenital heart surgery. Three cases were described in detail with relevant images. We identified 57 cases of PVS surgery, with similar mortality to higher income countries. PVS should be recognized as a global disease. More research and collaboration are needed to understand the disease, treatments, and outcomes, and to devise treatment approaches for low resource environments.
  7. Lim YY, Wahab S, Kumar J, Ibrahim F, Kamaluddin MR
    Children (Basel), 2021 Apr 25;8(5).
    PMID: 33922985 DOI: 10.3390/children8050333
    Child sexual abuse is a public health issue that has been associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Child sexual abusers constitute a heterogeneous population of individuals. This review lays out an overview of the current understanding of typologies and psychological profiles of child sexual abusers. Typologies of child sexual abusers in general and online child sexual abusers are reviewed to summarise the existing knowledge. Psychological traits including personality traits, cognitive distortion, empathy, and impulsivity are examined to provide a wider perspective of the psycho-criminogenic factors of child sexual abuse. Although past research on child sexual abusers has provided insights into the organisation and classification of different types of child sexual abusers, the classification of these typologies has drawn widespread criticisms. In this review, we discuss the challenges and limitations pertaining to the existing typologies and studies related to the psychological profile of child sexual abusers.
  8. Koo HC, Lim GP, Kaur S, Chan KQ, Chan KE, Chung C, et al.
    Children (Basel), 2021 Jul 02;8(7).
    PMID: 34356548 DOI: 10.3390/children8070569
    BACKGROUND: Optimal bone health is vital in children to prevent osteoporosis later in life, and body composition plays a crucial role in it. However, the literature reports contradictory results when considering the relationship between body composition and bone health in children. This study aimed to examine the bone health and its relationship with body composition in Malaysian schoolchildren.

    METHODS: In this cross sectional study, body composition data (weight, height, body fat percentage [% fat], fat mass, fat free mass, visceral fat, waist circumference [WC] and body mass index-for-age [BMI z-score]) and bone health data (Z-score and broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA]) were collected from 415 schoolchildren aged 9-12 years, cluster sampled from randomly selected primary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Girls generally had significantly higher height, body fat percentage, fat mass, visceral fat and Z-score as compared to boys. A steady increase of the mean BUA value was observed with increasing age in both sexes. The mean BUA value of the present study across the population was significantly higher than that of schoolchildren from Nigeria (p < 0.001), Colombia (p < 0.001) and Spain (p = 0.002). Significant positive correlations were found between all the body composition variables and bone outcome variables across the population. Further, BUA was significantly correlated with weight (β = 0.172; p = 0.001), height (β = 0.299; p < 0.001), % fat (β = 0.131; p = 0.007), fat mass (β = 0.130; p = 0.007), fat free mass (β = 0.209; p < 0.001), visceral fat (β = 0.127, p = 0.008), WC (β = 0.165; p = 0.001) and BMI z-score (β = 0.162; p = 0.001), after controlling for sex, age and ethnicity. Similarly, after confounders adjusted, Z-score was significantly predicted by weight (β = 0.160; p = 0.001), height (β = 0.310; p < 0.001), % fat (β = 0.104; p = 0.032), fat mass (β = 0.107; p = 0.026), fat free mass (β = 0.218; p < 0.001), visceral fat (β = 0.107, p = 0.026), WC (β = 0.145; p = 0.002) and BMI z-score (β = 0.150; p = 0.002).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings have revealed that body composition variables were positive correlated with bone outcome variables, suggesting that adipose tissue acts to stimulate bone growth. Further clinical and molecular studies in the future is recommended to fully illustrate the complex interactions between adiposity and bone health.

  9. Alsanabani AAM, Yusof ZYM, Wan Hassan WN, Aldhorae K, Alyamani HA
    Children (Basel), 2021 May 25;8(6).
    PMID: 34070552 DOI: 10.3390/children8060448
    (1) Objectives: This paper aimed to cross-culturally adapt the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) into an Arabic language version (PIDAQ(A)) for measuring the oral health related quality of life related to dental aesthetics among 12-17-year-old Yemeni adolescents. (2) Material and methods: The study comprised three parts, which were linguistic validation and qualitative interview, comprehensibility assessment, and psychometric validations. Psychometric properties were examined for validity (exploratory factor analysis (EFA), partial confirmatory factor analysis (PCFA), construct, criterion, and discriminant validity) and reliability (internal consistency and reproducibility). (3) Results: The PIDAQ(A) contained a new item. EFA extracted three factors (item factor loading 0.375 to 0.918) comprising dental self-confidence, aesthetic concern, and psychosocial impact subscales. PCFA showed good fit statistics (comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.928, root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.071). In addition, invariance across age groups was tested. Cronbach's α values ranged from 0.90 to 0.93 (intraclass correlations = 0.89-0.96). A criterion validity test showed that the PIDAQ(A) had a significant association with oral impacts on daily performance scores. A construct validity test showed significant associations between PIDAQ(A) subscales and self-perceived dental appearance and self-perceived need for orthodontic braces (p < 0.05). Discriminant validity presented significant differences in the mean PIDAQ(A) scores between subjects having severe malocclusion and those with slight malocclusion. No floor or ceiling effects were detected.
  10. Tengku H TNN, Peh WY, Shoaib LA, Baharuddin NA, Vaithilingam RD, Saub R
    Children (Basel), 2021 May 22;8(6).
    PMID: 34067484 DOI: 10.3390/children8060435
    This study aimed to investigate the association between oral disease burden and oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) among overweight/obese (OW/OB) and normal weight (NW) Malaysian adolescents. A total of 397 adolescents were involved in the two-year prospective observational cohort study. OHRQOL was measured through a self-administered questionnaire containing the short version of the Malaysian Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP[M]). Body mass index (BMI) was used for anthropometric measurement. Whilst, decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index, Significant Caries Index (SiC), simplified basic periodontal examination (S-BPE), and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were used for clinical assessment tools. Higher dental caries prevalence was observed in the NW group while higher SiC was reported in the OW/OB group. Regardless of the obesity status, the prevalence of gingivitis (BPE code 1 and 2) was high in this study. A reduction of GBI prevalence was observed in the two-year follow-up results with an increased prevalence of OHRQoL impact in the OW/OB group compared to the NW group (p > 0.05). The findings from this study suggested that obesity status did not have influence over the burden of oral diseases and OHRQoL. It offers insights referring to the changes in adolescents' oral diseases burden and OHRQoL.
  11. Mamikutty R, Aly AS, Marhazlinda J
    Children (Basel), 2021 Jun 30;8(7).
    PMID: 34209268 DOI: 10.3390/children8070565
    A comprehensive search for primary studies using a sufficient number and relevant databases is critical to minimise bias and increase the validity of a systematic review. We examined the frequency and choices of databases commonly used to provide an efficient search of primary studies for a systematic review of anthropometric measurements and dental caries among children in Asia. Twelve previous systematic reviews on a similar topic were retrieved from six databases. The frequency and choice of databases used by reviewers were determined from the methods sections. We also identified the lists of other databases usually searched in other reviews. Eligibility criteria for final databases selection were the database's scope, the topic of interest, design of the study, type of article, and the accessibility of the databases. Of the 77 databases identified, previous reviews on this topic used 21 databases, ranging from 2 to 12 databases in each review. Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and PubMed were employed most frequently. Twenty-six databases were eligible and selected for the present review. Twelve were regional databases to provide comprehensive coverage of primary studies. A systematic approach in selecting appropriate databases for searching primary studies is paramount to reduce errors, ensure coverage, and increase the validity of systematic reviews' conclusions.
  12. Hussain A, Zahid A, Malik M, Ansari M, Vaismoradi M, Aslam A, et al.
    Children (Basel), 2021 Nov 04;8(11).
    PMID: 34828720 DOI: 10.3390/children8111007
    Immunization is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions, with considerable impacts on people's health. Parents' perception of their knowledge, attitude, and satisfaction is an important factor, as they may be targeted by interventions for better immunization coverage. Therefore, this study aimed to assess parents' perceptions in terms of their knowledge, attitude, and satisfaction of the immunization of their children aged less than two years of age, in two cities of Pakistan. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the vicinity of Rawalpindi and Islamabad from March to August 2019. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for the data collection on a convenient sample of parents. The questionnaire was hand-delivered to the parents by data collectors. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis via SPSS version 22. A total of n = 382 respondents were included in the data analysis. Statistically significant differences were found between the parents' knowledge scores and their education levels and monthly incomes (p < 0.05). Parents with master's education degrees and low monthly incomes had significantly better knowledge (p < 0.05). Additionally, 96.85% of the respondents believed that child immunization was important. In addition, more than half of the respondents (57.58%) thought that the affordability of vaccines was a principal factor for delays in immunization. Although the parents' knowledge regarding the immunization of their children was not adequate, they had positive perceptions toward it.
  13. Ibrahim IS, Baharudin N, Isa MR, Ismail IH, Mohamed-Yassin MS, Kamarudin IK, et al.
    Children (Basel), 2021 Nov 13;8(11).
    PMID: 34828763 DOI: 10.3390/children8111050
    Food allergy has a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and can be measured using The Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF). This study aimed to adapt, translate the FAQLQ-PF into Malay and determine the validity and reliability of the translated version. This cross-sectional questionnaire validation study was conducted among parents of children (0 to 12 years old) with food allergies across five sites in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The FAQLQ-PF-Malay underwent cross-cultural adaptation, translation, validation (content, face and construct) and reliability assessment. Exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency and test-retest reliability analyses were used to examine its construct validity and reliability. Out of 150 children, the majority were between the age of 7 to 12 years old (41%) and were female (81%). Three subscales were identified, which were: (i) social and dietary implication, (ii) food anxiety and (iii) emotional and physical impact. Four items were eliminated because of weak factor loadings. The Cronbach's alpha for each subscale ranged from 0.88 to 0.94, with an overall Cronbach's alpha of 0.95. The intra-class correlation coefficient ranged from 0.54 (95% CI: 0.10-0.77) to 0.97 (95% CI: 0.90-0.99). The 26-item FAQLQ-PF-Malay retained the three-factor structure of the original FAQLQ-PF. The FAQLQ-PF-Malay is a valid and reliable tool to assess the QoL of Malaysian children with food allergies.
  14. Hasan H, Nasirudeen NA, Ruzlan MAF, Mohd Jamil MA, Ismail NAS, Wahab AA, et al.
    Children (Basel), 2021 Dec 02;8(12).
    PMID: 34943308 DOI: 10.3390/children8121112
    Acute infectious gastroenteritis (AGE) is among the leading causes of mortality in children less than 5 years of age worldwide. There are many causative agents that lead to this infection, with rotavirus being the commonest pathogen in the past decade. However, this trend is now being progressively replaced by another agent, which is the norovirus. Apart from the viruses, bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli and parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica also contribute to AGE. These agents can be recognised by their respective biological markers, which are mainly the specific antigens or genes to determine the causative pathogen. In conjunction to that, omics technologies are currently providing crucial insights into the diagnosis of acute infectious gastroenteritis at the molecular level. Recent advancement in omics technologies could be an important tool to further elucidate the potential causative agents for AGE. This review will explore the current available biomarkers and antigens available for the diagnosis and management of the different causative agents of AGE. Despite the high-priced multi-omics approaches, the idea for utilization of these technologies is to allow more robust discovery of novel antigens and biomarkers related to management AGE, which eventually can be developed using easier and cheaper detection methods for future clinical setting. Thus, prediction of prognosis, virulence and drug susceptibility for active infections can be obtained. Case management, risk prediction for hospital-acquired infections, outbreak detection, and antimicrobial accountability are aimed for further improvement by integrating these capabilities into a new clinical workflow.
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