Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 40 in total

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  1. von Delft A, Dramowski A, Sifumba Z, Mosidi T, Xun Ting T, von Delft D, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2016 05 15;62 Suppl 3:S275-80.
    PMID: 27118858 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciw037
    "Occupational MDR-TB"  …  "XDR-TB"  …  "Treatment-induced hearing loss": 3 life-changing messages imparted over the phone. Three personal accounts are shared highlighting the false belief held by many healthcare workers (HCWs) and students in low-resource settings-that they are immune to tuberculosis despite high levels of occupational tuberculosis exposure. This misconception reflects a lack of awareness of tuberculosis transmission and disease risk, compounded by the absence of accurate occupational tuberculosis estimates. As the global problem of drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis evolves, HCWs are increasingly infected and suffer considerable morbidity and mortality from occupational DR tuberculosis disease. Similarly, healthcare students are emerging as a vulnerable and unprotected group. There is an urgent need for improved detection, vaccines, preventive therapy, treatment, and support for affected HCWs and those they care for, as well as destigmatization of all forms of tuberculosis. Finally, efforts to protect HCWs and prevent DR tuberculosis transmission by universal implementation of tuberculosis infection control measures should be prioritized.
  2. Grigg MJ, William T, Menon J, Barber BE, Wilkes CS, Rajahram GS, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2016 06 01;62(11):1403-1411.
    PMID: 27107287 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciw121
    BACKGROUND: Chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium vivax is increasingly reported throughout southeast Asia. The efficacy of CQ and alternative artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for vivax malaria in Malaysia is unknown.

    METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial of CQ vs artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) for uncomplicated vivax malaria was conducted in 3 district hospitals in Sabah, Malaysia. Primaquine was administered on day 28. The primary outcome was the cumulative risk of treatment failure by day 28 by Kaplan-Meier analysis.

    RESULTS: From 2012 to 2014, 103 adults and children were enrolled. Treatment failure by day 28 was 61.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.8-75.6) after CQ and 0% (95% CI, 0-.08) following AS-MQ (P < .001), of which 8.2% (95% CI, 2.5-9.6) were early treatment failures. All patients with treatment failure had therapeutic plasma CQ concentrations at day 7. Compared with CQ, AS-MQ was associated with faster parasite clearance (normalized clearance slope, 0.311 vs 0.127; P < .001) and fever clearance (mean, 19.0 vs 37.7 hours; P =001) and with lower risk of anemia at day 28 (odds ratio = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.5-9.3; P =005). Gametocytes were present at day 28 in 23.8% (10/42) of patients following CQ vs none with AS-MQ (P < .001). AS-MQ resulted in lower bed occupancy: 4037 vs 6510 days/1000 patients (incidence rate ratio 0.62; 95% CI, .60-.65; P < .001). One patient developed severe anemia not regarded as related to their AS-MQ treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: High-grade CQ-resistant P. vivax is prevalent in eastern Malaysia. AS-MQ is an efficacious ACT for all malaria species. Wider CQ-efficacy surveillance is needed in vivax-endemic regions with earlier replacement with ACT when treatment failure is detected.Clinical Trials Registration NCT01708876.

  3. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Cain LE, Phillips A, Olson A, Sabin C, Jose S, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2015 Apr 15;60(8):1262-8.
    PMID: 25567330 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu1167
    BACKGROUND: Current clinical guidelines consider regimens consisting of either ritonavir-boosted atazanavir or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone among their recommended and alternative first-line antiretroviral regimens. However, these guidelines are based on limited evidence from randomized clinical trials and clinical experience.

    METHODS: We compared these regimens with respect to clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes using data from prospective studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Europe and the United States in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, 2004-2013. Antiretroviral therapy-naive and AIDS-free individuals were followed from the time they started a lopinavir or an atazanavir regimen. We estimated the 'intention-to-treat' effect for atazanavir vs lopinavir regimens on each of the outcomes.

    RESULTS: A total of 6668 individuals started a lopinavir regimen (213 deaths, 457 AIDS-defining illnesses or deaths), and 4301 individuals started an atazanavir regimen (83 deaths, 157 AIDS-defining illnesses or deaths). The adjusted intention-to-treat hazard ratios for atazanavir vs lopinavir regimens were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .53-.91) for death, 0.67 (95% CI, .55-.82) for AIDS-defining illness or death, and 0.91 (95% CI, .84-.99) for virologic failure at 12 months. The mean 12-month increase in CD4 count was 8.15 (95% CI, -.13 to 16.43) cells/µL higher in the atazanavir group. Estimates differed by NRTI backbone.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates are consistent with a lower mortality, a lower incidence of AIDS-defining illness, a greater 12-month increase in CD4 cell count, and a smaller risk of virologic failure at 12 months for atazanavir compared with lopinavir regimens.

  4. Fong SM, Wong KJ, Fukushima M, Yeo TW
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2015 Jun 15;60(12):1802-7.
    PMID: 25767257 DOI: 10.1093/cid/civ189
    Melioidosis is an important cause of community-acquired infection in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Studies from endemic countries have demonstrated differences in the epidemiology and clinical features among children diagnosed with melioidosis. This suggests that local data are needed to determine the risk factors and outcome in specific areas.
  5. Italiano CM, Wong KT, AbuBakar S, Lau YL, Ramli N, Syed Omar SF, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2015 Apr 1;60(7):1134.
    PMID: 25537869 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu1163
  6. Ooi MH, Lewthwaite P, Lai BF, Mohan A, Clear D, Lim L, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2008 Aug 15;47(4):458-68.
    PMID: 18616397 DOI: 10.1086/590008
    BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis is a major public health problem in Asia. However, there is little data on the long-term outcome of Japanese encephalitis survivors.

    METHODS: We prospectively evaluated children with serologically confirmed Japanese encephalitis over an 8.3-year period. The patients were assessed and their outcomes were graded with a functional outcome score at hospital discharge and at follow-up appointments. We examined how patient outcome at hospital discharge compared with that at long-term follow-up visits, when changes in outcome occurred, and the prognostic indicators of the eventual outcome.

    RESULTS: One hundred and eighteen patients were recruited into the study, and 10 (8%) died during the acute phase of illness. At hospital discharge, 44 (41%) of the 108 patients who survived had apparent full recovery; 3 (3%) had mild, 28 (26%) had moderate, and 33 (31%) had severe neurological sequelae. Eighty six of the 108 patients were followed up for a median duration of 52.9 months (range, 0.9-114.9 months). During follow-up, 31 patients experienced improvement, but 15 patients experienced deterioration in their outcome grade. In most cases, assessment during the first 3-6 months after hospital discharge was predictive of the long-term outcome. More than one-half of the patients continued to experience neuropsychological sequelae and behavioral disorders. A combination of poor perfusion, Glasgow coma score < or =8, and > or =2 witnessed seizures predicted a poor long-term outcome with 65% sensitivity and 92% specificity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Neurological assessment of Japanese encephalitis survivors at hospital discharge does not predict long-term outcome. Seizures and shock are treatable risk factors for a poor outcome at hospital discharge and at long-term follow-up visits.

  7. Cox-Singh J, Davis TM, Lee KS, Shamsul SS, Matusop A, Ratnam S, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2008 Jan 15;46(2):165-71.
    PMID: 18171245 DOI: 10.1086/524888
    BACKGROUND: Until recently, Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in humans was misdiagnosed as Plasmodium malariae malaria. The objectives of the present study were to determine the geographic distribution of P. knowlesi malaria in the human population in Malaysia and to investigate 4 suspected fatal cases.

    METHODS: Sensitive and specific nested polymerase chain reaction was used to identify all Plasmodium species present in (1) blood samples obtained from 960 patients with malaria who were hospitalized in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, during 2001-2006; (2) 54 P. malariae archival blood films from 15 districts in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo (during 2003-2005), and 4 districts in Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia (during 2004-2005); and (3) 4 patients whose suspected cause of death was P. knowlesi malaria. For the 4 latter cases, available clinical and laboratory data were reviewed.

    RESULTS: P. knowlesi DNA was detected in 266 (27.7%) of 960 of the samples from Sarawak hospitals, 41 (83.7%) of 49 from Sabah, and all 5 from Pahang. Only P. knowlesi DNA was detected in archival blood films from the 4 patients who died. All were hyperparasitemic and developed marked hepatorenal dysfunction.

    CONCLUSIONS: Human infection with P. knowlesi, commonly misidentified as the more benign P. malariae, are widely distributed across Malaysian Borneo and extend to Peninsular Malaysia. Because P. knowlesi replicates every 24 h, rapid diagnosis and prompt effective treatment are essential. In the absence of a specific routine diagnostic test for P. knowlesi malaria, we recommend that patients who reside in or have traveled to Southeast Asia and who have received a "P. malariae" hyperparasitemia diagnosis by microscopy receive intensive management as appropriate for severe falciparum malaria.

  8. Ooi MH, Wong SC, Podin Y, Akin W, del Sel S, Mohan A, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2007 Mar 01;44(5):646-56.
    PMID: 17278054
    BACKGROUND: Human enterovirus (HEV)-71 causes large outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease with central nervous system (CNS) complications, but the role of HEV-71 genogroups or dual infection with other viruses in causing severe disease is unclear.

    METHODS: We prospectively studied children with suspected HEV-71 (i.e., hand-foot-and-mouth disease, CNS disease, or both) over 3.5 years, using detailed virological investigation and genogroup analysis of all isolates.

    RESULTS: Seven hundred seventy-three children were recruited, 277 of whom were infected with HEV-71, including 28 who were coinfected with other viruses. Risk factors for CNS disease in HEV-71 included young age, fever, vomiting, mouth ulcers, breathlessness, cold limbs, and poor urine output. Genogroup analysis for the HEV-71-infected patients revealed that 168 were infected with genogroup B4, 68 with C1, and 41 with a newly emerged genogroup, B5. Children with HEV-71 genogroup B4 were less likely to have CNS complications than those with other genogroups (26 [15%] of 168 vs. 30 [28%] of 109; odds ratio [OR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.91; P=.0223) and less likely to be part of a family cluster (12 [7%] of 168 vs. 29 [27%] of 109; OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.10-0.46; P

  9. Ooi MH, Wong SC, Clear D, Perera D, Krishnan S, Preston T, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2003 Mar 1;36(5):550-9.
    PMID: 12594634
    We report the virological and clinical features of 8 children who presented with adenovirus-associated acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) during an epidemic of enterovirus type 71 (EV71)-associated hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in Sarawak, Malaysia, in 1997. Neutralization tests and phylogenetic analysis revealed adenovirus type 21 (Ad21), although DNA restriction digests suggested that this virus was different from the prototype Ad21. Four children had upper-limb monoparesis, 2 had lower-limb monoparesis (one of whom had changes in the anterior spinal cord noted on magnetic resonance imaging), and 2 had flaccid paraparesis. At follow-up, 4 children were noted to have made full recoveries and 3 had residual flaccid weakness and wasting. Neurophysiological investigation revealed a mixture of axonal and demyelinating features in motor and sensory nerves, with denervation. These findings suggest that Ad21 might cause AFP by anterior horn cell damage or neuropathy of the brachial or lumbosacral plexus. The occurrence of these unusual adenovirus infections during an outbreak of EV71-associated HFMD suggests that an interaction between the 2 viruses may have occurred.
  10. Lam SK, Chua KB
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2002 May 1;34 Suppl 2:S48-51.
    PMID: 11938496 DOI: 10.1086/338818
    Emerging infectious diseases involving zoonosis have become important global health problems. The 1998 outbreak of severe febrile encephalitis among pig farmers in Malaysia caused by a newly emergent paramyxovirus, Nipah virus, is a good example. This disease has the potential to spread to other countries through infected animals and can cause considerable economic loss. The clinical presentation includes segmental myoclonus, areflexia, hypertension, and tachycardia, and histologic evidence includes endothelial damage and vasculitis of the brain and other major organs. Magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated the presence of discrete high-signal-intensity lesions disseminated throughout the brain. Nipah virus causes syncytial formation in Vero cells and is antigenically related to Hendra virus. The Island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus; the fruit bat) is a likely reservoir of this virus. The outbreak in Malaysia was controlled through the culling of >1 million pigs.
  11. Chan LG, Parashar UD, Lye MS, Ong FG, Zaki SR, Alexander JP, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2000 Sep;31(3):678-83.
    PMID: 11017815
    From April through June 1997, 29 previously healthy children aged <6 years (median, 1.5 years) in Sarawak, Malaysia, died of rapidly progressive cardiorespiratory failure during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused primarily by enterovirus 71 (EV71). The case children were hospitalized after a short illness (median duration, 2 days) that usually included fever (in 100% of case children), oral ulcers (66%), and extremity rashes (62%). The illness rapidly progressed to include seizures (28%), flaccid limb weakness (17%), or cardiopulmonary symptoms (of 24 children, 17 had chest radiographs showing pulmonary edema, and 24 had echocardiograms showing left ventricular dysfunction), resulting in cardiopulmonary arrest soon after hospitalization (median time, 9 h). Cardiac tissue from 10 patients showed normal myocardium, but central nervous system tissue from 5 patients showed inflammatory changes. Brain-stem specimens from 2 patients were available, and both specimens showed extensive neuronal degeneration, inflammation, and necrosis, suggesting that a central nervous system infection was responsible for the disease, with the cardiopulmonary dysfunction being neurogenic in origin. EV71 and possibly an adenovirus, other enteroviruses, or unknown cofactors are likely responsible for this rapidly fatal disease.
  12. Chye JK, Lim CT, Ng KB, Lim JM, George R, Lam SK
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 1997 Dec;25(6):1374-7.
    PMID: 9431381
    Dengue, an important mosquito-borne flavivirus infection, is endemic in Southeast Asia. We describe two mothers who had acute dengue 4 and 8 days before the births of their infants. One mother had worsening of her proteinuric pregnancy-induced hypertension, liver dysfunction, and coagulopathy and required multiple transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma. Her male infant was ill at birth, developed respiratory distress and a large uncontrollable left intracerebral hemorrhage, and died of multiorgan failure on day 6 of life. Dengue virus type 2 was isolated from the infant's blood, and IgM antibody specific to dengue virus was detected in the mother's blood. The second mother had a milder clinical course; she gave birth to a female infant who was thrombocytopenic at birth and had an uneventful hospitalization. Dengue virus type 2 was recovered from the mother's blood, and IgM antibody specific to dengue virus was detected in the infant's blood. This report highlights not only the apparently rare occurrence of vertical transmission of dengue virus in humans but also the potential risk of death for infected neonates.
  13. Song JH, Lee NY, Ichiyama S, Yoshida R, Hirakata Y, Fu W, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 1999 Jun;28(6):1206-11.
    PMID: 10451154
    Antimicrobial susceptibility of 996 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical specimens was investigated in 11 Asian countries from September 1996 to June 1997. Korea had the greatest frequency of nonsusceptible strains to penicillin with 79.7%, followed by Japan (65.3%), Vietnam (60.8%), Thailand (57.9%), Sri Lanka (41.2%), Taiwan (38.7%), Singapore (23.1%), Indonesia (21.0%), China (9.8%), Malaysia (9.0%), and India (3.8%). Serotypes 23F and 19F were the most common. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of 154 isolates from Asian countries showed several major PFGE patterns. The serotype 23F Spanish clone shared the same PFGE pattern with strains from Korea, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Malaysia. Fingerprinting analysis of pbp1a, pbp2x, and pbp2b genes of 12 strains from six countries also showed identical fingerprints of penicillin-binding protein genes in most strains. These data suggest the possible introduction and spread of international epidemic clones into Asian countries and the increasing problems of pneumococcal drug resistance in Asian countries for the first time.
  14. Appelbaum PC
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 1992 Jul;15(1):77-83.
    PMID: 1617076
    Clinical resistance to penicillin in Streptococcus pneumoniae was first reported by researchers in Boston in 1965; subsequently, this phenomenon was reported from Australia (1967) and South Africa (1977). Since these early reports, penicillin resistance has been encountered with increasing frequency in strains of S. pneumoniae from around the world. In South Africa strains resistant to penicillin and chloramphenicol as well as multiresistant strains have been isolated. Similar patterns of resistance have been reported from Spain. Preliminary evidence points to a high prevalence of resistant pneumococci in Hungary, other countries of Eastern Europe, and some countries in other areas of Europe, notably France. In the United States most reports of resistant pneumococci come from Alaska and the South, but resistance is increasing in other states and in Canada. Pneumococcal resistance has also been described in Zambia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Chile, and Brazil; information from other African, Asian, and South American countries is not available. The rising prevalence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci worldwide mandates selective susceptibility testing and epidemiological investigations during outbreaks.
  15. Choo KE, Oppenheimer SJ, Ismail AB, Ong KH
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 1994 Jul;19(1):172-6.
    PMID: 7948526
    A dot enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using 50-kD outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) of Salmonella typhi was compared with the Widal test for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever in 109 febrile children admitted to a hospital in an endemic area. In the culture-positive typhoid group, the initial dot EIA was positive in 40 of 42 cases and the initial Widal test was positive in 41. In the culture-negative clinical typhoid group, both the dot EIA and the Widal test were positive in 17 of 18 cases. In the nontyphoidal fever group, the dot EIA was negative in all of 49 cases and the Widal test was negative in 44. With culture used as the gold standard, the dot EIA is as sensitive as the Widal test (95% vs. 98%), has a similar high negative predictive value (96% vs. 98%), and is more specific (75% vs. 67%). In addition, the dot EIA offers the advantages of simplicity, speed, early diagnosis, economy, and flexibility (i.e., other diagnostic tests can be conducted simultaneously).
  16. Barber BE, William T, Grigg MJ, Menon J, Auburn S, Marfurt J, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2013 Feb;56(3):383-97.
    PMID: 23087389 DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis902
    Plasmodium knowlesi commonly causes severe malaria in Malaysian Borneo, with high case-fatality rates reported. We compared risk, spectrum, and outcome of severe disease from P. knowlesi, Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium vivax and outcomes following introduction of protocols for early referral and intravenous artesunate for all severe malaria.
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