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  1. Chung FF, Mai CW, Ng PY, Leong CO
    Curr Cancer Drug Targets, 2016;16(1):71-8.
    PMID: 26563883
    Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily W, polypeptide 1 (CYP2W1) is a newly identified monooxygenase enzyme that is expressed specifically in tumor tissues and during fetal life. Particularly, high expression of CYP2W1 was observed in up to 60% of colorectal cancers and its expression correlated with poor survival. CYP2W1 has been shown to metabolize various endogenous substrates including lysophospholipids and several procarcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. The specific substrate for CYP2W1, however, is currently unknown. Due to its tumor-specific expression and its unique catalytic activities in colorectal cancers, CYP2W1 was deemed as an interesting target in colorectal cancer therapy. This review sought to summarize the current understanding of the CYP2W1 biology and biochemistry, its genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk, and its implication as a tumor-specific diagnostic and therapeutic target.
  2. Zulkhernain NS, Teo SH, Patel V, Tan PJ
    Curr Cancer Drug Targets, 2014;14(8):764-73.
    PMID: 25348017 DOI: 10.2174/1568009614666141028121347
    Targeted therapy, the treatment of cancer based on an underlying genetic alteration, is rapidly gaining favor as the preferred therapeutic approach. To date, although natural products represent a rich resource of bio-diverse drug candidates, only a few have been identified to be effective as targeted cancer therapies largely due to the incompatibilities to current high-throughput screening methods. In this article, we review the utility of a zebrafish developmental screen for bioactive natural product-based compounds that target signaling pathways that are intimately shared with those in humans. Any bioactive compound perturbing signaling pathways identified from phenotypic developmental defects in zebrafish embryos provide an opportunity for developing targeted therapies for human cancers. This model provides a promising tool in the search for targeted cancer therapeutics from natural products.
  3. Fatemian T, Chowdhury EH
    Curr Cancer Drug Targets, 2014;14(7):599-609.
    PMID: 25308718
    Malfunctions in membrane transporters or disruptions in signaling cascades induce resistance to chemotherapy in cancer cells resulting in treatment failure. To adjust the genetic alterations leading to these cellular protective measures, dissection and verification of the contributing routes would be required. In justification of knockdown of the key genes, RNA interference provides a reliable probing tool, enabling exploration of phenotypic manifestation of targeted genes. Investigation of the non-transporter targets, predominantly oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, by means of small interfering RNA with the aim to re-sensitize cancer cells to therapeutics will be discussed in this review.
  4. Hafidh RR, Hussein SZ, MalAllah MQ, Abdulamir AS, Abu Bakar F
    Curr Cancer Drug Targets, 2018;18(8):807-815.
    PMID: 29141549 DOI: 10.2174/1568009617666171114144236
    BACKGROUND: Citrus bioactive compounds, as active anticancer agents, have been under focus by several studies worldwide. However, the underlying genes responsible for the anticancer potential have not been sufficiently highlighted.

    OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the gene expression profile of hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2, cells after treatment with Limonene.

    METHODS: The concentration that killed 50% of HepG2 cells was used to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of limonene anticancer activity. The apoptotic induction was detected by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscope. Two of the pro-apoptotic events, caspase-3 activation and phosphatidylserine translocation were manifested by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Highthroughput real-time PCR was used to profile 1023 cancer-related genes in 16 different gene families related to the cancer development.

    RESULTS: In comparison to untreated cells, limonene increased the percentage of apoptotic cells up to 89.61%, by flow cytometry, and 48.2% by fluorescence microscopy. There was a significant limonene- driven differential gene expression of HepG2 cells in 15 different gene families. Limonene was shown to significantly (>2log) up-regulate and down-regulate 14 and 59 genes, respectively. The affected gene families, from the most to the least affected, were apoptosis induction, signal transduction, cancer genes augmentation, alteration in kinases expression, inflammation, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle proteins.

    CONCLUSION: The current study reveals that limonene could be a promising, cheap, and effective anticancer compound. The broad spectrum of limonene anticancer activity is interesting for anticancer drug development. Further research is needed to confirm the current findings and to examine the anticancer potential of limonene along with underlying mechanisms on different cell lines.

  5. Singh A, Patel P, Patel VK, Jain DK, Veerasamy R, Sharma PC, et al.
    Curr Cancer Drug Targets, 2017;17(5):456-466.
    PMID: 28067178 DOI: 10.2174/1568009617666170109150134
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is a devastating disease with a dismal prognosis which is heavily hampered by delayed diagnosis. Surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the curative options. Due to few therapeutic treatments available i.e., mono and combination therapy and development of resistance towards drug response, novel and efficacious therapy are urgently needed.

    OBJECTIVE: In this study, we have studied the potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors in colorectal cancer.

    RESULTS: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are an emerging class of therapeutic agents having potential anticancer activity with minimal toxicity for different types of malignancies in preclinical studies. HDACIs have proven less effective in monotherapy thus the combination of HDACIs with other anticancer agents are being assessed for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    CONCLUSION: The molecular mechanism emphasizing the anticancer effect of HDACIs in colorectal cancer was illustrated and a recapitulation was carried out on the recent advances in the rationale behind combination therapies currently underway in clinical evaluations.

  6. Wu YS, Lee ZY, Chuah LH, Mai CW, Ngai SC
    Curr Cancer Drug Targets, 2019;19(2):82-100.
    PMID: 29714144 DOI: 10.2174/1568009618666180430130248
    Despite advances in the treatment regimen, the high incidence rate of breast cancer (BC) deaths is mostly caused by metastasis. Recently, the aberrant epigenetic modifications, which involve DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA (miRNA) regulations become attractive targets to treat metastatic breast cancer (MBC). In this review, the epigenetic alterations of DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNA regulations in regulating MBC are discussed. The preclinical and clinical trials of epigenetic drugs such as the inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase (DNMTi) and the inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDACi), as a single or combined regimen with other epigenetic drug or standard chemotherapy drug to treat MBCs are discussed. The combined regimen of epigenetic drugs or with standard chemotherapy drugs enhance the therapeutic effect against MBC. Evidences that epigenetic changes could have implications in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics for MBC are also presented. Several genes have been identified as potential epigenetic biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as therapeutic targets for MBC. Endeavors in clinical trials of epigenetic drugs against MBC should be continued although limited success has been achieved. Future discovery of epigenetic drugs from natural resources would be an attractive natural treatment regimen for MBC. Further research is warranted in translating research into clinical practice with the ultimate goal of treating MBC by epigenetic therapy in the near future.
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