Breast cancer is a leading cause of mortality in women. In Malaysia, it is the most common cancer to affect women. The most common form of breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). A proteomic approach was undertaken to identify protein profile changes between cancerous and normal breast tissues from 18 patients. Two protein extracts; aqueous soluble and membrane associated protein extracts were studied. Thirty four differentially expressed proteins were identified. The intensities of the proteins were used as variables in PCA and reduced data of six principal components (PC) were subjected to LDA in order to evaluate the potential of these proteins as collective biomarkers for breast cancer. The protein intensities of SEC13-like 1 (isoform b) and calreticulin contributed the most to the first PC while the protein intensities of fibrinogen beta chain precursor and ATP synthase D chain contributed the most to the second PC. Transthyretin precursor and apolipoprotein A-1 precursor contributed the most to the third PC. The results of LDA indicated good classification of samples into normal and cancerous types when the first 6 PCs were used as the variables. The percentage of correct classification was 91.7% for the originally grouped tissue samples and 88.9% for cross-validated samples.
Chemokines influence the migration of leukocytes to secondary lymphoid tissue and sites of inflammation. In HIV patients, they are implicated in inflammatory complications of antiretroviral therapy (ART), notably Immune Reconstitution Disease (IRD) and Sensory Neuropathy (SN). However most chemokines have not been monitored as patients begin ART or correlated with IRD and SN.
Female breast cancer is one of the leading causes of female mortality worldwide. In Malaysia, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Of the women in Malaysia, the Chinese have the highest number of breast cancer cases, followed by the Indian and the Malay. The most common type of breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). A proteomic approach was applied in this study to identify changes in the protein profile of cancerous tissues compared with normal tissues from 18 patients; 8 Chinese, 6 Malay and 4 Indian were analysed. Twenty-four differentially expressed hydrophilic proteins were identified. We evaluated the potential of these proteins as biomarkers for infiltrating ductal carcinoma based on their ethnic-specific expressions. Three of the upregulated proteins, calreticulin, 14-3-3 protein zeta and 14-3-3 protein eta, were found to be expressed at a significantly higher level in the cancerous breast tissues when compared with the normal tissues in cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The upregulation in expression was particularly dominant in the Malay cohort.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.
To investigate the cytokine profile as biomarkers in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis (CP) patients with and without obesity, MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and SCOPUS databases were combined with handsearching of articles published from 1977 up to May 2016 using relevant MeSH terms. Meta-analyses were conducted separately for each of the cytokines: resistin, adiponectin, TNF-α, leptin, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β. Forest plots were produced reporting standardized mean difference of outcomes and 95% confidence intervals. Eleven studies were included. Three studies showed comparable levels of leptin among obese and nonobese patients with CP. Four studies reported comparable levels of interleukin- (IL-) 6 and resistin whereas five studies reported comparable levels of adiponectin. Two studies reported similar levels of CRP in patients with periodontitis with and without obesity. One study showed higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in obese patients with CP. One study showed higher levels of IL-1β and IL-8 in obese patients with CP. The level of localized periodontal inflammation may have a greater influence on the GCF proinflammatory biomarker levels as compared to systemic obesity. Whether patients having chronic periodontitis with obesity have elevated proinflammatory GCF biomarkers levels compared to nonobese individuals remains debatable.
Apart from their canonical role in ribosome biogenesis, there is increasing evidence of ribosomal protein genes' involvement in various cancers. A previous study by us revealed significant differential expression of three ribosomal protein genes (RPeL27, RPeL41, and RPeL43) between cell lines derived from tumor and normal nasopharyngeal epithelium. However, the results therein were based on a semiquantitative assay, thus preliminary in nature. Herein, we provide findings of a deeper analysis of these three genes in the context to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tumorigenesis. Their expression patterns were analyzed in a more quantitative manner at transcript level. Their protein expression levels were also investigated. We showed results that are contrary to previous report. Rather than downregulation, these genes were significantly overexpressed in NPC cell lines compared to normal control at both transcript and protein levels. Nevertheless, their association with NPC has been established. Immunoprecipitation pulldown assays indicate the plausible interaction of either RPeL27 or RPeL43 with POTEE/TUBA1A and ACTB/ACTBL2 complexes. In addition, RPeL43 is shown to bind with MRAS and EIF2S1 proteins in a NPC cell line (HK1). Our findings support RPeL27, RPeL41, and RPeL43 as potential markers of NPC and provide insights into the interaction targets of RPeL27 and RPeL43 proteins.
Background. Several studies in the last decades have focused on finding a precise method for the diagnosis of periodontal disease in its early stages. Aim. To evaluate from current scientific literature the most common and precise method for gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) sample collection, biomarker analytical methods, and the variability of biomarker quantification, even when using the same analytical technique. Methodology. An electronic search was conducted on in vivo studies that presented clinical data on techniques used for GCF collection and biomarker analysis. Results. The results showed that 71.1%, 24.7%, and 4.1% of the studies used absorption, microcapillary, and washing techniques, respectively, in their gingival crevicular fluid collection. 73.1% of the researchers analyzed their samples by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 22.6%, 19.5%, and 18.5% of the researchers included interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), respectively, in their studies as biomarkers for periodontal disease. Conclusion. IL-1β can be considered among the most common biomarkers that give precise results and can be used as an indicator of periodontal disease progression. Furthermore, paper strips are the most convenient and accurate method for gingival crevicular fluid collection, while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can be considered the most conventional method for the diagnosis of biofluids.
In the last decades, leptospirosis had gained public health concern due to morbidity and mortality rates caused by pathogenic Leptospira. The need for rapid and robust molecular typing methods to differentiate this zoonotic pathogen is of utmost importance. Various studies had been conducted to determine the genetic relatedness of Leptospira isolates using molecular typing methods. In this study, 29 pathogenic Leptospira isolates from rat, soil, and water samples in Sarawak, Malaysia, were characterized using BOX-PCR and ERIC-PCR. The effectiveness of these two methods with regard to the ease of interpretation, reproducibility, typeability, and discriminatory power was also being evaluated. Using BOX-PCR, six clusters and 3 single isolates were defined at a genetic distance percentage of 11.2%. ERIC-PCR clustered the isolates into 6 clusters and 2 single isolates at a genetic distance percentage of 6.8%. Both BOX-PCR and ERIC-PCR produced comparable results though the discriminatory index for ERIC-PCR (0.826) was higher than that for BOX-PCR (0.809). From the constructed dendrogram, it could be summarized that the isolates in this study were highly heterogeneous and genetically diverse. The findings from this study indicated that there is no genetic relatedness among the pathogenic Leptospira isolates in relation to the locality, source, and identity, with some exceptions. Out of the 29 pathogenic Leptospira isolates studied, BOX-PCR and ERIC-PCR successfully discriminated 4 isolates (2 isolates each) into the same cluster in relation to sample sources, as well as 2 isolates into the same cluster in association with the sample locality. Future studies shall incorporate the use of other molecular typing methods to make a more thorough comparison on the genetic relatedness of pathogenic Leptospira.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly metastatic cancer prevalent in Southern China and Southeast Asia. The current knowledge on the molecular pathogenesis of NPC is still inadequate to improve disease management. Using gene expression microarrays, we have identified the four-jointed box 1 (FJX1) gene to be upregulated in primary NPC tissues relative to nonmalignant tissues. An orthologue of human FJX1, the four-jointed (fj) gene in Drosophila and Fjx1 in mouse, has reported to be associated with cancer progression pathways. However, the exact function of FJX1 in human is not well characterized. The overexpression of FJX1 mRNA was validated in primary NPC tissue samples, and the level of FJX1 protein was significantly higher in a subset of NPC tissues (42%) compared to the normal epithelium, where no expression of FJX1 was observed (p = 0.01). FJX1 is also found to be overexpressed in microarray datasets and TCGA datasets of other cancers including head and neck cancer, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. Both siRNA knockdown and overexpression experiments in NPC cell lines showed that FJX1 promotes cell proliferation, anchorage-dependent growth, and cellular invasion. Cyclin D1 and E1 mRNA levels were increased following FJX1 expression indicating that FJX1 enhances proliferation by regulating key proteins governing the cell cycle. Our data suggest that the overexpression of FJX1 contributes to a more aggressive phenotype of NPC cells and further investigations into FJX1 as a potential therapeutic target for NPC are warranted. The evaluation of FJX1 as an immunotherapy target for NPC and other cancers is currently ongoing.
The ceramide synthase 2 (CERS2) gene has been linked to tumour recurrence and invasion in many different types of cancers including bladder cancer. In this study, the expression levels of CERS2 in bladder cancer cell lines were analysed using qRT-PCR and the protein expression in clinical bladder cancer histopathological specimens were examined via immunohistochemistry. The potential utility of CERS2 as a predictive biomarker of response to oncolytic virotherapy was assessed by correlating the CERS2 mRNA expression to IC50 values of cells treated with the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), AF2240 strain. This study demonstrates that CERS2 is differentially expressed in different types of bladder cancer cell lines and that the siRNA-mediated downregulation of the expression of CERS2 reduces the migratory potential of UMUC1 bladder cancer cells. However, there were no significant correlations between the expression levels of the CERS2 protein with bladder cancer grade/stage or between the IC50 values of cells treated with NDV and CERS2 expression. Although the utility of CERS2 expression may be limited, its potential as an antimigration cancer therapeutic should be further examined.