Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

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  1. Jaarin K, Foong WD, Yeoh MH, Kamarul ZY, Qodriyah HM, Azman A, et al.
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2015 Nov;70(11):751-7.
    PMID: 26602523 DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2015(11)07
    This study was conducted to determine whether the blood pressure-lowering effect of Nigella sativa might be mediated by its effects on nitric oxide, angiotensin-converting enzyme, heme oxygenase and oxidative stress markers.
  2. Safi SZ, Batumalaie K, Mansor M, Chinna K, Mohan S, Karimian H, et al.
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2015 Aug;70(8):569-76.
    PMID: 26247670 DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2015(08)07
    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effect of glutamine and insulin on apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and inflammatory cytokines in hyperglycemic umbilical vein endothelial cells.
  3. Makinejad MD, Abu Osman NA, Abu Bakar Wan Abas W, Bayat M
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2013 Sep;68(9):1180-8.
    PMID: 24141832 DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2013(09)02
    This study provides an experimental and finite element analysis of knee-joint structure during extended-knee landing based on the extracted impact force, and it numerically identifies the contact pressure, stress distribution and possibility of bone-to-bone contact when a subject lands from a safe height.
  4. Aan GJ, Zainudin MS, Karim NA, Ngah WZ
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2013 May;68(5):599-604.
    PMID: 23778402 DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2013(05)04
    This study was performed to determine the effect of the tocotrienol-rich fraction on the lifespan and oxidative status of C. elegans under oxidative stress.
  5. Farsi E, Shafaei A, Hor SY, Ahamed MB, Yam MF, Asmawi MZ, et al.
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2013 Jun;68(6):865-75.
    PMID: 23778480 DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2013(06)23
    Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves.
  6. Chin KY, Soelaiman IN, Mohamed IN, Ahmad F, Ramli ES, Aminuddin A, et al.
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2013;68(2):159-66.
    PMID: 23525310
    OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses.

    RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) bound fractions), and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05); however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05). The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40.

    CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  7. Zin SR, Omar SZ, Khan NL, Musameh NI, Das S, Kassim NM
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2013;68(2):253-62.
    PMID: 23525324
    OBJECTIVES: Genistein is known to influence reproductive system development through its binding affinity for estrogen receptors. The present study aimed to further explore the effect of Genistein on the development of the reproductive system of experimental rats.

    METHODS: Eighteen post-weaning female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: (i) a control group that received vehicle (distilled water and Tween 80); (ii) a group treated with 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) of Genistein (Gen 10); and (iii) a group treated with a higher dose of Genistein (Gen 100). The rats were treated daily for three weeks from postnatal day 22 (P22) to P42. After the animals were sacrificed, blood samples were collected, and the uteri and ovaries were harvested and subjected to light microscopy and immunohistochemical study.

    RESULTS: A reduction of the mean weekly BW gain and organ weights (uteri and ovaries) were observed in the Gen 10 group compared to the control group; these findings were reversed in the Gen 100 group. Follicle stimulating hormone and estrogen levels were increased in the Gen 10 group and reduced in the Gen 100 group. Luteinizing hormone was reduced in both groups of Genistein-treated animals, and there was a significant difference between the Gen 10 and control groups (p<0.05). These findings were consistent with increased atretic follicular count, a decreased number of corpus luteum and down-regulation of estrogen receptors-a in the uterine tissues of the Genistein-treated animals compared to the control animals.

    CONCLUSION: Post-weaning exposure to Genistein could affect the development of the reproductive system of ovarian-intact experimental rats because of its action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by regulating hormones and estrogen receptors.

  8. Ng ZX, Chua KH, Tajunisah I, Pendek R, Kuppusamy UR
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2013;68(2):185-93.
    PMID: 23525314
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the circulating levels of activated nuclear factor kappa B p65 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in diabetic retinopathy patients who were taking antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive drugs.

    METHODS: In total, 235 healthy controls and 371 Type 2 diabetic patients [171 without retinopathy (DNR) and 200 patients with retinopathy (diabetic retinopathy)] were recruited for this study. Plasma and the nuclear fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated for the quantification of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and nuclear factor kappa B p65 levels, respectively.

    RESULTS: Non-medicated diabetic retinopathy patients had significantly higher levels of activated nuclear factor kappa B p65 and plasma monocyte chemotactic protein-1 than DNR patients. Diabetic retinopathy patients who were taking antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive drugs showed significant reductions in both the nuclear factor kappa B p65 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels compared with the non-medicated patients.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the significant attenuation of both the nuclear factor kappa B p65 and circulating monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in diabetic retinopathy patients taking antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive drugs.

  9. Mohamad S, Shuid AN, Mohamed N, Fadzilah FM, Mokhtar SA, Abdullah S, et al.
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012 Sep;67(9):1077-85.
    PMID: 23018307
    OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis increases the risk of bone fractures and may impair fracture healing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alpha-tocopherol can improve the late-phase fracture healing of osteoporotic bones in ovariectomized rats.

    METHOD: In total, 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. The first group was sham-operated, and the other two groups were ovariectomized. After two months, the right femora of the rats were fractured under anesthesia and internally repaired with K-wires. The sham-operated and ovariectomized control rat groups were administered olive oil (a vehicle), whereas 60 mg/kg of alpha-tocopherol was administered via oral gavage to the alpha-tocopherol group for six days per week over the course of 8 weeks. The rats were sacrificed, and the femora were dissected out. Computed tomography scans and X-rays were performed to assess fracture healing and callus staging, followed by the assessment of callus strengths through the biomechanical testing of the bones.

    RESULTS: Significantly higher callus volume and callus staging were observed in the ovariectomized control group compared with the sham-operated and alpha-tocopherol groups. The ovariectomized control group also had significantly lower fracture healing scores than the sham-operated group. There were no differences between the alpha-tocopherol and sham-operated groups with respect to the above parameters. The healed femora of the ovariectomized control group demonstrated significantly lower load and strain parameters than the healed femora of the sham-operated group. Alpha-tocopherol supplementation was not able to restore these biomechanical properties.

    CONCLUSION: Alpha-tocopherol supplementation appeared to promote bone fracture healing in osteoporotic rats but failed to restore the strength of the fractured bone.

  10. Pingguan-Murphy B, Nawi I
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012 Aug;67(8):939-44.
    PMID: 22948463
    OBJECTIVES: The promotion of extracellular matrix synthesis by chondrocytes is a requisite part of an effective cartilage tissue engineering strategy. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of bi-axial cyclic mechanical loading on cell proliferation and the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by chondrocytes in three-dimensional cultures.

    METHOD: A strain comprising 10% direct compression and 1% compressive shear was applied to bovine chondrocytes seeded in an agarose gel during two 12-hour conditioning periods separated by a 12-hour resting period.

    RESULTS: The bi-axial-loaded chondrocytes demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis compared with samples exposed to uni-axial or no loading over the same period (p<0.05). The use of a free-swelling recovery period prior to the loading regime resulted in additional glycosaminoglycan production and a significant increase in DNA content (p<0.05), indicating cell proliferation.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the use of a bi-axial loading regime results in increased matrix production compared with uni-axial loading.

  11. Chin KY, Soelaiman IN, Mohamed IN, Ngah WZ
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012 Aug;67(8):911-6.
    PMID: 22948459
    OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium.

    METHODS: Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity.

    RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound.

    CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

  12. Muhammad KB, Abas WA, Kim KH, Pingguan-Murphy B, Zain NM, Akram H
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012;67(6):629-38.
    PMID: 22760903
    OBJECTIVE: Dark poly(caprolactone) trifumarate is a successful candidate for use as a bone tissue engineering scaffold. Recently, a white polymeric scaffold was developed that shows a shorter synthesis time and is more convenient for tissue-staining work. This is an in vitro comparative study of both the white and dark scaffolds.

    METHODS: Both white and dark poly(caprolactone) trifumarate macromers were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy before being chemically cross-linked and molded into disc-shaped scaffolds. Biodegradability was assessed by percentage weight loss on days 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 (n = 5) after immersion in 10% serum-supplemented medium or distilled water. Static cell seeding was employed in which isolated and characterized rat bone marrow stromal cells were seeded directly onto the scaffold surface. Seeded scaffolds were subjected to a series of biochemical assays and scanning electron microscopy at specified time intervals for up to 28 days of incubation.

    RESULTS: The degradation of the white scaffold was significantly lower compared with the dark scaffold but was within the acceptable time range for bone-healing processes. The deoxyribonucleic acid and collagen contents increased up to day 28 with no significant difference between the two scaffolds, but the glycosaminoglycan content was slightly higher in the white scaffold throughout 14 days of incubation. Scanning electron microscopy at day 1 [corrected] revealed cellular growth and attachment.

    CONCLUSIONS: There was no cell growth advantage between the two forms, but the white scaffold had a slower biodegradability rate, suggesting that the newly synthesized poly(caprolactone) trifumarate is more suitable for use as a bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  13. Taib IS, Budin SB, Ghazali AR, Jayusman PA, Louis SR, Mohamed J
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2013 Jan;68(1):93-100.
    PMID: 23420164
    OBJECTIVE: Fenitrothion residue is found primarily in soil, water and food products and can lead to a variety of toxic effects on the immune, hepatobiliary and hematological systems. However, the effects of fenitrothion on the male reproductive system remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fenitrothion on the sperm and testes of male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    METHODS: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion was administered orally by gavages for 28 consecutive days. Blood sample was obtained by cardiac puncture and dissection of the testes and cauda epididymis was performed to obtain sperm. The effects of fenitrothion on the body and organ weight, biochemical and oxidative stress, sperm characteristics, histology and ultrastructural changes in the testes were evaluated.

    RESULTS: Fenitrothion significantly decreased the body weight gain and weight of the epididymis compared with the control group. Fenitrothion also decreased plasma cholinesterase activity compared with the control group. Fenitrothion altered the sperm characteristics, such as sperm concentration, sperm viability and normal sperm morphology, compared with the control group. Oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, total glutathione and glutathione S-transferase, were significantly increased and superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in the fenitrothion-treated group compared with the control group. The histopathological and ultrastructural examination of the testes of the fenitrothion-treated group revealed alterations corresponding with the biochemical changes compared with the control group.

    CONCLUSION: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion caused deleterious effects on the sperm and testes of Sprague-Dawley rats.

  14. Aliahmat NS, Noor MR, Yusof WJ, Makpol S, Ngah WZ, Yusof YA
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012 Dec;67(12):1447-54.
    PMID: 23295600
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris.

    METHOD: One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (18 months old). Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil) and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight), tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg), and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg). The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level.

    RESULTS: Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments.

    CONCLUSION: We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes activity during aging.

  15. Zaid SS, Sulaiman SA, Othman NH, Soelaiman IN, Shuid AN, Mohamad N, et al.
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012 Jul;67(7):779-84.
    PMID: 22892923
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tualang honey on trabecular structure and compare these effects with those of calcium supplementation in ovariectomized rats.

    METHODS: Forty female, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n =8): four controls and one test arm. The control arm comprised a baseline control, sham-operated control, ovariectomized control, and ovariectomized calcium-treated rats (receiving 1% calcium in drinking water ad libitum). The test arm was composed of ovariectomized, Tualang honey-treated rats (received 0.2 g/kg body weight of Tualang honey). Both the sham-operated control and ovariectomized control groups received vehicle treatment (deionized water), and the baseline control group was sacrificed without treatment.

    RESULTS: All rats were orally gavaged daily for six weeks after day one post-surgery. The bone structural analysis of rats in the test arm group showed a significant increase in the bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N) and a significant decrease in inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp) compared with the ovariectomized control group. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in the test arm group was significantly higher compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group, and the inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp) in the test arm group was significantly narrower compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ovariectomized rats that received Tualang honey showed more improvements in trabecular bone structure than the rats that received calcium.

  16. Jaarin K, Mustafa MR, Leong XF
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2011;66(12):2125-32.
    PMID: 22189740
    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the possible mechanism that is involved in the blood pressure-raising effect of heated vegetable oils.

    METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 11 groups; the control group was fed with rat chow, and the other groups were fed with chow that was mixed with 15% weight/weight palm or soy oils, which were either in a fresh form or heated once, twice, five, or ten times. Blood pressures were measured at the baseline and throughout the 24-week study. Plasma nitric oxide levels were assessed prior to treatment and at the end of the study. Following 24 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to investigate their vascular reactivity using the thoracic aorta.

    RESULTS: Palm and soy oils had no detrimental effects on blood pressure, and they significantly elevated the nitric oxide contents and reduced the contractile responses to phenylephrine. However, trials using palm and soy oils that were repeatedly heated showed an increase in blood pressure, enhanced phenylephrine-induced contractions, reduced acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations relative to the control and rats that were fed fresh vegetable oils.

    CONCLUSIONS: The blood pressure-raising effect of the heated vegetable cooking oils is associated with increased vascular reactivity and a reduction in nitric oxide levels. The chronic consumption of heated vegetable oils leads to disturbances in endogenous vascular regulatory substances, such as nitric oxide. The thermal oxidation of the cooking oils promotes the generation of free radicals and may play an important contributory role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in rats.

  17. Estai MA, Suhaimi F, Das S, Shuid AN, Mohamed Z, Soelaiman IN
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2011;66(12):2113-9.
    PMID: 22189738
    OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency influences fracture healing. Transforming growth factor (TGF-b) has been found to be involved in fracture healing via the regulation of the differentiation and activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The current study aimed to determine the effects of estrogen on the expression of TGF-β1 during fracture healing in ovariectomized rats.

    METHODS: Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were assigned to: (i) a sham-operated group that was given a normal saline; (ii) an ovariectomized control group that was given a normal saline; or (iii) an ovariectomized + estrogen (100 mg/kg/day) group that was treated with conjugated equine estrogen. The right femur of all rats was fractured, and a Kirschner wire was inserted six weeks post-ovariectomy. Treatment with estrogen was given for another six weeks post-fracture. At the end of the study, blood samples were taken, and the right femur was harvested and subjected to biomechanical strength testing.

    RESULTS: The percentage change in the plasma TGF-β1 level before treatment was significantly lower in the ovariectomized control and estrogen groups when compared with the sham group (p<0.001). After six weeks of treatment, the percentage change in the plasma TGF-β1 level in the estrogen group was significantly higher compared with the level in the ovariectomized control group (p = 0.001). The mean ultimate force was significantly increased in the ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen when compared with the ovariectomized control group (p = 0.02).

    CONCLUSION: These data suggest that treatment with conjugated equine estrogen enhanced the strength of the healed bone in estrogen-deficient rats by most likely inducing the expression of TGF-β1.

  18. Makpol S, Zainuddin A, Chua KH, Yusof YA, Ngah WZ
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012;67(2):135-43.
    PMID: 22358238
    OBJECTIVE: Human diploid fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular aging. The beneficial effects of vitamin E in aging have been established, but studies to determine the mechanisms of these effects are ongoing. This study determined the molecular mechanism of γ-tocotrienol, a vitamin E homolog, in the prevention of cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts using the expression of senescence-associated genes.

    METHODS: Primary cultures of young, pre-senescent, and senescent fibroblast cells were incubated with γ-tocotrienol for 24 h. The expression levels of ELN, COL1A1, MMP1, CCND1, RB1, and IL6 genes were determined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell cycle profiles were determined using a FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer.

    RESULTS: The cell cycle was arrested in the G(0)/G(1) phase, and the percentage of cells in S phase decreased with senescence. CCND1, RB1, MMP1, and IL6 were upregulated in senescent fibroblasts. A similar upregulation was not observed in young cells. Incubation with γ-tocotrienol decreased CCND1 and RB1 expression in senescent fibroblasts, decreased cell populations in the G(0)/G(1) phase and increased cell populations in the G(2)/M phase. γ-Tocotrienol treatment also upregulated ELN and COL1A1 and downregulated MMP1 and IL6 expression in young and senescent fibroblasts.

    CONCLUSION: γ-Tocotrienol prevented cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts, which was indicated by the modulation of the cell cycle profile and senescence-associated gene expression.

  19. Hamid AA, Idrus RB, Saim AB, Sathappan S, Chua KH
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012;67(2):99-106.
    PMID: 22358233
    OBJECTIVES: Understanding the changes in chondrogenic gene expression that are involved in the differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells to chondrogenic cells is important prior to using this approach for cartilage repair. The aims of the study were to characterize human adipose-derived stem cells and to examine chondrogenic gene expression after one, two, and three weeks of induction.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human adipose-derived stem cells at passage 4 were evaluated by flow cytometry to examine the expression of surface markers. These adipose-derived stem cells were tested for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the cells for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to determine the expression levels of chondrogenic genes after chondrogenic induction.

    RESULTS: Human adipose-derived stem cells were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen and successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. The human adipose-derived stem cells aggregated and formed a dense matrix after chondrogenic induction. The expression of chondrogenic genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, collagen type XI, COMP, and ELASTIN) was significantly higher after the first week of induction. However, a significantly elevated expression of collagen type X was observed after three weeks of chondrogenic induction.

    CONCLUSION: Human adipose-derived stem cells retain stem cell characteristics after expansion in culture to passage 4 and serve as a feasible source of cells for cartilage regeneration. Chondrogenesis in human adipose-derived stem cells was most prominent after one week of chondrogenic induction.

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