This paper reports the findings of the ongoing studies on cryopreservation of the snakehead, Channa striata embryos. The specific objective of this study was to collect data on the sensitivity of C. striata embryo hatching rate to low temperatures at two different developmental stages in the presence of four different cryoprotectants. Embryos at morula and heartbeat stages were selected and incubated in 1M dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), 1M ethylene glycol (EG), 1M methanol (MeOH) and 0.1M sucrose solutions at different temperatures for a period of time. Embryos were kept at 24 °C (control), 15 °C, 4 °C and -2 °C for 5 min, 1h and 3h. Following these treatments, the embryos were then transferred into a 24 °C water bath until hatch to evaluate the hatching rate. The results showed that there was a significant decrease of hatching rate in both developmental stages following exposure to 4 °C and -2 °C at 1h and 3h exposure in each treatment. Heartbeat stage was more tolerant against chilling at -2 °C for 3h exposure in Me2SO followed by MeOH, sucrose and EG. Further studies will be conducted to find the best method to preserve embryos for long term storage.
There is a pressing need for practical and successful conservation efforts to establish long-term germplasm collections of recalcitrant and tropical species, given the challenge and threat that these plants are facing. Cryopreservation is the only way of conserving some of these species, especially those with temperature or desiccation sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds. This review covers reports on cryopreservation studies of shoot tips (apical and axillary) of tropical and subtropical plants. Since many of these species have recalcitrant seeds, the cryopreservation successes, failures and problems involved with these seeds are also discussed. The methodologies, important factors and steps involved in successful cryopreservation protocols are analyzed. Finally strategies are suggested to develop a successful cryopreservation protocol for new plant species, in particular those with tropical recalcitrant seeds.
A number of living creatures in the Antarctic region have developed characteristic adaptation of cold weather by producing antifreeze proteins (AFP). Antifreeze peptide (Afp1m) fragment have been designed in the sequence of strings from native proteins. The objectives of this study were to assess the properties of Afp1m to cryopreserve skin graft at the temperature of -10 °C and -20 °C and to assess sub-zero injuries in Afp1m cryopreserved skin graft using light microscopic techniques. In the present study, a process was developed to cryopreserve Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat skin grafts with antifreeze peptide, Afp1m, α-helix peptide fragment derived from Glaciozyma antractica yeast. Its viability assessed by different microscopic techniques. This study also described the damages caused by subzero temperatures (-10 and -20 °C) on tissue cryopreserved in different concentrations of Afp1m (0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 72 h. Histological scores of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis of cryopreserved skin grafts showed highly significant difference (p
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Afp1m as a cryopreservative agent for skin by examining the transplanted skin histological architecture and mechanical properties following subzero cryopreservation. Thirty four (34) rats with an average weight of 208 ± 31 g (mean ± SD), were used. Twenty four (n = 24) rats were equally divided into four groups: (i) immediate non-cryopreserved skin autografts (onto same site), (ii) immediate non-cryopreserved skin autografts (onto different sites), (iii) skin autografts cryopreserved with glycerol for 72 h and (iv) skin autografts cryopreserved with Afp1m for 72 h at -4 °C. Rounded shaped full-thickness 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter skin was excised from backs of rats for the autograft transplantation. Non-cryopreserved or cryopreserved auto skin graft were positioned onto the wound defects and stitched. Non-transplanted cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved skin strips from other ten rats (n = 10) were allowed for comparative biomechanical test. All skin grafts were subjected to histological and mechanical examinations at the end of day 21. Histological results revealed that tissue architecture especially the epidermal integrity and dermal-epidermal junction of the Afp1m cryopreserved skin grafts exhibited better histological appearance, good preservation of tissue architecture and structural integrity than glycerolized skin. However, there was no significant difference among these groups in other histological criteria. There were no significant differences among the 4 groups in skin graft mechanical properties namely maximum load. In conclusion, Afp1m were found to be able to preserve the microstructure as well as the viability and function of the skin destined for skin transplantation when was kept at -4 °C for 72 h.
Advancement in biomedical simulation and imaging modality have catalysed the development of in silico predictive models for cryoablation. However, one of the main challenges in ensuring the accuracy of the model prediction is the use of proper thermal and biophysical properties of the patient. These properties are difficult to measure clinically and thus, represent significant uncertainty that can affect the model prediction. Motivated by this, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to identify the model parameters that have the most significant impact on the lesion size during cryoablation. The study is initially carried out using the Morris method to screen for the most dominant parameters. Once determined, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to quantitatively rank the order of importance of each parameter and their interactions. Results from the sensitivity analysis revealed that blood perfusion, water transport and ice nucleation parameters are critical in predicting the lesion size, suggesting that the acquisition of these parameters should be prioritised to ensure the accuracy of the model prediction.
The efficacy of attenuated strain of gdhA derivative Pasteurella multocida B:2 mutant as a live vaccine to control haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) disease in cattle and buffaloes has been demonstrated. In order to use P. multocida B:2 mutant as a commercial product, it is essential to optimise its formulation for high viability and stability of the live cells. The effectiveness of freeze-drying process using different protective agent formulations for improving cells viability was explored. Sugar and nitrogen compounds were used as protective agents in freeze-drying and the capability of these compounds in maintaining the viability of mutant P. multocida B:2 during subsequent storage was investigated. A complete loss in viability of freeze-dried mutant P. multocida B:2 was monthly observed until 6-12 months of storage at -30 °C, 4 °C and 27 °C when nitrogen compound or no protective agent was added. Trehalose and sucrose showed significantly high survival rate of 93-95% immediately after freeze-drying and the viability was retained during the subsequent storage at -30 °C and 4 °C. A smooth cell surface without any cell-wall damage was observed for the cells formulated with trehalose under scanning electron micrograph. This study presented a freeze-drying process generating a dried live attenuated vaccine formulation with high stability for commercial applications.
This study developed the cryopreservation of brown-marbled grouper spermatozoa for practical application. We examined 32 cryodiluents, developed from four types of cryoprotectants [propylene glycol (PG), dimethyl-sulphoxide (Me2SO), dimethyl-acetamide (DMA) and ethylene glycol (EG)] at four concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20% in combination with two extenders [Fetal bovine serum (FBS) and artificial seminal plasma (ASP). Cooling rates were examined by adjusting the height of straws (2.5-12.5 cm) from the liquid nitrogen (LN) vapor and cooled for 5 min before immersion into LN. DNA laddering was used to detect DNA damage in cryopreserved sperm. In fertilization trials, 0.5 g of eggs was mixed with cryopreserved sperm stored for 30 days in LN. The best motility of post-thaw sperm was achieved using 15% PG + 85% FBS (76.7 ± 8.8%); 10% PG + 90% FBS was also effective as cryodiluent. Generally, FBS gave better post-thaw motility compared to ASP. The optimum cooling rate was at 17.6 °C min-1 obtained by freezing at the height of 7.5 cm surface of LN. The results obtained showed that cryopreserved sperm of brown-marbled grouper suffered slight DNA fragmentation, which resulted in significantly lower motility. However, the fertilization (90.9 ± 0.5%), hatching (64.5 ± 4.1%) and deformity rates (3.8 ± 0.2%) obtained from cryopreserved sperm showed no significant difference with fresh sperm. These findings show that the developed protocol for cryopreservation of brown-marbled grouper sperm was viable and will be useful for successful breeding and seed production of brown-marbled grouper.
This study aims to assess the effect of Eurycoma longifolia aqueous extract on chilled and cryopreserved quality of bull sperm. Semen samples were obtained from four Simmental-Brangus. Each sample was divided into two fractions: the first fraction was used for chilling the semen, and the second fraction was used for the freezing process. Both fractions were extended with Tris-egg yolk extender supplemented with 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/ml Eurycoma longifolia aqueous extract. The diluted chilled fraction was chilled at 5 °C for 6 days, whereas the frozen-thawed fraction was frozen in liquid nitrogen. Data revealed that 1 mg/ml E. longifolia aqueous extract yielded significantly (p
Cryopreservation is the only existing method of storage of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for clinical use. However, cryopreservation has been shown to be detrimental to ASCs, particularly in term of cell viability. To restore the viability of cryopreserved ASCs, it is proposed to culture the cells in a hypoxic condition. To this end, we aim to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the cryopreserved human ASCs in terms of not only cell viability, but also their growth and stemness properties, which have not been explored yet. In this study, human ASCs were cultured under four different conditions: fresh (non-cryopreserved) cells cultured in 1) normoxia (21% O2) and 2) hypoxia (2% O2) and cryopreserved cells cultured in 3) normoxia and 4) hypoxia. ASCs at passage 3 were subjected to assessment of viability, proliferation, differentiation, and expression of stemness markers and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). We found that hypoxia enhances the viability and the proliferation rate of cryopreserved ASCs. Further, hypoxia upregulates HIF-1α in cryopreserved ASCs, which in turn activates chondrogenic genes to promote chondrogenic differentiation. In conclusion, hypoxic-preconditioned cryopreserved ASCs could be an ideal cell source for cartilage repair and regeneration.
Leptospires are preserved by frequent sub-culturing in semisolid media due to the challenge of low recovery by freezing or liquid nitrogen methods. The present study evaluated three liquid EMJH medium compositions (Medium A: Leptospira medium base EMJH, Leptospira enrichment EMJH, 5-fluorouracil (3%), rabbit serum (1%) and calf serum (1%); Medium B: same as Medium A but without 5-fluorouracil; Medium C: same as Medium B but with the addition of sodium pyruvate) for the revival of leptospires after storage at -80 °C. A total of 18 Leptospira serovars cultured in Medium A was aliquoted into cryogenic vials and directly stored at -80 °C. A hundred microlitre from each serovar culture stored at -80 °C was sub-cultured on a selected time over a period of 30 months into Media A, B and C. Regrowth on Media B and C showed a better and faster recovery (89-100%) (p-value <0.05) compared to Medium A (67-100%). Leptospires can be stored longer at -80 °C and a good recovery could be obtained when sub-cultured on EMJH medium without 5-fluorouracil.