Nature has bestowed mankind with surplus resources (natural products) on land and water. Natural products have a significant role in the prevention of disease and boosting of health in humans and animals. These natural products have been experimentally documented to possess various biological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. In vitro and in vivo studies have further established the usefulness of natural products in various preclinical models of neurodegenerative disorders. Natural products include phytoconstituents, like polyphenolic antioxidants, found in herbs, fruits, nuts, vegetables and also in marine and freshwater flora. These phytoconstituents may potentially suppress neurodegeneration and improve memory as well as cognitive functions of the brain. Also, they are known to play a pivotal role in the prevention and cure of different neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease and other neuronal disorders. The large-scale neuro-pharmacological activities of natural products have been documented due to the result of either the inhibition of inflammatory processes, or the up-regulation of various cell survival proteins or a combination of both. Due to the scarcity of human studies on neuroprotective effects of natural products, this review focuses on the various established activities of natural products in in vitro and in vivo preclinical models, and their potential neuro-therapeutic applications using the available knowledge in the literature.
All mammalian cells exhibit circadian rhythm in cellular metabolism and energetics. Autonomous cellular clocks are modulated by various pathways that are essential for robust time keeping. In addition to the canonical transcriptional translational feedback loop, several new pathways of circadian timekeeping - non-transcriptional oscillations, post-translational modifications, epigenetics and cellular signaling in the circadian clock - have been identified. The physiology of circadian rhythm is expansive, and its link to the neurodegeneration is multifactorial. Circadian rhythm disruption is prevelant in contamporary society where light-noise, shift-work, and transmeridian travel are commonplace, and is also reported from the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Circadian alignment by bright light therapy in conjunction with chronobiotics is beneficial for treating sundowning syndrome and other cognitive symptoms in advanced AD patients. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the clinical and translational reports to review the physiology of the circadian clock, delineate its dysfunction in AD, and unravel the dynamics of the vicious cycle between two pathologies. The review delineates the role of putative targets like clock proteins PER, CLOCK, BMAL1, ROR, and clock-controlled proteins like AVP, SIRT1, FOXO, and PK2 towards future approaches for management of AD. Furthermore, the role of circadian rhythm disruption in aging is delineated.
Epilepsy is a devastating neurological condition characterized by long-term tendency to generate unprovoked seizures, affecting around 1-2 % of the population worldwide. Epilepsy is a serious health concern which often associates with other neurobehavioral comorbidities that further worsen disease conditions. Despite tremendous research, the mainstream anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) exert only symptomatic relief leading to a 30% of untreatable patients. This reflects the complexity of the disease pathogenesis and urges the precise understanding of underlying mechanisms in order to explore novel therapeutic strategies that might alter the disease progression as well as minimize the epilepsy- associated comorbidities. Unfortunately, the development of novel AEDs might be a difficult process engaging huge funds, tremendous scientific efforts and stringent regulatory compliance with possible chance of end-stage drug failure . Hence, an alternate strategy is drug repurposing, where anti-epileptic effects are elicited from drugs that are already used to treat non-epileptic disorders. Herein, we provide evidence of the anti-epileptic effects of Fingolimod (FTY720), a modulator of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor, USFDA approved already for Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). Emerging experimental findings suggest that Fingolimod treatment exerts disease- modifying anti-epileptic effects based on its anti-neuroinflammatory properties, potent neuroprotection, anti-gliotic effects, myelin protection, reduction of mTOR signaling pathway and activation of microglia and astrocytes. We further discuss the underlying molecular crosstalk associated with the anti-epileptic effects of Fingolimod and provide evidence for repurposing Fingolimod to overcome the limitations of current AEDs.
Dementia is a collection of symptoms affecting a person's cognition. Dementia is debilitating, and therefore, finding an effective treatment is of the utmost importance. Resveratrol, which exhibits neuroprotective effects, has low bioavailability. However, it's glucoside polydatin is more bioavailable. Here, the evidence that supports the protective role of polydatin against dementia-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, alcohol-related dementia, and Lewy body dementias is presented. The beneficial effects of polydatin from a mechanistic perspective are specifically emphasized in this review. Future directions in this area of research are also discussed.