Background: Summative assessment in postgraduate examination globally employs multiple measures. A standard-setting method decides on pass or fail based on an arbitrarily defined cut-off point on a test score, which is often content expert’s subjective judgment. Contrary to this a standard-setting strategy primarily practices two approaches, a compensatory approach, which decides on overall performance as a sum of all the test scores and a conjunctive approach that requires passing performance for each instrument. However, the challenge using multiple measures is not due to number of measurement tools but due to logic by which the measures are combined to draw inferences on pass or fail in summative assessment. Conjoint University Board of Examination of Masters’ of Otolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS) in Malaysia also uses multiple measures to reach a passing or failing decision in summative assessment. However, the standard setting strategy of assessment is loosely and variably applied to make ultimate decision on pass or fail. To collect the evidences, the summative assessment program of Masters’ of ORL-HNS in School of Medical Sciences at Universiti Sains Malaysia was analyzed for validity to evaluate the appropriateness of decisions in postgraduate medical education in Malaysia. Methodology: A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the validity of the conjoint summative assessment results of part II examination of USM candidates during May 2000-May 2011. The Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression tests were used to determine the discriminant and convergent validity of assessment tools. Pearson’s correlation coefficient analyzed the association between assessment tools and the multiple linear regression compared the dominant roles of factor variables in predicting outcomes. Based on outcome of the study, reforms for standard-setting strategy are also recommended towards programming the assessment in a surgical-based discipline. Results: The correlation coefficients of MCQ and essay questions were found not significant (0.16). Long and short cases were shown to have good correlations (0.53). Oral test stood as a component to show fair correlation with written (0.39-0.42) as well as clinical component (0.50-0.66). The predictive values in written tests suggested MCQ predicted by oral (B=0.34, P
The impact of good assessment in medical education depends on how appropriately the tools measure the clinical performance and how reliable, valid and feasible they are to achieve the logical decision. The traditional methods of clinical examination using long and short cases and orals are often argued for its subjectivity, low reliability and inadequate context specificity. Oral test though comparatively more valid due to its face-to-face questions are considered less reliable for problems of unstandardized questions, inconsistent marking and lack of sufficient testing time. Development of an “objective structured clinical examination” (OSCE) was sought as a solution to these problems. But the fragmented representation of the context in a number of stations in OSCE makes it less authentic for an integrated judgment of performance. Yet another method to thought of, was the workplace-based assessment (WPBA) but it takes a snapshot as a predefined attribute of a more complex integrated assessment such as long case. However due to the problem of feasibility it is less likely that high stakes examination as summative assessment will ever be able to attain workplace-based assessment such as Mini-CEX and DOPS. A TOACS (task oriented assessment of clinical skills) format currently used in high stakes fellowship examination in one of the center and claimed to have more active role for examiners was analyzed and compared with OSCE. Author however, did not find a difference except the difference of acronyms of the two formats. Both have multiple, fragmented static or interactive stations of 5-10 minutes duration with or without examiners, patients or exhibits and a marking scheme comprising of checklist or global rating. In the backdrop of this context a new assessment format named the ‘task integrated objective structured clinical examination” or TIOSCE modified from OSCE is currently developed in School of Medical Sciences (SMS) at USM. However, it is a different version of OSCE in which though the principle concept is the same as that of an OSCE, the continuum of clinical skill’s work up of the same patient’s is followed through to test multiple short attributes of clinical competences. As it retains most of the favorable features, TIOSCE also addresses some of the odds features of OSCE.
Objective: Missing values is commonly encountered in data analysis in all types of research. Various methods were introduced to handle this matter. This study aims to compare the result of using complete data analysis, missing indicator method, means substitution and single imputation in dealing with this issue. Methods: 202 patients who were discharged from the psychiatric ward, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) from 27th August 2007 to 15th April 2008 were recruited. The general psychopathology was measured with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-24). The information on age, gender, race, marital status and psychiatric diagnosis were collected. On follow up, the patients who had early readmission (
Background: Competence-based curriculum has become the need of medical education to meet the objectives of institutions aiming to produce skilled physicians. To achieve the optimal competence and performance of graduates a number of traditional evaluation exercises have been practiced. Some of these e.g. OSCE although meet the acceptable standard of reliability and validity is the assessment done in a controlled environment. This leaves the room for performance-based assessment in real clinical situation such as mini clinical evaluation exercise (Mini-CEX). To practice and meet the challenges of Mini-CEX it is vital to undertake faculty development program with a comprehensively chalked down Mini-CEX protocol and its objectives to achieve the intended outcome. Objective: To undertake faculty development on Mini-CEX for its feasibility and acceptability as a method of formative assessment to evaluate the clinical competence of trainees in postgraduate program of Otolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery. Method: 25 trainees from the four classes of master of surgery program of 2009 in Otolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS) undertook Mini-CEX encounters and assessed by 9 supervisors in a 12-week period of study. Faculty development program was carried out through prior lectures deliberating on background, concept and procedure of Mini-CEX followed by demonstrations using video clip of Mini-CEX encounter recorded in own clinical environment. Students were also exposed to similar settings to take up the Mini-CEX encounter without any hesitation. Trainees were assessed in outpatient clinical setting. Program was evaluated for its feasibility and acceptability with respect to patient’s factors, clinical attributes, supervisor and trainee’s performance and their reported level of satisfaction.
Result: Faculty development and trainees orientation in Min-CEX was achieved as feasible and acceptable. Higher rating of satisfaction was reported by majority assessors and trainees as they found Mini-CEX acceptable for formative assessment. Among clinical skills highest rating was received in physical examination and lowest rating in therapeutic skills. Conclusion: A motivated faculty and organized approach towards a comprehensive knowledge on Mini-CEX for its background communication, demonstration of procedure and method to complete the rating forms is the useful guide to adopt Mini-CEX. The faculty and trainees in department of ORL-HNS found Mini-CEX as feasible and acceptable assessment tool to monitor educational activity of postgraduate program through performance-based evaluation in a real clinical situation.
Objective: To determine the internal consistency and construct validity of the Adult Learning Inventory (AL-i) among first year medical students in a Malaysian medical school. Methods: Cross sectional study was done on 196 first year medical student in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The Cronbach’s alpha reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were applied to measure internal consistency and construct validity of the AL-i respectively. These analyses were done using Predictive Analytics SoftWare (PASW) version 18 and Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) version 19. Result: A total of 196 medical students responded to this study. Exploratory factor analysis showed that two potential constructs would be extracted from the inventory. The confirmatory factor analysis showed the two factor model with six items had a good fit with the latent constructs (X2 (df) = 25.63 (8), p = 0.048, RMR = 0.045, GFI = 0.974, AGFI = 0.933, NFI = 0.974, RFI = 0.951, IFI = 0.987, TLI = 0.975, CFI = 0.987, RMSEA = 0.07). Each domain of the final model of the AL-i has three items. The Cronbach’s alpha value of the AL-i was 0.72. The Cronbach’s alpha values of andragogy and pedagogy domains were 0.87 and 0.86 respectively. Composite Reliability and Average Variance Extracted values were more than 0.6 and 0.5 respectively indicating good construct reliability and adequate convergent validity. Conclusion: This study suggested that the two factor model with 6 items of the AL-i has a good fit and shown good psychometric values. It is a valid and reliability measurement to determine types of leaner among first year medical students.
Objective: To determine the internal consistency and construct validity of the Learning Approach Inventory (LA-i) among first year medical students in a Malaysian medical school. Methods: Cross sectional study was done on 196 first year medical students in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The items of the LA-i were framed based on characteristics of three learning approaches. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were applied to measure internal consistency and construct validity. These analyses were done using Predictive Analytics SoftWare (PASW) version 18 and Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) version 19. The Composite Reliability (CR) and Average Variance Extracted (AVE) were calculated manually to measure construct reliability and convergent validity. Result: A total of 196 medical students responded to this study. Exploratory factor analysis showed that three potential constructs were extracted from the inventory. The confirmatory factor analysis showed the three factor model with nine items had a good fit with the latent constructs (X2(df) = 26.07 (20), p = 0.163, RMR = 0.04, GFI = 0.969, AGFI = 0.93, NFI = 0.967, RFI = 0.941, IFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.985, CFI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.04). Each domain of the final model of the LA-i has three items. The Cronbach’s alpha value of the AL-i was 0.86. The Cronbach’s alpha values of surface, strategic and deep approach domains were 0.62, 0.73 and 0.88 respectively. Most of learning approach domains had Composite Reliability and Average Variance Extracted values were more than 0.6 and 0.5 respectively indicating good construct reliability and adequate convergent validity. Conclusion: This study suggested that the three factor model with 9-items of the LA-i has a good fit and shown good psychometric values. It is a valid and reliability measurement to determine learning approaches among first year medical students.
Background: Reflection on the process of learning is an essential ingredient in transforming novice into expert learners. Learning to compile portfolio encourages reflective skills, which help students to work systemically in translating metacognition into self-regulatory control in order to adjust their action and monitor their learning objectives. Introducing to compile portfolio in the early years of postgraduate training is an effective tool to stimulate students’ reflective abilities. Reflective learners are better motivated than the conventional learners to take the responsibilities as researcher in future. Reflective skills achieve both learning in right direction and learning for whole life. However, use of formal methods of reflective portfolio to monitor the learning objectives is an uncommon practice in postgraduate training, primarily due to intensive time and labor required. Challenged with those constraints in Master’s of Surgery Program of Otolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery in School of Medical Sciences at Universiti Sains Malaysia, a structured self-reflective portfolio was introduced to determine its feasibility and acceptance among supervisors and trainees. Portfolio was practiced as one of the tool for formative assessment and for making recommendations to certify independent thyroid surgery allowed to practice in future. Methodology: A self-reflective structured portfolio was introduced to monitor the learning objectives in trainees of 2007 cohort, using a model as "mentor-system for authentic and structured learning with self-reflective assessment" (MASSRA). Initially a semi-structured portfolio comprising of 12 items and guidelines to compile a portfolio was followed by a structured format in training of thyroid module in sub-specialty of Head and Neck Surgery. Mentoring was organized by putting one-mentor verses 9 students to provide general pastoral guidance to compile portfolio as two entries a year. Mentors held the counseling session with student twice a year after evaluating the portfolios to monitor their progress. Besides, candidates were also observed for their performance in thyroid surgery during a 4-years training program. Those identified with problems for their level of training were referred to "Joint Committee for Surgical Training" comprising of 3 supervisors from Head and Neck Surgery Sub-specialty and a chairman supposedly the head of the department. 7 randomly selected students were also interviewed for direct feedback to evaluate this model. Result: 28 trainees at different level of their training compiled a self-reflection structured portfolio minimum twice a year with instructional feedback from the mentor, which was used as a tract for their personal development plan (produced by each trainee) for training in thyroid surgery. Initial analysis of portfolio revealed interesting feedback from the trainees reflecting on their knowledge, surgical skills and attitude towards thyroid surgery seen in tables 2-4. Conclusion: Self-reflections about each structured items in portfolio-helped trainees to identify their problems, seek mentors guidance and work systemically to help adjust their actions by revising learning objectives. Though time and labor intensive, portfolio was rated as feasible and practical.
To ensure the reliability of manual blood pressure (BP) readings in a clinical trial, sources of error due to measurement must be reduced as much as possible. Apart from following standard procedure for BP measurement and ensuring good equipments, the measurement errors that come from the assessors themselves should be assessed. Objective: To demonstrate the use of two-way random effects, interactions absent, absolute agreement (Type A), single measures (Type 1) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in the assessment of reliability of manual BP readings among assessors involved in a clinical trial using manual BP measurement, by using an interrater reliability study conducted by the authors as an example study. Methods: The steps involved in obtaining ICC in the study were discussed. Sample size given the number of assessors in the study was calculated. BP was measured using regularly maintained mercury sphygnomanometers, following recommendations by Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) for BP measurement in office setting. The outcomes were systolic and diastolic BP readings. A type of ICC, two-way random effects, interactions absent, absolute agreement (Type A), single measures (Type 1) ICC was chosen for the analysis and specifically discussed. Pre-requisite assumptions for ICC were meticulously checked and described. The interrater reliability for systolic and diastolic BP readings as expressed by ICC (single measure) were presented with confidence interval (CI). The ICCs obtained in the example study were discussed and concluded. The flaws of the study were also criticised. Results: The interrater reliability for systolic and diastolic BP measurements as expressed by ICC (single measure) were 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.722, 0.956) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.560, 0.918) respectively. Conclusion: We demonstrated the steps required to obtain ICC. Since the use of manual BP measurement using mercury sphygmomanometer is still considered as gold standard of BP measurement, it is important that studies in which the BP outcome is measured using such method conduct interrater reliability studies properly.
Background: Faculty’s role as educators is over looked in clinical education, even though the teaching has a direct reflection of performance of clinical competence and professional development of graduating doctors. Two major problems of clinical education are the lack of uniform teaching and learning strategies in postgraduate as well as later years of undergraduate clinical teaching and the professional development of faculty in teaching in medical institutions. Objective: The survey has two major objectives. First objective was to know about the faculty response to a survey on teaching while trying to create awareness for teaching and research in teaching. The second objective was to know the faculty members’ understanding with principles of learning and teaching with strengths and weaknesses of respondents’ performance in clinical teaching on completing The Educator’s Self-Reflective Inventory (ESRI). Method: The ESRI was administered to approach 214 faculty members in SMS at USM. Appraisal of self-reflection inventory as medical teacher and personal development with respect to challenges, opportunities, innovations and need assessment of teaching were explored in response to 35 items grouped in 5 clusters through a questionnaire-based survey utilizing ESRI. Result: Statistical analysis of respondent’s data indicates a mixed response with lab-based disciplines 54.54% followed by surgical-based disciplines 50% and medical-based disciplines 30%. Individual discipline best response is received from Plastic Surgery and ORL-HNS (100%) and Hematology (77.77%). A result of individual item response in each cluster WAS also analyzed. Conclusion: The survey evaluated the faculty’s response to ESRI and concern shown to develop their abilities as teachers and researchers in clinical teaching. However, the initial response suggested the need for more survey to continue creating the awareness for faculty development and research in teaching. Conclusion drawn from analysis of each items in inventory is encouraging for teaching in medical education.
Background: In order to achieve the desired performance of graduates a number of traditional evaluation exercises have been practiced to assess their competence as medical students. Many of these assessments are done in a controlled environment and mostly reflect on tests of competence than performance. Mini-CEX or direct observed procedural skills (DOPS) are the real performance-based assessment of clinical skills. Increased opportunity for observation and just-in-time feedback from the role model superiors produce a positive educational impact on students learning. This also provides trainees with formative assessment to monitor their learning objectives. However, to implement assessment strategies with Mini-CEX or DOPS needs to develop institution’s clear policy for a different teaching and learning culture of workplace based assessment. It also needs to develop user friendly rating form, checklist, elaboration of clinical competence and its attributes and procedural guidelines for practice. A precise role of these tools in the assessment of postgraduate program must be established before practicing them to evaluate and monitor trainee’s progress.
Objective: To determine DOPS for its acceptability and feasibility as a method of formative assessment of clinical skills in postgraduate program of Otolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery.
Method: A total of 25 trainees were assessed for DOPS by 8 supervisors in this 12-weeks pilot study. A faculty development program for faculty members and trainees was run for DOPS. Trainees were advised to undertake at least one DOPS encounter out of 42 shortlisted procedures. Assessors were asked to mark trainees by completing a rating form using a checklist developed for each procedure. Trainees and assessors were asked to endorse their opinion on feasibility and acceptance of DOPS for practice of formative assessment in future. Data was analyzed to determine feasibility and acceptability of DOPS in assessment program. Result: Faculty development and trainees orientation in DOPS were found satisfactory for its acceptance and feasible for its practice. Trainees were mostly assessed in outpatient clinical setting. Majority reported higher rating of satisfaction by assessors and trainees. Among clinical skills higher rating was received in procedural skills performed by the senior trainees. Conclusion: DOPS was found feasible for practice of formative assessment of trainees in postgraduate program of Otolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery in School of Medical Sciences (SMS) at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). It was well accepted by the trainees to help monitor their quality of procedural skills as self-directed learning.
Objective: To determine the construct validity, convergent validity, construct reliability and internal consistency of the Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire (MSSQ) among first-year medical students in Malaysia. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study was done on 375 medical students of four medical schools in Malaysia. The confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis were applied to measure construct validity, construct reliability and internal consistency of the MSSQ. These analyses were done using Predictive Analytics SoftWare (PASW) version 18 and Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) version 19. The Composite Reliability and Average Variance Extracted of the final constructs were calculated manually to determine construct reliability and convergent validity. Results: A total of 359 (95.7%) medical students responded to this study. The confirmatory factor analysis showed the six factor model with 20 items had a good fit with the latent constructs (X2 (df) = 258.02 (155), p < 0.001, RMR = 0.055, GFI = 0.933, AGFI = 0.910, NFI = 0.931, RFI = 0.916, IFI = 0.971, TLI = 0.965, CFI = 0.971, RMSEA = 0.043). The Cronbach’s alpha value of the MSSQ was 0.92. The Cronbach’s alpha values of the six constructs were more than 0.7. Composite Reliability and Average Variance Extracted values of the six constructs were more than 0.6 and 0.5 respectively indicating good construct reliability and adequate convergent validity. Conclusion: This study suggested that the six factor model with 20 items of the MSSQ had a good fit and shown good psychometric values. It is a valid and reliability measurement to identify stressors among medical students across institutions in Malaysia.
The community placement programme was first introduced to our medical students in 2007. The objectives of this community service programme are to enable students to explore and understand the importance of various skills such as leadership, teamwork and interest towards community services, as well as to improve their skills in those areas for becoming better students and future doctors. The first year medical students were tasked to plan, organize and implement activities in selected communities such as disabled people, orphans, neglected elderly, the poor, HIV positive single mothers and children. Amongst the activities conducted were sharing experiences and thoughts, games, donation and ‘gotong-royong’. The objective of this study was to evaluate the students’ perception on the successfulness of the community placement programme in building their professional qualities. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the first year medical students using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of 5 elements of professional qualities such as leadership and team work skills, interest towards community services, volunteerism and empathy. Self-reflection sessions were also held to explore the learning points gained. A total of 147 students answered the questionnaires. The students rated the overall programme as highly useful (80.6%) and as achieving the objectives (80.1%). They perceived that this programme helped them to improve their personal and professional skills such as leadership (70.0%), team work (71.4%), interest towards community services (87.1%), volunteerism (85.0%), and empathy (89.1%). Self-reflection revealed that the programme made them realize the role of doctors in a community, appreciate the spirit of teamwork and helped them to understand the need of vulnerable groups. As a conclusion, this programme was well-accepted and perceived as assisting medical students to build professional qualities to become caring and competent doctors.
For the purpose of teaching statistics, lecturers often rely on data from real studies, text book examples or painstakingly created datasets. The process of creating a dataset can be made easier with the utilization of PASW Statistics to generate random values. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the creation of data which are measured on continuous scale, using PASW Statistics menus and syntax.
Among most important aspects in conducting a clinical trial are random sampling and allocation of subjects. The processes could be easier if done with familiar software used for data entry and analysis instead of relying on other programs or methods. The objective of this article is to demonstrate random sampling and allocation using SPSS in step-by-step manners using examples most relevant to clinicians as well as researchers in health sciences.
Background: The weekly held clinical pathologic case conference popularly known as CPC provides an effective and regular educational media of collaborative learning for inter-disciplinary exchange of knowledge among the faculty members of an institution. CPC has been routinely practiced for the last two decades in School of medical Sciences (SMS) at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). An hour session primarily involves a case presentation hiding the diagnosis followed by discussion on differential diagnosis and floor interaction on interesting clinical cases. It also gives an opportunity to new teaching staff in the institution to experience an in-house practice of presenting the clinical cases; witch can readily be reproduced as a case report for publication. An effort to follow the original format of CPC is comprehended as an essential outcome of this study to keep up the sanctity of CPC as a case method of learning medicine in future. Methodology: A questionnaire-based survey was recently conducted to evaluate the weekly held CPC in SMS. It was a cross sectional survey in which a questionnaire comprising of 23 items was administered to a targeted population of faculty members of School of Medical Sciences. The items in questionnaire were grouped into 5 clusters. All respondents were adequately briefed through a letter addressing the objectives and importance of survey and its appraisal aiming to revamp the CPC guided by the out-come of study. Questionnaires were administered to 240 academic staff, covering > 80% of the target population of 294 faculty members. 159 (66.2%) members of sample population completed the questionnaires. Total non-responses were 81 (33.7%) and item non-responses were 320 (8.7%) Result: All the items in questionnaire were found significant (p 0.016) except those two items related to, observing a difference in preparing for a case presentation verses a formal CPC presentation and its promotion (p 0.556 and 0.197 respectively). It was also established that the major respondents were unaware of the original format of CPC (p 0.003) in which a presenter select and prepares a case, which is discussed with participating faculty members for its differential diagnoses. 51.6% faculty members did not follow the formal CPC format (p 0.016) in their presentations. A lack of awareness about the format of CPC was shown by (61.0%) faculty members (p 0.003). Conclusion : It was concluded that emphasis to discuss the differential diagnosis by a competent discussant was lacking, as presenters did not follow the formal CPC format. It was critically observed that a number of presentations made in this weekly program deviate from the original format adapted by SMS in USM. However, the out-come appraisal of this survey was the pledge shown by the majority faculty members to adapt the guidelines as a reverence to the formal CPC format.
Context: Community-based medical education (CBME) has become widely accepted as an important innovation in undergraduate medical education. In curriculum featuring CBME, students are acquainted with the community early in their studies however; the impact of this training can be judged best to see them practice the required aspects of CBME. Malaysia is a multiracial country with a very strong community dependant life style. Main national health problems have called for a change in health profession education from traditional hospital based health care to community-based delivery system. Three major university's medical schools that either practice community oriented or community based medical education in undergraduate medical curriculum are evaluated. Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) has a community based medical education (CBME) curriculum as Community and Family Case Study (CFCS) compared to a community oriented education curriculum (COE) adopted by Universiti Malaya (UM) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). However, UM at the time of undertaking this study back in 2005 was though practicing COE has also later opted CBME as CFCS.
Objective: To determine whether medical graduates from USM with a community-based medical education in its curriculum for more than 25 years are inspired to have stronger commitment towards community health as shown in their on-job practice of medicine compared to other graduates from UM and UKM, who have adopted community-oriented medical education program.
Method: A questionnaire-based pilot study with 12 items (variables) was designed to obtain supervisor's opinion on commitment of interns towards the health of community they serve. The questionnaire was administered to a randomized group of 85 specialists supervising the internship training program in five major disciplines including internal medicine, surgery, orthopaedic, gynaecology and obstetrics and paediatric medicine. The data received from 62 respondents from five major disciplines was analyzed utilizing SPSS version 12.0.1.
Result: The responses received from 62 supervisors on an inventory in which 9 out of 12 variables were directly related to community commitments of interns. It was shown that the USM graduates who were taught through a CBME curriculum have performed better than the graduates from UM and UKM who followed a COE curriculum. P-value (< 0.001) was highly significant and consistent with higher mean score in those variables.
Conclusion: The graduates taught through a CBME curriculum performed better in community commitments towards patients care compared to graduates from COE curriculum.
Introduction: Crime is an immoral act capable of tearing the well-being of society and the nation. Various factors have been accredited as potential factors for crime engagement for example natural inclination, nurture or a combination of these factors. Within the domain of natural inclination, lack of self-control is often viewed as the primary cause of crime and delinquency. However, there are no valid and reliable Malay language psychometric instruments to measure the level of self-control among Malaysians.
Objective: The aim of this study was to validate the Self Control Scale (SCS) for use among Malay speaking populations. Henceforth the Malay language version is identified as SCS-M.
Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 150 inmates incarcerated within two prisons in Peninsular Malaysia in June 2012. Forward and Backward translations of the original SCS were carried out followed by content and face validation processes. Exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's Alpha reliability analysis were performed.
Result: Both content and face validation processes showed promising and good outcomes. Preliminary analysis for factor analysis supported factorability of the items. The factor loadings of SCS-M items did not correspond to the original six SCS dimensions. Since SCS is often administered as a unidimensional scale, a forced one factor analysis was performed and items with factor loadings exceeding 0.3 were retained. The result of internal consistency reliability of SCS-M demonstrated a good Cronbach's alpha value of 0.80.
Conclusion: The findings supported that SCS-M is a valid and reliable unidimensional scale to measure the level of self-control among Malay speaking populations. It is anticipated that the emergence of SCS-M is vital for self-control assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation purposes.
This paper presents observation made during a brief observation of the PBL programme at School of Medical Sciences (SMS), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). It provides a classification for the type of PBL offered at USM highlights the main aspects of the tutorial process there and reviews the experience of students and tutors engaged in PBL at this SMS. The paper proposes a series of recommendations with regards to the planned 2014 curricular reform.
Objective: The study aimed to obtain the perspective and teaching practice of novice lecturers serving at the training institutions, Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH).
Method: A qualitative research was conducted on 4 novice lecturers at the Medical Assistant College, Seremban. Data were obtained from interview and observation on their teaching in the lecture rooms. The data analysis was performed by using NVivo 9 software.
Result: In the aspect of the teaching perspective, the finding showed that there were two main themes; teaching concept and the teaching method. As far as the teaching concept is concerned, respondents perceived that lecturers were the source of knowledge and those who transfered the knowledge to the students. Meanwhile, the second perspective related to the teaching approach in which lecturers need to use their experiences, they need to be knowledgeable and creative in their teaching. The integration of the themes has formed the main perspective, which was the lecturer-centered teaching. In turn, in the teaching practice, it was consistent with their perspective whereby the approach of teaching is lecturer-centered.
Conclusion: This study showed that new lecturers would employ the lecturer-centered approach. Apart from that, they were also lacking of the skills in terms of class control and value inculcation. The deficiency in both these aspects needs to be overcome as it can affect the effectiveness of the teaching, also the quality of the graduates produced.
The significance of learning research methodology and performing research has been accepted by various medical schools in Malaysia as well as in other countries. The aim of integrating research into medical curriculum is to inculcate the research culture and form part of the evidence-based practice among medical professionals. Hence, the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak has incorporated the research component into the preclinical year of the medical curriculum. A survey was conducted to gauge the second year medical students' level of knowledge of research process at the end of the course using a set of questionnaires. Seventy nine of second year medical students participated in the study. The outcome of the study shows significant improvement in the students’ knowledge on research components after completing the one year course (p