Cutaneous metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is very rare, accounting for less than 0.8% of all known cutaneous metastases and occurring in 2.7-3.4% of HCCs. With less than 50 such cases reported worldwide, most of which were diagnosed histologically on excised lesions, it can only be expected that diagnosis made on cytological features alone would be challenging. We report a case of cutaneous metastasis of HCC diagnosed based on cytological features and confirmed by Hep Par 1 immunopositivity of the cell block material. An 81-year-old man, who was known to have unresectable HCC, presented with a 1-month history of painless, left nasal alae mass. The mass measured 1.5 cm in diameter, and was multilobulated with a central necrosis. Fine needle aspiration of the mass was done. Smears were cellular, comprising of malignant cells in loose clusters and aggregates as well as singly dispersed. The malignant cells displayed moderate nuclear pleomorphism, occasional prominent nucleoli, and intranuclear pseudoinclusion. Cell block material demonstrated the trabeculae pattern of the malignant cells and Hep Par 1 immunopositivity. The final diagnosis of a metastatic cutaneous HCC was made. In conclusion, cutaneous HCC metastasis is rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with a history of HCC presenting with suspicious skin lesion. In the right clinical setting, a confident diagnosis can be made in such cases by using the fine needle aspiration technique aided with immunopositivity for Hep Par 1 antibody of the aspirated material.
Breast lesions with a significant spindle cell or mesenchymal component are not commonly encountered in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic material and include a heterologous variety of benign and malignant conditions, with phyllodes tumors (PTs) being the foremost differential diagnostic consideration. This study comprises 28 tumors diagnosed histologically as PT in which FNAC material was available for review. Histological sections and cytological smears from these cases were retrieved and subjected to detailed morphological review. Cytological parameters assessed included ratio of stroma to epithelium, pattern characteristics and cytological characteristics of the stromal, and epithelial components and the background cells. Large and hypercellular stroma fragments, dissociated spindle and plump stromal cells, often accompanied by large, folded sheets of epithelium were cytological features that characterized PT. Smears from malignant PT showed predominantly or solely mesenchymal components. FNAC was a highly reliable procedure for the diagnosis of PT, giving an accuracy rate of 92.8%.
Three patients presenting with parotid, submandibular, and/or lymph node masses were subjected to fine-needle aspiration cytology. Smears showed dissociated and clustered endothelial cells, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and Warthin Finkeldey giant cells. In two cases a diagnosis of Kimura's disease was suggested from the FNA cytologic smears. In the third case the presence of mononucleate cells with prominent nucleoli led to a suspicion of Hodgkin's disease. Excision biopsy and histopathologic study established a diagnosis of Kimura's disease in all three cases.
Columnar cell variant of papillary carcinoma (CCV-PC) thyroid is a rare and aggressive tumor composed of tall columnar cells that form papillae, glands and solid structures. This paper describes fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features in a case of CCV-PC occurring in the right thyroid lobe of a 27-year-old female. Smears showed tall columnar cells in monolayered, three-dimensional, acinar and occasional papillary clusters. Nuclei were oval or elongated and monomorphic. Nuclear pseudostratification, resembling that seen in respiratory epithelial cells, was present in some of the cell clusters. Occasional cells showed squamous or Hurthle cell metaplasia. Nuclear grooves and intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions were not seen. Sections of the right lobectomy specimen showed an well-encapsulated CCV-PC with capsular and vascular permeation. Tall cell variant of papillary carcinoma (TCV-PC) can be distinguished from CCV-PC by the oxyphilia of the tumor cells and the absence of nuclear pseudostratification. Colorectal and endometrial adenocarcinomas metastatic to the thyroid may be difficult to distinguish from CCV-PC.
Over a 32-month period at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, we were able to study the cytological appearance of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in 17 cases. This comprised 14 males and three females of which 13 were Chinese, three were Malay, and one was Indian. Their ages ranged from 27 to 64 years. Histological correlation was available in all the patients in the form of nasopharyngeal biopsies, and they were classified as per the World Health Organization classification into types I, II, and III NPC. Smears from type II NPC showed good cellularity with mainly clustered and occasionally dissociated cells, with focal columnar appearance, vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and variable amounts of cytoplasm. Clusters of malignant cell closely associated with lymphoid cells and dissociation of malignant cells were more characteristic of type III NPC. FNA cytology is now applied extensively to the diagnosis of head and neck tumours and knowledge of the cytomorphology of NPC would greatly aid in pinpointing the primary of this tumour which is notorious for presenting with early nodal metastasis.
Primary sarcomas of the breast are extremely rare comprising less than 1.0% of all malignant tumors of the breast. It is even rarer to be reported in a 25-year-old female. This can cause a diagnostic dilemma not only for the clinician but also for the cytopathologist. A 25-year-old woman presented with a well defined firm, mobile lump in her right breast. With fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and ultrasonography a diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made. The patient underwent lumpectomy. Histopathologically it was diagnosed as myxoid liposarcoma. This case is reported to highlight the fact that, even though rare in young females but the possibility of a breast lump being a myxoid liposarcoma does exist. This report discusses a primary myxoid liposarcoma of female breast, considers cytologic differential diagnoses with review of the relevant literature.
Angiosarcoma of the thyroid is a rare and aggressive primary malignant tumor of the thyroid originally reported in patients from the Swiss Alpine region. Diagnosis of this tumor rests mainly on characteristic histopathological features of a malignant vascular tumor supported by immunopositivity for vascular markers e.g., CD31, Factor VIII, and CD34. Its cytological features, however, are not well-defined. We describe a case of primary angiosarcoma of the thyroid in a 48-year-old female, who presented with a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with compressive symptoms. She had a history of hypothyroidism. The initial fine needle aspiration cytology of the neck mass was negative. She then underwent left hemithyroidectomy. Histologically, the tumor showed poorly differentiated malignant cells with eccentrically-placed nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and intracytoplasmic vacuoles admixed with mixed inflammatory cells. These showed immunopositivity for CD31 but were negative for CD34, Factor VIII, CK5/6, EMA, TTF-1, Thyroglobulin, Calcitonin, Melan A, and Calretinin. A diagnosis of poorly differentiated malignant tumor consistent with angiosarcoma was made. The patient was treated with radiation therapy but developed recurrence of the tumor. Second aspiration cytology of the recurrent tumor yielded hypocellular smears containing singularly dispersed atypical cells having eccentrically-placed nuclei with prominent macronucleoli and intracytoplasmic vacuoles within a background of inflammatory cells, consistent with recurrent angiosarcoma. Chemotherapy was started but she succumbed to the disease 7 months after diagnosis. The cytological, histopathological, immunohistochemical findings, and the clinical course are discussed.
Tumors of dendritic reticulum cells are rare neoplasms that exhibit significant morphologic overlap with other malignancies. Fine-needle aspiration cytologic appearances of this neoplasm are not well understood. A 33-yr-old woman presented with a rapidly growing nodular mass in the right upper cervical region and right-sided ptosis. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the mass showed dissociated as well as clustered, large, polygonal cells that showed high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. Nuclei were round, oval, or irregular in shape. Large and small blastoid forms with prominent nucleoli and chromatin clumping as well as binucleated cells and cells with lobulated nuclei were seen. Numerous mitoses were observed. The tumor cells expressed focal immunocytochemical reactivity to CD45 and CD68, but were negative for CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD30, CD45RO, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), cytokeratin, and HMB45. Histologic sections of the biopsy from the growth showed nodal tissue effaced by a tumor composed of large, pleomorphic neoplastic cells with some binucleate and multinucleate forms resembling Reed-Sternberg cells. The intervening stroma contained numerous small lymphocytes. Tumor cells expressed vimentin, S-100 protein, CD68, and MAC387, but were negative for LCA, CD1a, CD3, CD15, CD20, CD21, CD23, CD30, CD35, carcino-embryonic antigen, HMB45, cytokeratin AE1/3, EMA, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, smooth-muscle actin, and desmin. The combined histologic and immunohistologic features suggested a histiocytic/dendritic reticulum cell neoplasm and a diagnosis of interdigitating dendritic reticulum cell sarcoma was made.