Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common type of benign salivary gland tumor. It can also be found in the larynx, ear, neck, and nasal septum. It is rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and it has never been reported in the frontal sinus. We report a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the frontal sinus that masqueraded as a mucocele. We discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this patient, and we review the literature.
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare subtype of squamous cell carcinoma. To date, only 95 cases of sinonasal BSCC have been reported in the English-language literature, and they account for 5% of all cases of head and neck BSCC. We describe what we believe is only the second reported case of a sinonasal tract BSCC that metastasized to the liver. The patient was a 36-year-old woman who presented with right-sided nasal obstruction and a foul-smelling discharge. Clinical examination and imaging identified a large, lobulated, enhancing mass in the right nasal cavity. Following excision of the mass, the patient was scheduled for radiotherapy. However, before it could be administered, follow-up imaging detected a metastasis to the liver and lung, and the patient was switched to chemotherapy. Initially, she responded well clinically, but at 5 months postoperatively, a follow-up CT showed an increasing metastatic presence in the liver and bone. The patient died of her disease 1 year after surgery.
Approximately 25% of all cases of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) occur in the head and neck region; NHL of the external auditory canal (EAC) and thyroid gland are rare. Specific immunohistochemical staining of the excised tissue is required to confirm the final pathologic diagnosis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with underlying systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune hemolytic anemia that were in remission. She presented with chronic left ear pain, a mass in the left EAC, and rapid growth of an anterior neck swelling that had led to left vocal fold palsy. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone and CT of the neck detected a mass lateral to the left tympanic membrane and another mass in the anterior neck that had infiltrated the thyroid gland. The patient was diagnosed with simultaneous B-cell lymphoma of the left EAC and thyroid gland. She was treated with chemotherapy. She responded well to treatment and was lost to follow-up after 1 year. To the best of our knowledge, the simultaneous occurrence of a lymphoma in the EAC and the thyroid has not been previously described in the literature.
We encountered a patient with a tongue base lymphoma that we initially diagnosed as a lingual tonsil in view of its benign appearance. We established the correct diagnosis of Waldeyer ring lymphoma by histology. This case led us to conduct a study of all cases of Waldeyer ring lymphoma that had been treated at our center during a 10-year period. We retrospectively examined our case records and found 35 such cases. From this group, we excluded 5 cases because of incomplete data. Thus our final study group was made up of 30 patients-14 males and 16 females, aged 14 to 76 years (mean: 51.6; median 54). The primary presenting signs and symptoms were dysphagia (n = 17 [57%]), a neck mass (n = 7 [23%]), nasal symptoms (n = 5 [17%]), and pain (n = 1 [3%]). Only 4 patients (13%) had B symptoms. A total of 20 patients (67%) presented with tonsillar involvement, 8 (27%) with nasopharyngeal involvement, 1 (3%) with tongue base lymphoma, and 1 with anterior tongue involvement. Most patients (77%) presented at an early stage. Histologically, 25 patients (83%) had high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 4 (13%) had T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, and 1 (3%) had follicular lymphoma. Twenty-one patients (70%) were treated with chemotherapy, 4 (13%) received adjuvant chemotherapy with either radiotherapy or surgery, 3 (10%) resorted to other forms of treatment (primarily traditional remedies), and 2 (7%) declined treatment altogether. There were 14 patients (47%) alive at the end of the study period.
Nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) middle ear infection is a rare cause of chronic bilateral intermittent otorrhea. We report a rare case of bilateral NTM middle ear infection in which a 55-year-old woman presented with intermittent otorrhea of 40 years' duration. The patient was treated medically with success. We conclude that NTM is a rare but probably under-recognized cause of chronic otitis media. A high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis to avoid prolonged morbidity. Treatment includes surgical clearance of infected tissue with appropriate antimycobacterial drugs, which are selected based on culture and sensitivity.
We conducted a retrospective observational study to determine the spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of organisms isolated in otorhinolaryngologic (ORL) infections. We reviewed the laboratory culture and sensitivity records of 4,909 patients-2,773 males (56.5%) and 2,136 females (43.5%), aged 2 to 90 years (mean: 45.3 ± 12.6)-who had been seen at two government hospitals in Malaysia. Of this group, 4,332 patients had a respiratory tract infection (88.2%), 206 had an ear infection (4.2%), 188 had a deep neck infection (3.8%), and 183 had an oropharyngeal infection (3.7%). The most common isolated organisms were Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible S aureus, coagulase-negative S aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii. We also identified the antimicrobial susceptibility of these organisms. We conclude that since the spectrum of causative pathogens in some infections differs between tropical and nontropical areas of the world, tropical hospitals should not completely adopt the antibiotic guidelines for ORL infections that have been recommended for hospitals in nontropical regions. We hope that our review and analysis of local data will help practitioners in Malaysia develop an appropriate prescribing policy with respect to ORL pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility. The goal is to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with these infections.
Schwannomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are quite rare, especially in the nasal vestibule. We report the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening right-sided epistaxis and nasal blockage. Rigid nasoendoscopy showed a mobile, smooth, globular mass occupying the right nasal vestibule. The mass arose from the lateral nasal wall and impinged on the anterior part of the middle turbinate posteriorly. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses showed a 3.8 × 1.7-cm enhancing mass in the right nostril. The mass obliterated the nasal cavity and caused mild deviation of the septum. The preoperative histopathologic examination showed positivity for vimentin and S-100 protein, suggesting a diagnosis of schwannoma. The patient underwent an intranasal laser-assisted excision biopsy. The histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and no recurrence was seen in the follow-up period.
We report the case of a 30-year-old woman who was referred to us for evaluation of a 2-week history of fever, headache, vomiting, bilateral ptosis, and blurred vision. Imaging obtained by the referring institution had identified a sphenoid sinus mass and diffuse meningeal infiltration, which was thought to represent an infective process. We subsequently identified the mass as a metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The patient was placed under palliative care, and she died 1 month later. Metastases to the sphenoid sinus from any primary source are very rare, and they are generally not considered in the radiologic differential diagnosis. HCC is known to metastasize to the lung, lymph nodes, and musculoskeletal system; again, reported cases of metastasis to the sphenoid sinus are rare. Indeed, our review of the English-language literature found only 6 previously reported cases of sinonasal metastasis of a primary HCC. A diagnosis of a sinonasal metastasis is more difficult in a patient who has no previous diagnosis of a primary malignancy. In presenting this case, our aim is to remind readers of this possibility.
Carcinosarcoma is a highly aggressive and infiltrative tumor. A finding of this tumor in a paranasal sinus is exceedingly rare. We describe the case of a 61-year-old man who presented with a mass on the left side of his face. The mass was excised via a total maxillectomy with a modified radical neck dissection. Histologic analysis identified a mixture of carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. Within 1 month of surgery, the patient developed a sternal metastasis, and he died within a short period of time. The aggressive nature of this tumor and its metastases demand early diagnosis and prompt treatment.
As many as 31% of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma present with intracranial extension. Despite this high percentage, extension to the cerebellopontine angle is rare. The mechanism of tumor spread to the cerebellopontine angle is not completely understood. The most likely mechanism is direct extension to the skull base with involvement of the petrous apex and further extension posteriorly via the medial tentorial edge. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had been treated initially with chemoradiation and subsequently with stereotactic radiosurgery for residual tumor. One year later, she presented with an intracranial recurrence of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the cerebellopontine angle; the recurrence mimicked a benign tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor was ultimately diagnosed as an undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal origin. She was treated with palliative chemotherapy.
Atopy is a syndrome characterized by immediate hypersensitivity reactions to common environmental antigens. The "hygiene hypothesis" stipulates that childhood infections are associated with a lower risk of allergies. Not much has been published about the effects that the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has on allergies, specifically allergic rhinitis. We conducted a study to investigate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in patients with pulmonary TB before and after treatment of their TB. Our initial study group was made up of 121 patients with confirmed pulmonary TB who were followed up by questionnaire. In addition to demographic data, they provided information about their personal and family history of atopy and their current status with regard to allergic rhinitis. After providing informed consent, all patients underwent skin-prick testing with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and Blomia tropicalis allergens before and after TB treatment. Stool samples were obtained to identify patients with worm infestation, and they were excluded from the study. In all, 94 patients completed treatment and follow-up, and their data were included in the final analysis. Of this group, 31 patients (33.0%) exhibited symptoms of allergic rhinitis prior to TB treatment, and 26 (27.7%) had a positive skin-prick test. Following treatment, only 12 patients (12.8%) reported allergic rhinitis symptoms (p = 0.004), but there was no significant reduction in the number of patients with a positive skin-prick test (n = 20 [21.3%]; p = 0.555). We conclude that the treatment of pulmonary TB results in significant relief of atopy, particularly allergic rhinitis symptoms.
Chronic subdural hematoma as a complication of lumbar drain placement for the management of iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak has not been previously documented in the literature. We describe such a case in a 69-year-old man who presented with right nasal obstruction secondary to an inverted papilloma involving the paranasal sinuses. The patient underwent endoscopic sinus surgery, which included a medial maxillectomy. Surgery was complicated by a small CSF leak, which was repaired intraoperatively. Five days later, the patient experienced CSF rhinorrhea, and a lumbar drain was inserted. He developed overdrainage symptoms but was well when he was discharged. However, 22 days later he returned with right hemiparesis. Computed tomography of the brain showed a left frontoparietal subdural hematoma with a mass effect. The neurosurgical team performed an emergency drainage procedure, and the patient experienced a complete neurologic recovery. We discuss the pitfalls of lumbar drainage, the possible pathophysiology of overdrainage, and the lessons learned from this case.
Otogenic brain abscess and postauricular fistula are complications of chronic suppurative otitis media. We describe a rare case of bilateral chronic suppurative otitis media that caused a left temporal lobe abscess and a right mastoid fistula.
We report the rare occurrence of bilateral asymmetrical mucoceles of the paranasal sinuses that resulted in a unilateral orbital complication. The patient was a 47-year-old woman who presented with complaints of diplopia, blurred vision, and protrusion of her right eye that had progressed over a period of several months following an upper respiratory tract infection. Computed tomography detected the presence of two large, asymmetrical mucoceles. The lesion on the right involved the frontal and ethmoid sinuses, and the one on the left involved the ethmoid sinus. The mucoceles were locally expansile and had eroded the surrounding bony structures on the right. The expansile nature of the right-sided mass had displaced the right orbit, which was the cause of the vision deterioration. Transnasal endoscopic surgery was performed to excise and marsupialize the mucoceles. This modality was preferred over conventional open surgery because it affords good visualization, it is safe, and it is a less morbid procedure. The patient's recovery was uneventful, and she was discharged home on the third postoperative day. On continuing follow-up, her vision had improved, her intraocular pressure had returned to normal, and her orbits were in their normal position. Based on our literature search, no case of bilateral frontal and ethmoid sinus mucoceles has been previously reported.
Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare plasma cell proliferative disorder with a predilection for the head and neck region. Occasionally, it presents as a solitary lesion in the nasal cavity. We report a case of an isolated lesion in the middle turbinate of the right nasal cavity. The lesion was completely excised via an endoscopic approach. We also review the pathology and management of plasmacytomas in general.