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  1. Ang CK, Mohidin N, Chung KM
    Curr. Eye Res., 2014 Sep;39(9):879-84.
    PMID: 25014251 DOI: 10.3109/02713683.2013.859273
    PURPOSE/AIM: Wink glass (WG), an invention to stimulate blinking at interval of 5 s was designed to reduce dry eye symptoms during visual display unit (VDU) use. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of WG on visual functions that include blink rate, ocular surface symptoms (OSS) and tear stability during VDU use.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 26 young and asymptomatic subjects were instructed to read articles in Malay language with a computer for 20 min with WG whereby their blink rate, pre- and post-task tear break-up time, and OSS were recorded. The results were compared to another reading session of the subjects wearing a transparent plastic sheet as a control.
    RESULTS: Non-invasive tear break-up time was reduced after reading session with transparent plastic sheet (pre-task = 5.97 s, post-task = 5.14 s, z = -2.426, p = 0.015, Wilcoxon), but remained stable (pre-task = 5.62 s, post-task = 5.35 s, z = -0.67, p = 0.501) during the reading session with WG. The blink rate recorded during reading session with plastic sheet was 9 blinks/min (median) and this increased to 15 blinks/min (z = -3.315, p = 0.001) with WG. The reading task caused OSS (maximum scores = 20) with median score of 1 (0-8) reduced to median score of 0 (0-3) after wearing WG (z = -2.417, p = 0.016).
    CONCLUSION: WG was found to increase post-task tear stability, increased blinking rate and reduced OSS during video display unit use among young and healthy adults. Although it may be considered as an option to improve dry eye symptoms among VDU users, further studies are warranted to establish its stability and its effect on subjects with dry eyes.
    KEYWORDS: Blink rate; Wink glass; non-invasive tear break-up time; visual display units
  2. Ab Hamid F, Che Azemin MZ, Salam A, Aminuddin A, Mohd Daud N, Zahari I
    Curr. Eye Res., 2016 Jun;41(6):823-31.
    PMID: 26268475 DOI: 10.3109/02713683.2015.1056375
    PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to provide the empirical evidence of fractal dimension as an indirect measure of retinal vasculature density.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred retinal samples of right eye [57.0% females (n = 114) and 43.0% males (n = 86)] were selected from baseline visit. A custom-written software was used for vessel segmentation. Vessel segmentation is the process of transforming two-dimensional color images into binary images (i.e. black and white pixels). The circular area of approximately 2.6 optic disc radii surrounding the center of optic disc was cropped. The non-vessels fragments were removed. FracLac was used to measure the fractal dimension and vessel density of retinal vessels.

    RESULTS: This study suggested that 14.1% of the region of interest (i.e. approximately 2.6 optic disk radii) comprised retinal vessel structure. Using correlation analysis, vessel density measurement and fractal dimension estimation are linearly and strongly correlated (R = 0.942, R(2) = 0.89, p 

  3. Nor Arfuzir NN, Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal P, Sidek S, Spasov A, et al.
    Curr. Eye Res., 2018 08;43(8):1032-1040.
    PMID: 29676937 DOI: 10.1080/02713683.2018.1467933
    PURPOSE: Retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in glaucoma is associated with elevated levels of endothelin-1 (ET1), a potent vasoconstrictor. ET1-induced retinal ischemia leads to altered expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms leading to increased formation of nitric oxide (NO) and retinal nitrosative stress. Since magnesium (Mg) is known to improve endothelial functions and reduce oxidative stress and taurine (TAU) possesses potent antioxidant properties, we investigated the protective effects of magnesium acetyltaurate (MgAT) against ET1-induced nitrosative stress and retinal damage in rats. We also compared the effects of MgAT with that of TAU alone.

    METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were intravitreally injected with ET1. MgAT and TAU were administered as pre-, co-, or posttreatment. Subsequently, the expression of NOS isoforms was detected in retina by immunohistochemistry, retinal nitrotyrosine level was estimated using ELISA, and retinal cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining.

    RESULTS: Intravitreal ET1 caused a significant increase in the expressions of nNOS and iNOS while eNOS expression was significantly reduced compared to vehicle treated group. Administration of both MgAT and TAU restored the altered levels of NOS isoform expression, reduced retinal nitrosative stress and retinal cell apoptosis. The effect of MgAT, however, was greater than that of TAU alone.

    CONCLUSIONS: MgAT and TAU prevent ET1-induced retinal cell apoptosis by reducing retinal nitrosative stress in Sprague Dawley rats. Addition of TAU to Mg seems to enhance the efficacy of TAU compared to when given alone. Moreover, the pretreatment with MgAT/TAU showed higher efficacy compared to co- or posttreatment.

  4. Hilmi MR, Che Azemin MZ, Mohd Kamal K, Mohd Tamrin MI, Abdul Gaffur N, Tengku Sembok TM
    Curr. Eye Res., 2017 Jun;42(6):852-856.
    PMID: 28118054 DOI: 10.1080/02713683.2016.1250277
    PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to predict visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity function (CSF) with tissue redness grading after pterygium surgery.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 67 primary pterygium participants were selected from patients who visited an ophthalmology clinic. We developed a semi-automated computer program to measure the pterygium fibrovascular redness from digital pterygium images. The final outcome of this software is a continuous scale grading of 1 (minimum redness) to 3 (maximum redness). The region of interest (ROI) was selected manually using the software. Reliability was determined by repeat grading of all 67 images, and its association with CSF and VA was examined.

    RESULTS: The mean and standard deviation of redness of the pterygium fibrovascular images was 1.88 ± 0.55. Intra-grader and inter-grader reliability estimates were high with intraclass correlation ranging from 0.97 to 0.98. The new grading was positively associated with CSF (p < 0.01) and VA (p < 0.01). The redness grading was able to predict 25% and 23% of the variance in the CSF and the VA, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The new grading of pterygium fibrovascular redness can be reliably measured from digital images and showed a good correlation with CSF and VA. The redness grading can be used in addition to the existing pterygium grading.
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