Micelle to solvent stacking was implemented for the recently established NACE-C(4) D method to determine tamoxifen and its metabolites in standard samples and human plasma of breast cancer patients. For stacking, the standard samples and extract after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) were prepared in methanol and the resulting sample solution was pressure injected after a micellar plug of SDS. Factors that affected the stacking such as SDS concentration, micelle, and sample plug length were examined. The sensitivity enhancement factor (peak height from stacking/peak height from typical injection of sample in BGE) was 15-22. The method detection limits with LLE were in the range of 5-10 ng/mL, which was lower than the established method (where the LLE extract was also prepared in methanol) with reported method detection limits of 25-40 ng/mL. The intraday and interday repeatability were in the range of 1.0-3.4% and 3.8-6.5%, respectively.
Mushrooms are considered an important food for their traditionally famous nutritional and medicinal values, although much information about their potential at the molecular level is unfortunately unknown. Edible mushrooms include fungi that are either collected wild or cultivated. Many important species are difficult to cultivate but attempts have been made with varying degrees of success, with the results showing unsatisfactory economical cultivation methods. Recently, proteomic analysis has been developed as a powerful tool to study the protein content of fungi, particularly basidiomycetes. This mini-review article highlights the contribution of proteomics platforms to the study of edible mushrooms, focusing on the molecular mechanisms involved in developmental stages. This includes extracellular and cytoplasmic effector proteins that have potential or are involved in the synthesis of anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, in blood pressure control, in the supply of vitamins and minerals, and in other responses to environmental changes. The contribution of different proteomics techniques including classical and more advanced techniques is also highlighted.
Dielectrophoresis (DEP), the induced movement of dielectric particles placed in a nonuniform electric field, has been used as a potential technique for manipulation and separation of many biological samples without destructive consequences to the cell. Cells of the same genotype in different physiological and pathological states have unique morphological and structural features, therefore, it is possible to differentiate between them using their DEP responses. This paper reports the experimental discrimination of normal and dengue-infected human hepatic fetal epithelial cells (WRL-68 cells) based on their DEP crossover frequency, at which no resultant movement occurs in the cells in response to the DEP force. A microarray dot electrode was used to conduct the DEP experiments. The DEP forces applied to the cells were quantified by analyzing the light intensity shift within the electrode's dot region based on the Cumulative Modal Intensity Shift image analysis technique. The differences in dielectric properties between infected and uninfected cells were exploited by plotting a unique DEP spectrum for each set of cells. We observed that the crossover frequency decreased from 220 kHz for the normal WRL-68 cells to 140 kHz after infection with the dengue virus in a medium conductivity of 100 μS/cm. We conclude that the change in the DEP crossover frequency between dengue-infected cells and their healthy counterparts should allow direct characterization of these cell types by exploiting their electrophysiological properties.
A new approach for the quantification of tamoxifen and its metabolites 4-hydroxytamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, and 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen (endoxifen) in human plasma samples using NACE coupled with contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) is presented. The buffer system employed consisted of 7.5 mM deoxycholic acid sodium salt, 15 mM acetic acid, and 1 mM 18-crown-6 in 100% methanol. The complete separation of all targeted compounds (including endoxifen racemate) could be achieved within 6 min under optimized conditions. The proposed method was validated and showed good linearity in the range from 100 to 5000 ng/mL with correlation coefficients between 0.9922 and 0.9973, LODs in the range of 25-40 ng/mL, and acceptable reproducibility of the peak area (intraday RSD 2.2-3.1%, n = 4; interday (3 days) RSD 6.0-8.8%, n = 4). The developed method was successfully demonstrated for the quantification of tamoxifen and its metabolites in human plasma samples collected from breast cancer patients undertaking tamoxifen treatment.
The basidiomycete fungal pathogen Ganoderma boninense is the causative agent for the incurable basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm. This disease causes significant annual crop losses in the oil palm industry. Currently, there is no effective method for disease control and elimination, nor is any molecular marker for early detection of the disease available. An understanding of how BSR affects protein expression in plants may help identify and/or assist in the development of an early detection protocol. Although the mode of infection of BSR disease is primarily via the root system, defense-related genes have been shown to be expressed in both the root and leafs. Thus, to provide an insight into the changes in the global protein expression profile in infected plants, comparative 2DE was performed on leaf tissues sampled from palms with and without artificial inoculation of the Ganoderma fungus. Comparative 2DE revealed that 54 protein spots changed in abundance. A total of 51 protein spots were successfully identified by LC-QTOF MS/MS. The majority of these proteins were those involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism as well as immunity and defense.
Prolonged chewing of betel quid is known to cause oral diseases, including cancer. The present study was performed to screen for aberrant proteins in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers compared to nonchewers. Saliva of female subjects (n = 10) who had been chewing betel quid for more than 20 years and nonbetel quid chewers (n = 10) of the same gender and range of age was analyzed by gel-based proteomics. Increased structural microheterogeneity of saliva haptoglobin beta chains indicated by shifts of focused spots similar to that earlier reported in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and their relatively higher abundance compared to nonbetel quid chewers, were detected in saliva protein profiles of all chewers. In addition, the majority of the betel quid chewers also showed significant higher abundance of hemopexin, alpha-1B glycoprotein, alpha1-antitrypsin, complement C3, and transthyretin. These proteins had previously been associated with several different cancers. Our data demonstrated different forms of protein aberration in the saliva of betel quid chewers, which may be indicative of early oral precancerous conditions.
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are produced by marine and freshwater microalgae and accumulate in shellfish including mussels, oysters, and scallops, causing possible fatalities when inadvertently consumed. Monitoring of PST content of shellfish is therefore important for food safety, with currently approved methods based on HPLC, using pre- or postcolumn oxidation for fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). CE is an attractive alternative for screening and detection of PSTs as it is compatible with miniaturization and could be implemented in portable instrumentation for on-site monitoring. In this study, CE methods were developed for C(4) D, FLD, UV absorption detection, and MS-making this first report of C(4) D and FLD for PSTs detection. Because most oxidized toxins are neutral, MEKC was used in combination with FLD. The developed CZE-UV and CZE-C(4) D methods provide better resolution, selectivity, and separation efficiency compared to CZE-MS and MEKC-FLD. The sensitivity of the CZE-C(4) D and MEKC-FLD methods was superior to UV and MS, with LOD values ranging from 140 to 715 ng/mL for CZE-C(4) D and 60.9 to 104 ng/mL for MEKC-FLD. With the regulatory limit for shellfish samples of 800 ng/mL, the CZE-C(4) D and MEKC-FLD methods were evaluated for the screening and detection of PSTs in shellfish samples. While the CZE-C(4) D method suffered from significant interferences from the shellfish matrix, MEKC-FLD was successfully used for PST screening of a periodate-oxidized mussel sample, with results confirmed by HPLC-FLD. This confirms the potential of MEKC-FLD for screening of PSTs in shellfish samples.
Alternating-current electro-osmosis, a phenomenon of fluid transport due to the interaction between an electrical double layer and a tangential electric field, has been used both for inducing fluid movement and for the concentration of particles suspended in the fluid. This offers many advantages over other phenomena used to trap particles, such as placing particles at an electrode centre rather than an edge; benefits of scale, where electrodes hundreds of micrometers across can trap particles from the molecules to cells at the same rate; and a trapping volume limited by the vortex height, a phenomenon thus far unstudied. In this paper, the collection of particles due to alternating-current electro-osmosis driven collection is examined for a range of particle concentrations, inter-electrode gap widths, chamber heights and media viscosity and density. A model of collection behaviour is described where particle collection over time is governed by two processes, one driven by the vortices and the other by sedimentation, allowing the determination of the maximum height of vortex-driven collection, but also indicates how trapping is limited by high particle concentrations and fluid velocities. The results also indicate that viscosity, rather than density, is a significant governing factor in determining the trapping behaviour of particles.
This study aims to identify cancer-associated proteins in the secretome of oral cancer cell lines. We have successfully established four primary cell cultures of normal cells with a limited lifespan without human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) immortalization. The secretome of these primary cell cultures were compared with that of oral cancer cell lines using 2DE. Thirty five protein spots were found to have changed in abundance. Unambiguous identification of these proteins was achieved by MALDI TOF/TOF. In silico analysis predicted that 24 of these proteins were secreted via classical or nonclassical mechanisms. The mRNA expression of six genes was found to correlate with the corresponding protein abundance. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) core analysis revealed that the identified proteins were relevant in, and related to, cancer development with likely involvements in tumor growth, metastasis, hyperproliferation, tumorigenesis, neoplasia, hyperplasia, and cell transformation. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that a comparative study of the secretome of cancer versus normal cell lines can be used to identify cancer-associated proteins.
Replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) cells are known to share certain traits. However, whether these cells are different at the protein level is unclear. Thus, this study has utilized proteomics to identify differences in the proteomes of replicative senescence and SIPS cells compared to normal cells. Replicative senescence was induced by serial passage of normal cells in culture. SIPS was established by exposure to H2 O2 at a subcytotoxic concentration of 20 μM for two weeks. Following 2DE, protein profiles were compared and protein spots that changed in abundance were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was then performed to evaluate the transcript expression of selected altered proteins. A total of 24 and 10 proteins were found to have changed in abundance in replicative senescence and SIPS cells, respectively, when compared to young cells. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that nine genes showed the same direction of change as observed in the proteomics analysis. Very little overlap was observed between proteins that changed in replicative senescence and SIPS cells, suggesting that although both SIPS and replicative senescence cells share hallmarks of cellular senescence, they were different in terms of proteins that changed in abundance.
Dielectrophoresis is the movement of particles in nonuniform electric fields and has been of interest for application to manipulation and separation at and below the microscale. This technique has the advantages of being noninvasive, nondestructive, and noncontact, with the movement of particle achieved by means of electric fields generated by miniaturized electrodes and microfluidic systems. Although the majority of applications have been above the microscale, there is increasing interest in application to colloidal particles around a micron and smaller. This paper begins with a review of colloidal and nanoscale dielectrophoresis with specific attention paid to separation applications. An innovative design of integrated microelectrode array and its application to flow-through, continuous separation of colloidal particles is then presented. The details of the angled chevron microelectrode array and the test microfluidic system are then discussed. The variation in device operation with applied signal voltage is presented and discussed in terms of separation efficiency, demonstrating 99.9% separation of a mixture of colloidal latex spheres.
Confirmation of oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) currently relies on histological analysis, which does not provide clear indication of cancer development from precancerous lesions. In the present study, whole saliva proteins of patients with OSCC (n = 12) and healthy subjects (n = 12) were separated by 2DE to identify potential candidate biomarkers that are much needed to improve detection of the cancer. The OSCC patients' 2DE saliva protein profiles appeared unique and different from those obtained from the healthy subjects. The patients' saliva α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and haptoglobin (HAP) β chains were resolved into polypeptide spots with increased microheterogeneity, although these were not apparent in their sera. Their 2DE protein profiles also showed presence of hemopexin and α-1B glycoprotein, which were not detected in the profiles of the control saliva. When subjected to densitometry analysis, significant altered levels of AAT, complement C3, transferrin, transthyretin, and β chains of fibrinogen and HAP were detected. The increased levels of saliva AAT, HAP, complement C3, hemopexin, and transthyretin in the OSCC patients were validated by ELISA. The strong association of AAT and HAP with OSCC was further supported by immunohistochemical staining of cancer tissues. The differently expressed saliva proteins may be useful complementary biomarkers for the early detection and/or monitoring of OSCC, although this requires validation in clinically representative populations.
The present study was aimed at the identification of proteins that are differentially expressed in the urine of patients with prostate cancer (PCa), those with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and age-matched healthy male control subjects. Using a combination of 2DE and MS/MS, significantly lower expression of urinary saposin B and two different fragments of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor light chain (ITIL) was demonstrated in the PCa patients compared to the controls. However, only one of the ITIL fragments was significantly different between the PCa and BPH patients. When image analysis was performed on urinary proteins that were transferred onto NC membranes and detected using a lectin that binds to O-glycans, a truncated fragment of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 was the sole protein found to be significantly enhanced in the PCa patients compared to the controls. Together, these urinary peptide fragments might be useful complementary biomarkers to indicate PCa as well as to distinguish it from BPH, although further epidemiological evidence on the specificity and sensitivity of the protein candidates is required.
Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) expressed in Escherichia coli is able to self-assemble into large and small capsids comprising 240 (triangulation number T = 4) and 180 (triangulation number T = 3) subunits, respectively. Conventionally, sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and SEC have been used to separate these capsids. However, good separation of the large and small particles with these methods is never achieved. In the present study, we employed a simple, fast, and cost-effective method to separate the T = 3 and T = 4 HBcAg capsids by using native agarose gel electrophoresis followed by an electroelution method (NAGE-EE). This is a direct, fast, and economic method for isolating the large and small HBcAg particles homogenously based on the hydrodynamic radius of the spherical particles. Dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that the T = 3 and T = 4 HBcAg capsids prepared using the NAGE-EE method are monodisperse with polydispersity values of ∼15% and ∼13%, respectively. ELISA proved that the antigenicity of the capsids was not affected in the purification process. Overall, NAGE-EE produced T = 3 and T = 4 capsids with a purity above 90%, and the recovery was 34% and 50%, respectively (total recovery of HBcAg is ∼84%), and the operation time is 15 and 4 times lesser than that of the sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and SEC, respectively.
Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Agar Gel/methods*
The typical concentration of protein loaded varies from 0.13 to 1.40 μg/μL for a classical silver staining method in 2DE gel. Here, we present a simple modified classical silver staining method by modifying the silver impregnation and development reaction steps. This modified method detects the protein spots at extremely low loaded concentrations, ranging from 0.0048 to 0.0480 μg/μL. We recommend this modified silver staining as an excellent method for the limited biological samples used for silver-stained 2DE analysis. Altogether, the protocol takes close to two days from first dimension separation to second dimension separation, followed by silver staining, scanning, and analysis.
Diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is currently much reliant on the invasive and time-consuming transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate gland, particularly in light of the inefficient use of prostate-specific antigen as its biomarker. In the present study, we have profiled the sera of patients with PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using the gel- and lectin-based proteomics methods and demonstrated the significant differential expression of apolipoprotein AII, complement C3 beta chain fragment, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 fragment, transthyretin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and high molecular weight kininogen (light chain) between the two groups of patients' samples. Our data are suggestive of the potential use of the serum proteins as complementary biomarkers to effectively discriminate PCa from BPH, although this requires further extensive validation on clinically representative populations.
We barcoded 25 in vitro isolates (representing 92 samples) of Giardia duodenalis from humans and other animals, which have been assembled by the Upcroft team at the Queensland Institute of Medical Research over a period of almost three decades. We used mutation scanning-coupled sequencing of loci in the triosephosphate isomerase, glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes, combined with phylogenetic analysis, to genetically characterise them. Specifically, the isolates (n514) of G. duodenalis from humans from Australia (AD113; BRIS/83/HEPU/106; BRIS/87/HEPU/713; BRIS/89/HEPU/1003; BRIS/92/HEPU/1541; BRIS/92/HEPU/1590; BRIS/92/HEPU/2443; BRIS/93/HEPU/1706), Malaysia (KL/92/IMR/1106) and Afghanistan (WB), a cat from Australia (BAC2), a sheep from Canada (OAS1) and a sulphur-crested cockatoo from Australia (BRIS/95/HEPU/2041) represented assemblage A (sub-assemblage AI-1, AI-2 or AII-2); isolates (n510) from humans from Australia (BRIS/91/HEPU/1279; BRIS/92/HEPU/2342; BRIS/92/HEPU/2348; BRIS/93/HEPU/1638; BRIS/93/HEPU/1653; BRIS/93/HEPU/1705; BRIS/93/HEPU/1718; BRIS/93/HEPU/1727), Papua New Guinea (BRIS/92/HEPU/1487) and Canada (H7) represented assemblage B (sub-assemblage BIV) and an isolate from cattle from Australia (BRIS/92/HEPU/1709) had a match to assemblage E. Isolate BRIS/90/HEPU/1229 from a human from Australia was shown to represent a mixed population of assemblages A and B. These barcoded isolates (including stocks and derived lines) now allow direct comparisons of experimental data among laboratories and represent a massive resource for transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolic and functional genomic studies using advanced molecular technologies.
Sarcoma is a malignant tumor that originates from the bone or soft tissue. In this study, abundances of serum amyloid A (SAA) in patients with pleomorphic sarcoma (PS), chondrosarcoma (CS), and osteosarcoma (OS) were analyzed and compared with those from their respective age-matched healthy control subjects. Results obtained from our analysis by 2DE showed that the levels of SAA were markedly elevated in patients with PS and OS, which are highly metastatic, while in patients with CS, which is a less aggressive sarcoma, the increase appeared less pronounced. A similar trend of altered abundances was also observed when the levels of SAA in the subjects were estimated using Western blot, ELISA, and multiple-reaction monitoring analyses. Absolute quantification using multiple-reaction monitoring further demonstrated that the increased abundance of SAA in patients with PS, OS, and CS was mainly attributed to isoform SAA1. In view of the different degrees of tumor malignancy in PS, OS, and CS, our data suggest their apparent correlation with the levels of SAA in the patients.
The use of lectin affinity chromatography prior to 2-DE separation forms an alternative method to unmask the expression of targeted glycoproteins of lower abundance in serum samples. Reduced expression of alpha-2 macroglobulin (AMG) and complement factor B (CFB) was detected in sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) when pooled serum samples of the patients and those of healthy individuals were subjected to affinity isolation using immobilized champedak mannose-binding lectin and analyzed by 2-DE and densitometry. The AMG and CFB spots were not detected in the 2-DE protein profiles when the same pooled serum samples were subjected to albumin and IgG depletion and neither were they detected when the depleted samples were analyzed by western blotting and lectin detection. Together with other acute-phase response proteins that were previously reported to be altered in expression in NPC patients, AMG and CFB may serve as useful complementary biomarkers for NPC.
Bacterial secreted proteins are known to be involved in virulence and may mediate important host-pathogen interactions. In this study, when the stationary phase culture supernatant of Burkholderia pseudomallei was subjected to 2-DE, 113 protein spots were detected. Fifty-four of the secreted proteins, which included metabolic enzymes, transcription/translation regulators, potential virulence factors, chaperones, transport regulators, and hypothetical proteins, were identified using MS and database search. Twelve of these proteins were apparently reactive to antisera of mice that were immunised with B. pseudomallei secreted proteins. These proteins might be excellent candidates to be used as diagnostic markers or putative candidate vaccines against B. pseudomallei infections.