Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

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  1. Ab-Murat N, Sheiham A, Tsakos G, Watt R
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2015 Apr;43(2):106-15.
    PMID: 25178437 DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12125
    Assessment of dental treatment needs has predominantly been based on the normative approach, despite its numerous limitations. The sociodental approach is a more rational method of needs assessment as it incorporates broader concepts of health and needs and behavioural propensity. This study compares estimates of periodontal dental treatment needs and workforce requirements for different skill mixes using normative and sociodental approaches among a sample of adults in Malaysia.
  2. Helen-Ng LC, Razak IA, Ghani WM, Marhazlinda J, Norain AT, Raja Jallaludin RL, et al.
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2012 Dec;40(6):560-6.
    PMID: 22679921 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2012.00704.x
    The role of diet in cancer risk has mainly been investigated based on intake of individual food items. However, food consumption is made up of a combination of various food items. This study aims to determine the association of dietary patterns with oral cancer risk.
  3. Chen CJ, Ling KS, Esa R, Chia JC, Eddy A, Yaw SL
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2010 Aug;38(4):310-4.
    PMID: 20560998 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2010.00529.x
    This study was undertaken to assess the impact of fluoride mouth rinsing on caries experience in a cohort of schoolchildren 3 years after implementation.
  4. Masood M, Thaliath ET, Bower EJ, Newton JT
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2011 Jun;39(3):193-203.
    PMID: 21070318 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2010.00584.x
    To appraise the quality of published qualitative research in dentistry and identify aspects of quality, which require attention in future research.
  5. Saddki N, Bachok N, Hussain NH, Zainudin SL, Sosroseno W
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2008 Aug;36(4):296-304.
    PMID: 19145718
    OBJECTIVES: Maternal periodontitis has been suggested as one of the risk factors for low birth weight (LBW) infants. The objective of this study was to determine the association between maternal periodontitis and LBW infants among Malay women.

    METHODS: Screening periodontal examinations were carried out on all eligible Malay pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy attending two randomly selected community maternal and child health clinics in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Patients with four or more sites with pocket depth 4 mm or higher, and clinical attachment loss 3 mm or higher at the same site with presence of bleeding on probing were diagnosed as having periodontitis in this study. Using this definition, systematic random sampling was utilized for selection of 250 subjects for each exposed and non-exposed group. Of 500 subjects enrolled in the study, 28 (5.6%) were either dropped or lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 472 subjects, 232 with periodontitis were in the exposed group and 240 with healthy periodontium were in the nonexposed group.

    RESULTS: The incidence of LBW was 14.2% (95% CI: 9.70-18.75) in women with periodontitis, and 3.3% (95% CI: 1.05-5.62) in women without periodontitis. The relative risk of having LBW infants was 4.27 times higher for women with periodontitis compared with those without periodontitis (95% CI: 2.01-9.04). After adjustment for potential confounders using multiple logistic regression analysis, significant association was found between maternal periodontitis and LBW (OR = 3.84; 95% CI: 1.34-11.05).

    CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide additional evidence that pregnant women with periodontitis are at a significantly higher risk of delivering LBW infants.

  6. Soh J, Chew MT, Wong HB
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2007 Feb;35(1):18-24.
    PMID: 17244134
    To assess the facial profile preferences of laypersons in an Asian community and the influence of age, ethnic and gender on profile selection.
  7. Siew Tan B, Razak IA
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2005 Oct;33(5):317-25.
    PMID: 16128790
    The aim of this study was to assess (by direct determination) the fluoride (F) exposure from ingested toothpaste among 4-5-year-old Malaysian children.
  8. Saub R, Locker D, Allison P
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2005 Oct;33(5):378-83.
    PMID: 16128798
    This paper describes the development of a short version of the Malaysian Oral Health Impact Profile.
  9. Jaafar N, Jalalluddin RL, Razak IA, Esa R
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1992 Jun;20(3):144-7.
    PMID: 1623706
    Although delays in seeking dental care among patients are frequently observed in daily practice, this problem has never been investigated in other utilization studies. This study attempts to establish the magnitude and severity of the problem of delay in a delivery system where cost is not a major barrier to utilization. 555 users of Government dental services were interviewed. Only 37% of them came promptly within 6 days of perceiving a dental need. The majority (63%) had delayed their dental visit for more than 1 week. In fact, the highest frequency of delay was for more than 1 month. Prompt attendance was found to be associated with people who regularly came for asymptomatic check-ups. In contrast, more than 50% of those who thought they needed fillings and extractions had delayed their visit for more than a month. The main causes of delays were attributed to work commitments and the lack of perceived need for urgent care. Barriers related to transport or financial problems were ranked very low. The implications of these findings are discussed.
  10. Zain RB, Ikeda N, Razak IA, Axéll T, Majid ZA, Gupta PC, et al.
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1997 Oct;25(5):377-83.
    PMID: 9355776
    The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Malaysia was determined by examining a representative sample of 11,707 subjects aged 25 years and above throughout the 14 states over a period of 5 months during 1993/1994. A two-stage stratified random sampling was undertaken. A predetermined number of enumeration blocks, the smallest population unit in the census publication, was selected from each state. With the selected enumeration block, a systematic sample of living quarters was chosen with a random start. The survey instrument included a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and a clinical examination. The clinical examination was carried out by 16 specially trained dental public health officers and the diagnosis calibrated with a final concordance rate of 92%. The age in the sample ranged from 25 to 115 years with a mean of 44.5+/-14.0. The sample comprised 40.2% males and 59.8% females; 55.8% were Malays, 29.4% Chinese, 10.0% Indians and 1.2% other ethnic groups. Oral mucosal lesions were detected in 1131 (9.7%) subjects, 5 (0.04%) had oral cancer, 165 (1.4%) had lesions or conditions that may be precancerous (leukoplakia, erythroplakia, submucous fibrosis and lichen planus) and 187 (1.6%) had betel chewer's mucosa. The prevalence of oral precancer was highest amongst Indians (4.0%) and other Bumiputras (the indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak) (2.5%) while the lowest prevalence was amongst the Chinese (0.5%).
  11. Lo GL, Bagramian RA
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1996 Feb;24(1):25-7.
    PMID: 8833510
    Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis was assessed in 1739 Singaporean children aged 9, 12 and 16 yr in three different ethnic groups. All subjects had resided since birth in Singapore, which has a tropical climate. The water supply was fluoridated in 1957 at a level of 0.7 ppm. In this sample, mouth prevalence was 82.6%, tooth prevalence was 66.9%, the community fluorosis index was at 1.96; 9.2% of children had severe fluorosis and 26.2% had moderate fluorosis. There were no significant gender or racial differences. Prevalences were higher than those reported in most other studies. Due to differences in indices used and methodology, comparisons could not be made directly with other studies.
  12. Axéll T, Zain RB, Siwamogstham P, Tantiniran D, Thampipit J
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1990 Apr;18(2):95-9.
    PMID: 2335069
    At the Faculties of Dentistry in Chiang Mai, Thailand (CM), and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL), 234 and 233 consecutive out-patients of mean ages 33.8 and 31.0 yr, respectively, were examined for the presence of oral mucosal lesions. Tobacco in some form was regularly used by 31.7% and 27.5% of the study populations in CM and KL, respectively. Cigarette smoking was the predominant habit. In CM three persons chewed betel quids and nine smoked banana leaf cigars daily. In addition, there were 24 habitual chewers of tea leaves (miang). In KL six persons chewed betel quids daily. In CM and KL three cases each (1.3%) of tobacco-associated leukoplakias were found. In KL an additional idiopathic leukoplakia was registered. One and three cases of betel related lesions were found in CM and KL, respectively. One case of a squamous cell carcinoma was found in a 45-yr-old Indian woman in KL who had been chewing betel with tobacco daily for many years. High prevalence figures were found for lichen planus, 3.8% in CM and 2.1% in KL, and an extremely high one, 48.3%, in CM for episodes of aphthous ulcers experienced during the last 2 yr. Comparatively low prevalence figures were found for herpes labialis. As could be expected melanin pigmentation was prevalent while only low figures were encountered for denture-related lesions and amalgam tattoos.
  13. Razak IA, Jaafar N
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1987 Aug;15(4):188-91.
    PMID: 3476240
    The dental needs, demands and patterns of service utilization were assessed in a randomly selected sample of 750 subjects attending the Dental Faculty, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. Toothache accounted for the most frequent overall dental complaint. However, the most common motives for seeking dental care varied among children (2-12 yr), adolescents (13-18 yr) and adults (19 + yr). The attendance behavior of women is more preventively orientated and more inclined towards rehabilitation compared to that of men. The proportion of normative needs of the patients varies from 7.5% for dentures to 66% for dental caries. About 50% of service utilization for the first visit consisted primarily of extractions in the oral surgery department.
  14. Zain RB, Razak IA
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1989 Jun;17(3):148-9.
    PMID: 2786793
    The association between cigarette smoking and the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was examined in 495 Malaysian army personnel. No associations between cigarette smoking and recurrent aphthous ulcerations, pre-leukoplakia and frictional keratosis could be obtained in this study. Positive associations were found between cigarette smoking and leukoedema as well as denture stomatitis. There was a negative association between cigarette smoking and the presence of coated tongue.
  15. Chellappah NK, Vignehsa H, Milgrom P, Lam LG
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1990 Oct;18(5):269-71.
    PMID: 2249413
    505 primary school children in Singapore aged 10-14 were surveyed regarding fear of the dentist. Sixty-eight children were classified as having high fear, giving a sex and race adjusted population prevalence rate of 177 fearful children per 1000 population. Females were 2.64 times more fearful than males. There were no significant racial differences in the prevalence rate. Children with high state anxiety are almost three times as likely to report dental fear as those with low state anxiety. Children with trait anxiety scores above the population mean were just as likely as those reporting below the mean to be fearful. Access to dental care is an important intervening variable in dental fear.
  16. Jaafar N, Abdul Razak I
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1988 Apr;16(2):75-8.
    PMID: 3162860
    Different groups of people will view and use modern dental services differently. This is determined by their traditional beliefs and cultural background. The aim of this study is to identify variations in utilization among adults in the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia. Dental records of 500 adults attending the University dental center were randomly selected and analyzed by sex and ethnic group. Results from this pilot study clearly indicate that different ethnic groups tend to use certain types of services more than others. Similarly, there is evidence of variation in the type of dental service preferred between males and females. The implications of these findings for dental health educators, program planners and further research is emphasized in order to promote a more positive pattern of utilization among the various ethnic groups.
  17. Scheutz F, Heidmann J, Poulsen S
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1983 Aug;11(4):255-8.
    PMID: 6576886
    The influx of refugees from Vietnam to the industrialized countries has attracted a certain interest to studies describing the oral health status of these population groups. The present study comprises 361 refugees arriving in Malaysia from Vietnam and collected immediately at the refugee camp on Pulau Bidong. Dental caries, calculus, gingival bleeding and loss of periodontal attachment were recorded. Mean dmft increased from 1.3 for 0-2-yr-olds to 7.4 for 3-5-yr-olds. For 6-9-yr-olds mean DMFT was 2.4 while it ranged between 8.5 and 10.10 for the older age groups. The frequency of secondary lesions was high for all age groups. Calculus increased consistently with age, while gingival bleeding was common even in the youngest age group. Loss of periodontal attachment greater than or equal to 6 mm was rare in all age groups except the oldest (45 yr or older). A strategy for oral health care for these population groups is discussed.
  18. Razak IA, Jaafar N, Jalalludin RL, Esa R
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1990 Jun;18(3):131-2.
    PMID: 2350948
    A total of 537 dentate adults from nine randomly selected government dental centers in three states in Malaysia were interviewed to assess their preference for either exodontia or preservation of teeth when they experience toothache, or have carious anterior or posterior teeth. The assumptions tested were i) patients prefer exodontia rather than preservation when they have toothache, and ii) patients are more willing to have posterior teeth extracted than anterior teeth for caries. Both these assumptions were rejected. Even though the majority of the subjects preferred preservation (59%) when having toothache, exodontia was the treatment of choice in a large proportion of subjects (41%). Significant differences in preference were found among the various ethnic, educational, income, and age groups. However, when ethnicity was held constant, binary regression indicated that the variations observed were determined by education, income, and age groups and not by ethnicity.
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