METHODS: A convenience sample of 96 HIV-positive and 104 HIV-negative incarcerated men who met pre-incarceration criteria for opioid dependence was interviewed using a structured questionnaire to examine participant characteristics and attitudes toward MMT. Factors associated with interest in prison-based MMT initiation were identified using logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: Among all participants, 85 (42.5%) were interested in receiving MMT within prison. Independent correlates of interest in prison-based MMT were being previously married (AOR=4.15, 95% CI: 1.15, 15.02), previously incarcerated (AOR=5.68, 95% CI: 1.54, 21.02), depression (AOR=3.66, 95% CI: 1.68, 7.98), daily heroin use in the 30days prior to incarceration (AOR=5.53, 95% CI: 1.65, 18.58), and more favorable attitudes toward MMT (AOR=19.82, 95% CI: 6.07, 64.74).
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, interest in receiving prison-based MMT was low, and was associated with adverse social, mental health, and drug use consequences. Incarceration provides a unique opportunity to initiate MMT for those who need it, however, optimal scale-up efforts must be systemic and address modifiable factors like improving attitudes toward and motivation for MMT. Informed or shared decision-making tools may be useful in improving expectations and acceptability of MMT.
METHODS: The cold pressor pain responses of 148 opioid dependent patients receiving MMT were evaluated using the cold pressor test (CPT). DNA was extracted from whole blood and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-genotyping.
RESULTS: Of the 148 subjects, 77 (52.0%) were carriers of CYP2B6*6 allele. CYP2B6*6 allele carriers had shorter cold pain threshold and pain tolerance times than non-carriers of CYP2B6*6 allele (21.05s vs 33.69s, p=0.036 and 27.15s vs 44.51s, p=0.020, respectively). Pain intensity scores of the CYP2B6*6 allele carriers was 67.55, whereas that of the CYP2B6*6 allele non-carriers was 64.86 (p=0.352).
CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that the CYP2B6*6 allele is associated with a lower pain threshold and lower pain tolerance among males with opioid dependence on MMT. The CYP2B6*6 allele may provide a mechanistic explanation for clinical observations of heightened pain sensitivity among opioid dependent patients receiving MMT.
AIMS: This mixed method study examined the prevalence, correlates, and social context of WP-DI among HIV-infected male prisoners in Indonesia.
METHODS: 102 randomly selected HIV-infected male prisoners completed semi-structured voice-recorded interviews about drug use changes after arrest, drug use cues within prison, and impact of WP-DI on HIV and addiction treatment. Logistic regression identified multivariate correlates of WP-DI and thematic analysis of interview transcripts used grounded-theory.
RESULTS: Over half (56%) of participants reported previous WP-DI. Of those, 93% shared injection equipment in prison, and 78.6% estimated sharing needles with ≥ 10 other prisoners. Multivariate analyses independently correlated WP-DI with being incarcerated for drug offenses (AOR = 3.29, 95%CI = 1.30-8.31, p = 0.011) and daily drug injection before arrest (AOR = 5.23, 95%CI = 1.42-19.25, p = 0.013). Drug availability and proximity to drug users while incarcerated were associated with frequent drug craving and escalating drug use risk behaviors after arrest. Energetic heroin marketing and stigmatizing attitudes toward methadone contribute to WP-DI and impede addiction and HIV treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Frequent WP-DI and needle sharing among these HIV-infected Indonesian prison inmates indicate the need for structural interventions that reduce overcrowding, drug supply, and needle sharing, and improve detection and treatment of substance use disorders upon incarceration to minimize WP-DI and associated harm.
METHODS: Participants with opioid and ATS dependence (N = 69) were enrolled in a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial; all received buprenorphine/naloxone and behavioral counseling and were randomized to atomoxetine 80 mg daily (n = 33) or placebo (n = 33). The effect size of the between-group difference on the primary outcome, proportion of ATS-negative urine tests, was estimated using Cohen's d for the intention-to-treat (ITT) sample and for higher adherence subsample (≥60 days of atomoxetine or placebo ingestion).
RESULTS: Participants were all male with mean (SD) age 39.4 (6.8) years. The proportion of ATS-negative urine tests was higher in atomoxetine- compared to placebo-treated participants: 0.77 (0.63-0.91) vs. 0.67 (0.53-0.81, d = 0.26) in the ITT sample and 0.90 (0.75-1.00) vs. 0.64 (0.51-0.78, d = 0.56) in the higher adherence subsample. The proportion of days abstinent from ATS increased from baseline in both groups (p
METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 100 HIV+ prisoners with AUDs. Participants were randomized 2:1 to receive 6 monthly injections of XR-NTX or placebo starting one week prior to release. Using multiple imputation strategies for data missing completely at random, data were analyzed for the 6-month post-incarceration period. Main outcomes included: time to first heavy drinking day; number of standardized drinks/drinking day; percent of heavy drinking days; pre- to post-incarceration change in average drinks/day; total number of drinking days; and a composite alcohol improvement score comprised of all 5 parameters.
RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference overall between treatment arms for time-to-heavy-drinking day. However, participants aged 20-29 years who received XR-NTX had a longer time to first heavy drinking day compared to the placebo group (24.1 vs. 9.5days; p<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for other individual drinking outcomes. A sub-analysis, however, found participants who received ≥4 XR-NTX were more likely (p<0.005) to have improved composite alcohol scores than the placebo group. Post-hoc power analysis revealed that despite the study being powered for HIV outcomes, sufficient power (0.94) was available to distinguish the observed differences.
CONCLUSIONS: Among CJS-involved PLH with AUDs transitioning to the community, XR-NTX lengthens the time to heavy drinking day for younger persons; reduces alcohol consumption when using a composite alcohol consumption score; and is not associated with any serious adverse events.
METHODS: Survey results from 1613 randomly selected PWID from 5 regions in Ukraine who were currently, previously or never on OAT were analyzed for their preference of pharmacological therapies for treating OUDs. For those preferring XR-NTX, independent correlates of their willingness to initiate XR-NTX were examined.
RESULTS: Among the 1613 PWID, 449 (27.8%) were interested in initiating XR-NTX. Independent correlates associated with interest in XR-NTX included: being from Mykolaiv (AOR=3.7, 95% CI=2.3-6.1) or Dnipro (AOR=1.8, 95% CI=1.1-2.9); never having been on OAT (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=2.1-5.4); shorter-term injectors (AOR=0.9, 95% CI 0.9-0.98); and inversely for both positive (AOR=0.8, CI=0.8-0.9), and negative attitudes toward OAT (AOR=1.3, CI=1.2-1.4), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: In the context of Eastern Europe and Central Asia where HIV is concentrated in PWID and where HIV prevention with OAT is under-scaled, new options for treating OUDs are urgently needed.
FINDINGS: here suggest that XR-NTX could become an option for addiction treatment and HIV prevention especially for PWID who have shorter duration of injection and who harbor negative attitudes to OAT. Decision aids that inform patient preferences with accurate information about the various treatment options are likely to guide patients toward better, patient-centered treatments and improve treatment entry and retention.
OBJECTIVES: To identify novel biomarkers able to discriminate between alcohol-dependent, non-AD alcohol drinkers and controls using metabolomics.
METHOD: Urine samples were collected from 30 alcohol-dependent persons who did not yet start AD treatment, 54 social drinkers and 60 controls, who were then analysed using NMR. Data analysis was done using multivariate analysis including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA), followed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression to develop the discriminatory model. The reproducibility was done using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
RESULTS: The OPLS-DA revealed significant discrimination between AD and other groups with sensitivity 86.21%, specificity 97.25% and accuracy 94.93%. Six biomarkers were significantly associated with AD in the multivariate logistic regression model. These biomarkers were cis-aconitic acid, citric acid, alanine, lactic acid, 1,2-propanediol and 2-hydroxyisovaleric acid. The reproducibility of all biomarkers was excellent (0.81-1.0).
CONCLUSION: This study revealed that metabolomics analysis of urine using NMR identified AD novel biomarkers which can discriminate AD from social drinkers and controls with high accuracy.