METHODS: A nanosuspension was prepared using high pressure homogenization (HPH) techniques. The physico-chemical properties of the kaempferol nanosuspension (KNS) were characterized using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). A reversephase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the analysis of the drug in rat plasma was developed and validated as per ICH guidelines. In vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of oral pure kaempferol solution, oral kaempferol nanosuspension and intravenous pure kaempferol were assessed in rats.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The kaempferol nanosuspension had a greatly reduced particle size (426.3 ± 5.8 nm), compared to that of pure kaempferol (1737 ± 129 nm). The nanosuspension was stable under refrigerated conditions. No changes in physico-chemical characteristics were observed. In comparison to pure kaempferol, kaempferol nanosuspension exhibited a significantly (P<0.05) increased in Cmax and AUC(0-∞) following oral administration and a significant improvement in absolute bioavailability (38.17%) compared with 13.03% for pure kaempferol.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate enhanced oral bioavailability of kaempferol when formulated as a nanosuspension.
RESULTS: The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto anion-exchange Q-sepharose solid particulate support was investigated in batch adsorption experiments. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms were developed as a function of key industrially relevant parameters such as polymer loading, stirring speed, buffer pH, protein concentration and the state of protein dispersion (solid/aqueous) in order to optimize binding performance and adsorption capacity. Experimental results showed that the first order rate constant is higher at higher stirring speed, higher polymer loading, and under alkaline conditions, with a corresponding increase in equilibrium adsorption capacity. Increasing the stirring speed and using aqueous dispersion protein system increased the adsorption rate, but the maximum protein adsorption was unaffected. Regardless of the stirring speed, the adsorption capacity of the polymer was 2.8 mg/ml. However, doubling the polymer loading increased the adsorption capacity to 9.4 mg/ml.
CONCLUSIONS: The result demonstrates that there exists a minimum amount of polymer loading required to achieve maximum protein adsorption capacity under specific process conditions.
METHODS: Application of nanotechnology in medicine have perceived a great evolution during past few decades. Nanoemulsion, submicron sized thermodynamically stable distribution of two immiscible liquids, has gained extensive importance as a nanocarrier to improve chemotherapies seeking to overcome the limitations of drug solubilization, improving systemic delivery of the chemotherapeutics to the site of action to achieve a promising inhibitory in tumor growth profile with reduced systemic toxicity.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This review has focused on potential application of nanoemulsion in the translational research and its role in chemotherapy using oral, parenteral and transdermal route to enhance systemic availability of poorly soluble drug. In summary, nanoemulsion is a multifunctional nanocarrier capable of enhancing drug delivery potential of cytotoxic agents, thereby, can improve the outcomes of cancer treatment by increasing the life-span of the patient and quality of life, however, further clinical research and characterization of interactive reactions should need to be explored.
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, BBP was investigated for it's in vivo innate and adaptive immune responses mediated by different humoral and cellular immune factors.
METHODS: Male Balb/c mice were orally fed with BBP (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) for a period of 14 days and immunized with sheep red blood cells (sRBC) on day 0 for the determination of adaptive responses. The effects of BBP on phagocytosis process of neutrophils isolated from blood of treated/untreated animals were determined. The ceruloplasmin and lysozyme serum levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) plasma level were also monitored. The mechanism was further explored by assessing its effects on the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes subsets CD4+ and CD8+ and on the secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines as well as serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM) and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction.
RESULTS: BBP showed a significant dose-dependent reduction on the migration of neutrophils, Mac-1 expression, phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In comparison to the sensitized control group, a dose-dependent inhibition was observed on lymphocyte proliferation along with the downregulation of effector cells expression and release of cytokines. Moreover, a statistically significant decrease was perceived in serum levels of ceruloplasmin, lysozyme and immunoglobulins and MPO plasma level of BBP-treated mice. BBP also dose-dependently inhibited sheep red blood cells (sRBC)-induced swelling rate of mice paw in DTH.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the potential of BBP as a potent immunosuppressive agent.
METHODS: Warfarin relies on regular monitoring of International Normalized Ratio which is a standardized test to measure prothrombin time and appropriate dose adjustment. Pharmacometabonomics is a novel scientific field which deals with identification and quantification of the metabolites present in the metabolome using spectroscopic techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Pharmacometabonomics helps to indicate perturbation in the levels of metabolites in the cells and tissues due to drug or ingestion of any substance. NMR is one of the most widely-used spectroscopic techniques in metabolomics because of its reproducibility and speed.
RESULTS: There are many factors that influence the metabolism of warfarin, making changes in drug dosage common, and clinical factors like drug-drug interactions, dietary interactions and age explain for the most part the variability in warfarin dosing. Some studies have showed that pharmacogenetic testing for warfarin dosing does not improve health outcomes, and around 26% of the variation in warfarin dose requirements remains unexplained yet.
CONCLUSION: Many recent pharmacometabonomics studies have been conducted to identify novel biomarkers of drug therapies such as paracetamol, aspirin and simvastatin. Thus, a technique such as NMR based pharmacometabonomics to find novel biomarkers in plasma and urine might be useful to predict warfarin outcome.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of T3 derivatives, σ-T3, γ-T3 and α-T3 on insulin secretion of rat pancreatic islets in a dynamic culture.
METHOD: Pancreatic islets isolated from male Wistar rats were treated with T3 for 1 h at 37°C in a microfluidic system with continuous operation that provided a stable cell culture environment. Glucose (2.8 mM and 16.7 mM, as basal and stimulant, respectively) and potassium chloride (KCl) (30 mM) were added to the treatment in calcium free medium. The supernatant was collected for insulin measurements.
RESULTS: Short-term exposure (1 h) of σ-T3 to β cells in the stimulant glucose condition significantly potentiated insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner. γ-T3 and α-T3 also displayed dosedependent effect but were less effective in the activation of insulin secretion. Essentially, KCl, a pancreatic β cell membrane depolarizing agent, added into the treatment further enhanced the insulin secretion of σ-T3, γ-T3 and α-T3 with ED50 values of 504, 511 and 588 µM, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest the potential of σ-T3 in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in response to the intracellular calcium especially in the presence of KCl.
METHODS: A structured electronic search on worldwide accepted scientific databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, SciFinder, Wiley Online Library) was carried out to compile the relevant information. Some information was obtained from books and database on medicinal plants used in various countries.
RESULTS: About 60 metabolites, mainly polyphenols, and terpenoids have been isolated and identified. However, most of the reported pharmacological studies were based on crude extracts, and only a few of those isolated metabolites, particularly zerumbone have been investigated for biological and pharmacological activities. Many of the mechanistic studies to understand the pharmacological effects of the plant are limited by many considerations with regard to design, experimentation and interpretation.
CONCLUSION: The bioactive metabolites should be further investigated on their safety and more elaborate preclinical studies before clinical trials can be undertaken.
CONCLUSION: This review will provide information on the causes and indicators of skin aging as well as examine studies that have used plants to produce anti-aging products.
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to prepare caffeoylquinic acids rich and poor fractions of the ethanolic extract using resin column technology and compare their antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potentials.
RESULTS: Among the treatment groups, caffeoylquinic acids rich fraction (F2) and chlorogenic acid (CA, one of the major caffeoylquinic acids) showed potent antihyperlipidemic effects, with significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), atherogenic index (AI) and coronary risk index (CRI) (p<0.01 or better) compared to the hyperlipidemic control at the 58 h. The effect was better than that of ethanolic extract. In addition, only F2 significantly increased the high-density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C) level (p<0.05). F2 showed better effect than CA alone (60 mg) despite the fact that it only contained 9.81 mg CA/1000 mg dose. The findings suggest that the di-caffeoylquinic acids (86.61 mg/g dose) may also in part be responsible for the potent antihyperlipidemic effect shown by the F2. Likewise, F2 showed the highest antioxidant activity. Thus, simple fractionation of ethanolic extract using the Amberlite XAD-2 resin technique had successfully enriched the caffeoylquinic acids into F2 with improved antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant capacities than that of the ethanolic extract.
CONCLUSION: The resin separation technology may find application in caffeoylquinic acids enrichment of plant extracts for pre-clinical studies. The F2 has potential for development into phytopharmaceuticals as adjunct therapy for management of hyperlipidemia.
METHODS: The in vitro anti-cancer effects were evaluated using Sulphorhodamine B and Hoescht 33342 assays. The Na+, K+-ATPase assay was carried out using Malachite Green assay. In silico molecular docking studies and in vitro malachite green assay were used to predict the binding activities of 17βH-neriifolin on Na+, K+-ATPase and ouabain was also included as for comparison studies.
RESULTS: The compound was tested against breast (MCF-7, T47D), colorectal (HT-29), ovarian (A2780, SKOV-3) and skin (A375) cancer cell lines that gave IC50 values ranged from 0.022 ± 0.0015 to 0.030 ± 0.0018 μM. The mechanism of cell death of 17βH-neriifolin was further evaluated using Hoescht 33342 assay and it was found that the compound killed the cancer cells via apoptosis. 17βHneriifolin and ouabain both bound at α-subunit in Na+, K+-ATPase and their binding energy were - 8.16 ± 0.74 kcal/mol and -8.18 ± 0.48 kcal/mol respectively.
CONCLUSION: The results had confirmed the anti-proliferative effects exerted by 17βH-neriifolin in the breast, colorectal, ovarian and skin cancer cell lines. 17βH-neriifolin had shown to cause apoptotic cell death in the respective cancer cell lines.17βH-neriifolin and ouabain both bound at α-subunit in Na+, K+-ATPase and their binding energy were -8.16 ± 0.74 kcal/mol and -8.18 ± 0.48 kcal/mol respectively. This is the first report to reveal that 17βH-neriifolin managed to bind to the pocket of α-subunit of Na+.K+-ATPase.
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the standardized extract of P. amarus was investigated for its suppressive effects on type II collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis (TCIA) in Sprague Dawley rats.
METHOD: The major components of the extracts, lignans and phenolic compounds were analysed by using a validated reversed phase HPLC and LC-MS/MS. A rheumatoid arthritis rat model was induced by administering a bovine type II collagen emulsion subcutaneously at the base of tail, on day 0 and 7 of the experiment. Effects of the extract on severity assessment, changes in the hind paw volume, bone mineral density, body weight and body temperature were measured. Concentrations of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-6) released, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-3 MMP-9) and their inhibitor (TIMP-1), haematological and biochemical changes were also measured. ELISA was used to measure the cytokines and proteinases in the rat serum and synovial fluid according to manufacturer's instructions.
RESULTS: The extract dose-dependently modulated the progression in physical parameters (i.e. decrease in body weight, increase in body temperature, reduced hind paw volume, reduced the severity of arthritis), bone mineral density, haematological and biochemical perturbations, serum cytokines production and levels of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitor in the synovial fluid. Histopathological examination of the knee joint also revealed that the extract effectively reduced synovitis, pannus formation, bone resorption and cartilage destruction.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the oral administration of a standardized extract of P. amarus was able to suppress the humoral and cellular immune responses to type II collagen, resulting in the reduction of the development of TCIA in the rats.
METHODS: Snake (Reticulatus malayanus), rats (Rattus rattus), water monitor lizard (Varanus salvator), frog (Lithobates catesbeianus), fish (Oreochromis mossambicus), chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), and pigeon (Columba livia) were dissected and their organ lysates/sera were collected. Crude extracts were tested for bactericidal effects against neuropathogenic E. coli K1, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To determine whether lysates/sera protect human cells against bacterialmediated damage, cytotoxicity assays were performed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release as an indicator of cell death. Lysates/sera were partially characterized using heat-treatment and pronasetreatment and peptide sequences were determined using the Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS).
RESULTS: Snake and water monitor lizard sera exhibited potent broad-spectrum bactericidal effects against all bacteria tested. Heat inactivation and pronase-treatment inhibited bactericidal effects indicating that activity is heat-labile and pronase-sensitive suggesting that active molecules are proteinaceous in nature. LCMS analyses revealed the molecular identities of peptides.
CONCLUSION: The results revealed that python that feeds on germ-infested rodents and water monitor lizards that feed on rotten organic waste possess antibacterial activity in a heat-sensitive manner and several peptides were identified. We hope that the discovery of antibacterial activity in the sera of animals living in polluted environments will stimulate research in finding antibacterial agents from unusual sources as this has the potential for the development of novel strategies in the control of infectious diseases.
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus and its marker constituents (phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, gallic acid, niranthin, greraniin, phyltetralin, isolintetralin, corilagin and ellagic acid) on HCT116 and their underlying mechanisms of action.
METHODS: Their antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on HCT 116 were performed using MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively, while caspases 3/7, 8 and 9 activities were examined using the colorimetric method. The expression of cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase enzyme (PARP) and cytochrome c proteins was investigated by the immune-blot technique.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses demonstrated that the extract contained mainly lignans and polyphenols. The plant samples markedly suppressed the growth and expansion of HCT116 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with no toxicity against normal human fibroblast CCD18 Co. P. amarus extract, phyllanthin and gallic acid induced mode of cell death primarily through apoptosis as confirmed by the exteriorization of phosphatidylserine. Caspases 3/7, 8, and 9 activities increased in a concentration-dependent manner following 24h treatment. The expressions of cleaved PARP (Asp 214) and cytochrome c were markedly upregulated.
CONCLUSION: P. amarus extract, phyllanthin and gallic acid exhibited an apoptotic effect on HCT116 cells through the caspases-dependent pathway.
OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the ability of Palmatine to reduce the up-regulation of chaperone proteins Glucose Regulatory Protein 78 (GRP78), and Calreticulin (CALR) protein in a Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model.
METHODS: Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in Sprague Dawley rats treated with 2mg/kg of Palmatine for 12 weeks after the elevation of plasma glucose levels above 11mmol/L post-STZ administration. Proteins were extracted from the pancreas after treatment and Two-Dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), PDQuest 2-D analysis software genomic solutions and mass spectrometer were used to analyze differentially expressed protein. Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS), Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) was used for protein identification.
RESULTS: There was an up-regulation of the expression of chaperone proteins CALR and GRP78 and down-regulation of the expression of antioxidant and protection proteins peroxidoxin 4 (Prdx4), protein disulfide isomerase (PDIA2/3), Glutathione-S-Transferase (GSTs), and Serum Albumin (ALB) in non-diabetic rats. Palmatine treatment down-regulated the expression of chaperone proteins CALR and GRP78 and up-regulated the expression of Prdx4, PDIA2/3, GST, and ALB.
CONCLUSION: Palmatine may have activated antioxidant proteins, which protected the cells against reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic stress. The result is in consonance with our previous report on Palmatine.
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, an endophyte was isolated from the leaves of T. indica and screened for its antimicrobial potential.
METHODS: The selected endophyte was identified by 16s rRNA partial genome sequencing and investigated for their antimicrobial potency. The preliminary phytochemical tests were conducted for the affirmation of phytoconstituents in the endophytic crude ethyl acetate extract of T. indica (TIM) and total phenolic content was performed. The antimicrobial potential of TIM was evaluated against human pathogenic ATCC gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.
RESULTS: TIM exhibited an appreciable amount of gallic acid equivalent phenolic content (21.6 ± 0.04 mg GAE/g of crude extract). TIM showed the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) at 250 μg/mL and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) at 500 μg/mL among the selected human pathogenic ATCC strains. At MIC of 500 μg/mL, TIM displayed a significant zone of inhibition against P. aeruginosa and N. gonorrhoeae.
CONCLUSION: The results from our study highlighted for the first time the antimicrobial potential of endophytic bacterial strain Bacillus velezensis in T. indica leaves and it could be further explored as a source of natural antimicrobial agents.
OBJECTIVE: The effects of Brequinar Sodium (BQR) and 4SC-101 on lymphoblastoid cell lines were investigated.
METHODS: DHODH expression and cell proliferation inhibition of lymphoblastoid and lymphoma cell lines were analyzed using Western blot analysis and XTT assay, respectively. JC-1 probe and ATP biochemiluminescence kit were used to evaluate the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP generation in these cell lines. Furthermore, we explored the cell cycle progression using Muse™ Cell Cycle Kit.
RESULTS: Ramos, SUDHL-1 and RPMI-1788 cells are fast-growing cells with equal expression of DHODH enzyme and sensitivity to DHODH inhibitors that showed that the inhibition of DHODH was not cancer-specific. In ATP depletion assay, the non-cancerous RPMI-1788 cells showed only a minor ATP reduction compared to Ramos and SUDHL-1 (cancer) cells. In the mechanistic impact of DHODH inhibitors on non-cancerous vs cancerous cells, the mitochondrial membrane potential assay revealed that significant depolarization and cytochrome c release occurred with DHODH inhibitors treatment in Ramos but not in the RPMI-1788 cells, indicating a different mechanism of proliferation inhibition in normal cells.
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study provide evidence that DHODH inhibitors perturb the proliferation of non-cancerous cells via a distinct mechanism compared to cancerous cells. These results may lead to strategies for overcoming the impact on non-cancerous cells during treatment with DHODH inhibitors, leading to a better therapeutic window in patients.
OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to evaluate the ability of the three compounds to significantly reduce the biomass of pre-formed biofilms of MRSA and metabolic activity of the bacterial cells in the biofilm.
METHODS: The anti-biofilm activity of α-amyrin, betulinic acid and betulinaldehyde, individually and in combination with oxacillin or vancomycin, against reference strain of MRSA in pre-formed biofilm were evaluated using the crystal violet and resazurin assays.
RESULTS: α-amyrin and betulinic acid significantly reduced the biomass of pre-formed biofilms of MRSA as individual compounds and in combination with oxacillin or vancomycin. Although betulinaldehyde individually increased the biomass, selected combinations with oxacillin and vancomycin were able to reduce the biomass. All three compounds did not show cytotoxic properties on normal mammalian cells.
CONCLUSION: The three pentacyclic triterpenoids could significantly reduce pre-formed biofilm of MRSA with no cytotoxic effects on normal mammalian cells. These findings demonstrated that pentacyclic triterpenoids have the potential to be developed further as antibiofilm agents against MRSA cells in biofilms, to combat infections caused by multidrug-resistant and biofilm-forming S. aureus.