Purpose: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate fundamental photographic techniques and standardized views in oculoplastic disease and surgery outside of a photographic studio.
Methods: A Canon EOS 60D digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera, which was fitted with a Canon EF-S 60 mm USM macro lens, was used to photograph the subject. A Canon MR-14EX Macro Ringlite was used to illuminate the subject. Informed written consent was obtained for publication of the photographs used in this study. The photographs were taken in an ophthalmology clinic using standardized photographic settings at various magnification ratios. The magnification ratios were recalibrated and adjusted to accommodate the smaller sensor size in-line with standardized medical photography guidelines.
Results: We present a series of core views for various oculoplastic and orbital disease presentations.
Conclusions: It is possible to capture quality standardized digital photographs in a busy clinical environment without the need for a dedicated photographic studio.
An adrenal incidentaloma is defined as an adrenal mass measuring at least 1 cm that is discovered surreptitiously in an imaging study done for reasons other than the evaluation of adrenal disease. The increase in the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas has paralleled the increase in diagnostic imaging done for evaluation of other abdominal pathologies. However, most of these adrenal incidentalomas are benign non-hyperfunctioning adenomas. When an adrenal incidentaloma is discovered, the simultaneous presence of hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, mild hypernatremia, and mild to severe drug-resistant hypertension may alert a clinician to underlying primary hyperaldosteronism. We present a case of adrenal incidentaloma noted in a patient with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis which presented a diagnostic challenge due to the correction of metabolic parameters with hemodialysis. The patient was found to have an aldosterone-producing adenoma based on an elevated aldosterone-to-renin ratio and was started on a mineralocorticoid antagonist.
We report a case of optic disc drusen (ODD) associated with peripapillary polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). A 62-year-old Malay lady presented with both eye ODD and the left eye associated with peripapillary subretinal hemorrhage. Ultrasound B-scan and red-free photography confirmed the optic nerve head drusen findings bilaterally. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the left eye showed sharply elevated peripapillary pigment epithelial detachment with subretinal fluid. The presence of peripapillary polyps with branching vascular network in indocyanine green angiography of the left eye further confirmed the diagnosis of PCV and excluded choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to ODD. Subsequently, the patient was treated with a combination of verteporfin photodynamic therapy with three monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Three months after the combined treatment, OCT showed completely resolved subretinal fluid. ODD can cause compression of the subretinal vessels at the optic disc that results in retinal ischemia and release of vascular endothelial growth factor, which may trigger the development of CNV or PCV. The rarity of this combination makes it interesting to study more cases of ODD with PCV. Importantly, a thorough evaluation in distinguishing the PCV from the CNV that mimics it is crucial for early detection and prompt intervention. In this case, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) is the diagnostic method to differentiate the PCV from CNV secondary to ODD.
Obesity and diabetes both mediate their effects through insulin resistance and frequently co-exist. Insulin resistance is one of the key factors in the development of the metabolic syndrome. Adult females tend to develop obesity more frequently than males. One of the factors causing this difference is the pattern of changes that occur as females age from pre-menopausal to the post-menopausal stage, causing a change in the pattern of accumulation of fats. Several studies have explored and described the association between obesity and metabolic syndrome and their effect on type II diabetes. We conducted our literature search using PubMed and Google Scholar as our primary databases. We selected a total of 49 articles for review after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria and removing the duplicate articles. We chose the full-text articles that were published in the English language only. The selected studies were randomized controlled trials and review papers. The reviewed articles showed that visceral fat, central obesity, and fasting blood sugar of post-menopausal is higher than in pre-menopausal women and needs adequate management. More studies are needed in the future to explore the patterns of the metabolic changes in obese females to provide early and better management of diabetes and prevent related complications.
Headache can be a primary or secondary disorder. The characteristics of headache and its associated features, especially the presence of red flag signs, are important in distinguishing secondary from primary causes. Hemicrania continua is a type of primary headache disorder characterized by a continuous unilateral headache with episodes of exacerbations and association with cranial autonomic symptoms, which include several ocular symptoms. The absolute response to indomethacin remains the hallmark of this disease. We would like to report a rare case of hemicrania continua with scintillating scotoma during exacerbations apart from the typical autonomic features of conjunctival injection, ptosis, eyelid edema, and lacrimation.
Transient cortical blindness after coronary angiography has long been reported in the literature; however, this condition remains rare until today. We report a case of transient cortical blindness after coronary angiography, bypass graft angiography, and coronary angioplasty, which was deemed to be secondary to contrast agent. A 60-year-old man who underwent prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) started to experience recurrence of exertional and resting chest pain one year after CABG. In addition to coronary artery disease, he has underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Due to technical reasons, he was unable to undergo a computed tomography (CT) angiography of the coronary arteries and bypass grafts. Invasive coronary and bypass graft angiography were done, followed by stenting of the left circumflex artery. Thirty minutes after completion of the procedure, the patient had bilateral blurring of vision, which worsened drastically to only being able to perceive light bilaterally. The patient otherwise did not have any other neurological deficits. Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy revealed no significant abnormalities apart from mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy of the left eye. A non-contrasted CT scan of the brain revealed acute subarachnoid bleed in both occipital lobes, but a subsequent magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain revealed no evidence of intracranial bleed. The patient's vision gradually improved eight hours after the index event, and his vision completely normalized 12 hours later. The patient was discharged well two days later, and at one-month, three-month, and six-month follow-up, the patient remained angina-free, and his vision had remained stable bilaterally.
Senior-Loken syndrome is a rare disorder that presents in the first two decades of life. It commonly manifests with nephronophthisis and retinal dystrophy. We describe a teenager who had end-stage renal failure presenting with bilateral visual impairment due to retinal dystrophy with concomitant unilateral Coats disease and exudative retinal detachment. The patient was treated with a combination of endolaser photocoagulation and external drainage of the subretinal fluid. The final visual acuity remained poor in both eyes. Options of treatment in this challenging situation is discussed in this case report.
Purpose To describe the visual presentation and factors affecting visual outcome in pediatric patients treated for craniopharyngioma at a referral center in the East Coast states of Peninsular Malaysia. Methodology A retrospective review of medical records of children aged 17 years and below who had been treated for craniopharyngioma in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2014 to December 2018. The data collected included age, gender, presenting symptoms and duration, visual acuity, visual fields, color vision, light brightness, relative afferent pupillary defects, fundus examination and cranial nerves examination. The best corrected visual acuity during presentation, and after a one-year post-operative period, was documented. Records on investigations, surgical procedures, therapeutic modalities and recurrences were also reviewed. Results A total of 11 pediatric patients (22 eyes) were recruited. Fifty percent presented with optic atrophy. The mean duration of the onset of symptoms before consultation was 22.3 (24.5) months. A final best corrected visual acuity of 6/12 (20/40) or better was observed in 50% of the patients. There was a statistically significant association between presenting visual acuity, optic nerve function and visual field defects, and the final visual outcome. Conclusions Visual presentations in our study were fairly similar to previous reported studies. One-third presented late with permanent visual loss. Almost half had significant visual impairment after one-year post-operative period. Significant associations were observed between presenting visual acuity, duration of symptoms, impairment of optic nerve function tests, and visual field defects during presentation, and final visual acuity at one year after treatment.
Introduction Surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common healthcare-related infection in surgical patients. Patients who have undergone spinal surgeries and have contracted postoperative SSI face increased morbidity and mortality, which invariably leads to additional burden on the healthcare system and higher costs. The risk factors for the increase in SSI in patients who have undergone spinal surgery have been investigated in numerous studies but no studies have been performed in Malaysia. The aim of this pilot study is to determine the incidence and factors associated with deep SSIs in patients that have undergone spinal surgeries. Methods This retrospective study includes all patients who underwent spinal surgeries at Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital, Kuantan, from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2017. Patients with an active spinal infection, polytrauma, and open fractures were excluded from this study. Patient characteristics and laboratory investigations were extracted to determine the risk factors for deep SSI events. Associations between SSI and risk factors were analyzed with SPSS V21.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY). Results The univariate analysis indicated that fracture dislocation at the thoraco-lumbar junction (p=0.008) and a history of preoperative blood product transfusion (p=0.003) were associated with deep SSI. Other factors such as age (p=0.162), gender (p=0.262), body mass index (p=0.215), smoking status (0.272), number of vertebrae involved in the surgery (p=0.837), spinal cord involvement (p=0.259), postoperative hemoglobin reduction (p=0.816), and preoperative white blood cell count (p=0.278) were not associated with deep SSI. Conclusions This pilot study highlights the factors associated with deep SSI in spinal surgeries. A larger study is needed to further confirm these findings.
Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is an uncommon condition affecting the eye. We herein report a rare case of eyelid swelling in paediatric age group. A three-year-old Malay boy presented with chronic painless left upper eyelid mass which did not resolve with topical steroid. Clinically, the mass was a non-tender and firm nodular swelling which located at the lateral 1/3 of the left upper lid. Total excisional biopsy of the swelling was done and histopathological findings were consistent with JXG. The systemic associations and the treatment options for ocular JXG are discussed.
Introduction The modified Brostrom-Gould procedure is surgery to repair the lateral ligamentous complex of an ankle with chronic instability. A retrospective study was carried out among patients who had undergone this procedure at a medical center. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the mid-term functional outcome and rate of infection among patients who underwent the surgery using the PopLok® (CONMED, NY, US) Knotless Suture Anchor technique for lateral ankle instability. Methods Twenty patients who failed conservative treatment at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur, and who were operated on by a single surgeon from January 2011 until March 2015 were selected to participate in this study. They were examined clinically both preoperatively and postoperatively and were also evaluated using the American Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The last review of the patients, for the purpose of this study, was done at one-year postoperatively. Results The patients' overall AOFAS and VAS scores improved postoperatively as compared to the preoperative period. Preoperatively, the mean AOFAS score was 63.5 while postoperatively, the score was 93.50 (excellent score 90 - 100). The mean VAS score was 8.00 preoperatively and improved to 1.00 postoperatively. There was also an absence of infection observed one-year post-surgery. Conclusion The modified Brostrom-Gould procedure using the PopLok® Knotless Suture Anchor technique provides an excellent middle-term functional outcome and a reduction in pain for patients who failed conservative treatment, with a very low rate of infection.
Chronic osteomyelitis treatment is always a challenge to orthopaedic surgeons which requires great dedication and perseverance. We report a successful limb salvage case of a 46-year-old man who suffered from a left tibia chronic osteomyelitis with soft tissue defect. The treatment approach was a thorough wound debridement of devitalized tissues and necrotized bone, commencement of culture-directed antibiotics, reconstruction with vascularized osteomyocutaneous fibula flap, and skeletal stabilization with internal fixation. As compared to below knee amputation, the result we obtained in this case is more promising with regard to mobility and function.
Endogenous endophthalmitis is an ocular emergency, with severe sight-threatening complications. We report a case of unilateral endogenous Klebsiella pneumonia endophthalmitis with a large sub-retinal abscess in a 39-year-old lady that developed four days after presentation with sepsis secondary to urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis. Despite immediate treatment with intravenous (IV) and intravitreal antibiotics, her eye condition deteriorated. A pars plana vitrectomy was performed, and the sub-retinal abscess was removed, followed by silicone oil tamponade. Subsequently, she regained her vision to 6/36 with complete regression of the intraocular inflammation and sub-retinal abscess.
In human, sporotrichosis infection commonly manifests as skin lesions through direct inoculation. It is rarely associated with ocular manifestation via a zoonotic transmission. We describe a young lady who presented with acute left eye granulomatous conjunctivitis who had a history of exposure to her sick cat diagnosed with sporotrichosis infection. Sporothrix schenckii was isolated from the culture of the excised conjunctival tissue. The patient recovered fully after six months of oral anti-fungal treatment. Clinicians should be aware of this new zoonotic infection transmitted by infected felines as it is reversible with timely diagnosis and initiation of anti-fungal therapy.
Optic perineuritis (OPN) involvement in demyelinating disease is rarely encountered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral OPN associated with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). We present a case of a healthy young gentleman who presented with OPN, initially presumed to have a young stroke but later diagnosed to be NMOSD. Early neuroimaging is essential to help distinguish optic neuritis (ON), and prolonged treatment of systemic immunosuppression is the mainstay of treatment.
Cancer is one of the greatest threats posed to society, necessitating appropriate diagnosis methods. Modern targeted therapies have greatly advanced the treatment of several solid tumors. The rational use of these agents requires optimal strategies for the rapid and accurate detection of targetable genomic alterations at the time of initial diagnosis and when acquired resistance to targeted therapies develops. Currently used techniques, such as tissue genotyping, have limitations such as difficulty in categorizing tumors, needing frequent sampling, and difficulty in obtaining samples. To overcome these issues, cost-effective and non-invasive methods are an urgent requisite, which would provide an insight into the real-time dynamics of cancers via circulating biomarkers. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), commonly termed "liquid biopsy," has emerged as a new, promising non-invasive tool to detect biomarkers in several cancers. The present review aimed to understand the biological concept of ctDNA and its potential as a biomarker in cancer studies and the clinical utility of this evolutionary diagnostic technique.
Background Neurovascular changes occur during the migraine is believed to cause alteration in cerebral and retinal circulation that possible result in damage to the brain and even retina or optic nerve. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement can be used as an index to assess ganglion cell and retinal nerve fiber damages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optic nerve head (ONH) parameters, RNFL thickness, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in migraine patients. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan from July 2016 to November 2018, involving patients with a confirmed diagnosis of migraine and controls. Ninety-four eyes of 47 migraine patients and 94 eyes of 47 healthy subjects were included in this study. Blood pressure and intraocular pressure were measured and OPP was calculated. ONH parameters and RNFL thickness were measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) after pupillary dilatation. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS Inc Version 24). Results With respect to all means values of ONH parameters, there was no statistically significant difference between migraine patients and controls. For RNFL, there were significant reductions in average and superior RNFL thickness on both eyes with adjustment of age and gender (P-value: right eye (RE) average = 0.027; RE superior = 0.034; left eye (LE) average = 0.037; LE superior = 0.031). In view of OPP, there was no significant difference between migraine patients and controls (P-value = 0.172). Weak correlations were found between the ONH parameters and RNFL thickness with OPP, respectively, in migraine patients. Conclusion This study showed no difference in ONH parameters between migraine patients and healthy subjects. There was significant thinning in average and superior RNFL for migraine patients. No difference found in OPP between both groups. ONH parameters and RNFL thickness had a weak correlation with OPP in migraine patients.
Irreducible closed dorsal dislocation of distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint of the finger is a rare injury. The causes of irreducibility of the DIP joint are volar plate interposition, entrapment of flexor digitorum profundus tendon behind the head of middle phalanx, and buttonholing of the middle phalanx head through the volar plate or flexor tendon. Open reduction with a volar approach is recommended with the advantages of better wound healing, ease of releasing entrapped structures, and possibilities of a volar plate, collateral ligaments, and/or flexor tendon repair. We report a case of irreducible dorsal dislocation of left ring finger DIP joint secondary to volar plate interposition treated successfully with open reduction.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) manifestations in a child are varied. We report a unique and rare presentation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a child who presented with frontal swelling involving bilateral upper lids. A previously healthy one-year-old girl presented with progressively increasing frontal swelling of seven months duration. An examination revealed erythematous, firm, nontender forehead swelling that extended up to the medial part of bilateral upper eye lids. The extraocular muscle movement was normal. The anterior segment and fundus examination were also normal in both eyes. Other systemic examination revealed multiple leukemic cutis on the scalp. The cervical lymph nodes were also palpable with hepatosplenomegaly. A full blood picture (FBP) showed the presence of leucoerythroblastic blood film with 62% blast cells. Flow cytometry and bone marrow aspiration confirmed the diagnosis. Computed tomographic (CT) scan images revealed multiple well-defined hyperdense lesions at the subcutaneous skull with the largest lesion at the anterior glabella. Upon diagnosis, the patient was started on chemotherapy and the swelling resolved after one month post treatment. Extensive forehead swelling is a rare manifestation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A high index of suspicion aided with diagnostic investigations could help the doctors arrive at a correct diagnosis and treatment.
Acute mastoiditis in a newborn complicated by the presence of facial nerve palsy is an alarming finding requiring rapid assessment and further investigation. Such an early presentation should point the clinician towards an underlying systemic pathology or congenital anatomical abnormality. Facial nerve involvement indicates severe infection and possible dehiscence of the facial canal. Although more frequent in children, it is rare in neonates. We would like to share our experience in managing the youngest known presentation of otomastoiditis at four days of life. The patient presented with otorrhea and facial paralysis and progressed to meningitis. He was finally diagnosed with chronic granulomatous disease.