PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical characteristics and electrophysiological data of sixty-one consecutive patients admitted between 2012 and 2015 were systematically analysed and reclassified according to the new GBS clinical classification. Neurophysiology was evaluated with Hadden et al.'s vs recently proposed Rajabally et al.'s criteria. Functional severity and clinical outcome of various GBS subtypes were ascertained.
RESULTS: All patients initially identified as GBS or related disorders can be sub-classified into having classical GBS (41, 67%), classic Miller-Fisher Syndrome (MFS) (6, 10%), Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) (3, 5%), paraparetic GBS (4, 7%), bifacial weakness with paresthesia (3, 5%), acute ophthalmoparesis (AO) (1, 2%) and overlap syndrome (3, 5%): one (2%) with GBS/Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis overlap and 2 (3%) with GBS/MFS overlap. Greater proportion of axonal classical GBS (67% vs 55%, p=0.372) seen with Rajabally et al.'s criteria and a predominantly axonal form of paraparetic variant (75%) independent of electrodiagnostic criteria were more representative of Asian GBS cohort. Classical GBS patients had lowest admission and discharge Medical Research Council Sum Score (MRCSS), greater functional disability and longest length of in-patient stay. Twenty (20/21, 95%) patients who needed mechanical ventilation had classical GBS. Patients required repeated dose of intravenous immunoglobulin (5/6, 3%) or plasma exchange (4/4, 100%) more frequently had axonal form of classical GBS.
CONCLUSION: Phenotype recognition based on new GBS clinical classification, supported by electrodiagnostic study permits more precise clinical subtypes determination and outcome prognostication.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Double-blind, randomised study involving 34 patients with either tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Patients were randomised to Group A (DBS leads inserted using conventional landmarks) or Group B (leads guided into the DRTT using DTIT). Tremor (Fahn-Tolosa-Marin) and quality-of-life (PDQ-39) scores were evaluated 0-, 6-, 12-, 36- and 60-months after surgery.
RESULTS: PSA-DBS resulted in marked tremor reduction in both groups. However, Group B patients had significantly better arm tremor control (especially control of intention tremor), increased mobility and activities of daily living, reduced social stigma and need for social support as well as lower stimulation amplitudes and pulse widths compared to Group A patients. The better outcomes were sustained for up to 60-months from surgery. The active contacts of Group B patients were consistently closer to the centre of the DRTT than in Group A. Speech problems were more common in Group A patients.
CONCLUSION: DTIT-guided lead placement results in better and more stable tremor control and fewer adverse effects compared to lead placement in the conventional manner. This is because DTIT-guidance allows closer and more consistent placement of leads to the centre of the DRTT than conventional methods.
CASE REPORT: Here we report a case of dAVF in which the patient's symptoms mimic a temporal arteritis in a 23-year-old woman. She presented with painful mass at forehead for 9 months with frontotemporal headache. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula.
CONCLUSION: Since both diseases have different prognosis but similar presentation, it is important to ensure that there is no dural arteriovenous fistula in patient with suspected temporal arteritis.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a single-center cohort study. 46 patients with TACI were enrolled and followed up for 30 days, discharged, or death; whichever earlier. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was performed daily by investigators who are NIHSS certified and radiological findings were confirmed by a certified radiologist. Neurological deterioration was defined by a drop in NIHSS by 2 points or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) by 1 point. Clinical, laboratory and radiological variables were evaluated. Significant predictive variables were given a score based on its co-efficient values in multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: Lower Alberta stroke program early CT score (ASPECTS) and higher numbers of early computed tomography (CT) sign of middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct were significant risk factor for neurological deterioration with p