Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Mellor D, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M, McCabe MP, Ricciardelli LA, Skouteris H, Mussap AJ
    Ethn Health, 2014;19(5):548-64.
    PMID: 24261816 DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2013.857761
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify cultural-level variables that may influence the extent to which adolescents from different cultural groups are dissatisfied with their bodies.
    DESIGN: A sample of 1730 male and 2000 female adolescents from Australia, Fiji, Malaysia, Tonga, Tongans in New Zealand, China, Chile, and Greece completed measures of body satisfaction, and the sociocultural influences on body image and body change questionnaire, and self-reported height and weight. Country gross domestic product and national obesity were recorded using global databases.
    RESULTS: Prevalence of obesity/overweight and cultural endorsement of appearance standards explained variance in individual-level body dissatisfaction (BD) scores, even after controlling for the influence of individual differences in body mass index and internalization of appearance standards.
    CONCLUSIONS: Cultural-level variables may account for the development of adolescent BD.
    KEYWORDS: GDP; adolescents; body dissatisfaction; culture; sociocultural influences
  2. Dunn RA, Tan AK, Nayga RM
    Ethn Health, 2012;17(5):493-511.
    PMID: 22360320 DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2012.661407
    OBJECTIVE: Obesity prevalence is unequally distributed across gender and ethnic group in Malaysia. In this paper, we examine the role of socioeconomic inequality in explaining these disparities.
    DESIGN: The body mass index (BMI) distributions of Malays and Chinese, the two largest ethnic groups in Malaysia, are estimated through the use of quantile regression. The differences in the BMI distributions are then decomposed into two parts: attributable to differences in socioeconomic endowments and attributable to differences in responses to endowments.
    RESULTS: For both males and females, the BMI distribution of Malays is shifted toward the right of the distribution of Chinese, i.e., Malays exhibit higher obesity rates. In the lower 75% of the distribution, differences in socioeconomic endowments explain none of this difference. At the 90th percentile, differences in socioeconomic endowments account for no more than 30% of the difference in BMI between ethnic groups.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the higher levels of income and education that accrue with economic development will likely not eliminate obesity inequality. This leads us to conclude that reduction of obesity inequality, as well the overall level of obesity, requires increased efforts to alter the lifestyle behaviors of Malaysians.
  3. Jinam TA, Phipps ME, Indran M, Kuppusamy UR, Mahmood AA, Hong LC, et al.
    Ethn Health, 2008 Jun;13(3):277-87.
    PMID: 18568977 DOI: 10.1080/13557850801930478
    Health scenarios are constantly evolving, particularly in developing countries but little is known regarding the health status of indigenous groups in Malaysia. This study aims to elucidate the current health status in four indigenous populations in the country, who by and large been left out of mainstream healthcare developments.
  4. Han GS, Davies C
    Ethn Health, 2006 Nov;11(4):409-30.
    PMID: 17060035 DOI: 10.1080/13557850600824054
    This paper investigates the use and provision of biomedicine among Korean-Australian men on the basis of interview data from all of the eight Korean-speaking doctors practising in the Korean community in Sydney in 1995. From the viewpoint of these general practitioners, an analysis is made of the processes Korean men go through in adjusting to a new country, being involved in constant hard manual work and long working hours, and explores how they make use of all available resources to stay healthy. The Korean men have fully utilized the 'freely' available medical services under government-subsidized Medicare, bearing in mind that health is a capacity to work under the current environment, although illegal migrants restrained themselves from using it until they obtained legal status. Korean-speaking medical practitioners have been able to provide their fellow Koreans with 'culturally appropriate' health care, with the key factor being the absence of a language barrier. The level of patient satisfaction is high, possibly due to the excellent understanding the doctors have of the social aspects of illnesses, although the doctors do not go beyond curative medicine in their practice. However, the increasing number of Korean-speaking doctors in the small Korean community means that there is competition for patients. Consequently, the medical care is highly entrepreneurial. Referral by Korean doctors to practitioners of Korean herbal medicine is also a notable feature of the health care sector of the Korean community, especially as this offers Korean patients 'satisfactory' health relief for problems that are not easily relieved by doctors in the biomedical system.
  5. Wai BH, Heok KE
    Ethn Health, 1998 Nov;3(4):255-63.
    PMID: 10403107
    This study was undertaken to determine whether there were ethnic and social variations in parasuicide in the population of Singapore.
  6. Chher T, Hak S, Kallarakkal TG, Durward C, Ramanathan A, Ghani WMN, et al.
    Ethn Health, 2018 Jan;23(1):1-15.
    PMID: 27781495 DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2016.1246431
    OBJECTIVES: To obtain data on the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) among Cambodians, and to assess the relationship between known risk habits of oral diseases with prevalence of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs).

    DESIGN: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study whereby subjects were adults aged 18 years old and above. A workshop on the identification of OML was held to train and calibrate dental officers prior to data collection in the field. Sociodemographic and risk habits data were collected via face-to-face interview, whilst presence of OML and clinical details of lesions such as type and site were collected following clinical oral examination by the examiners. Data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 12.0. The association between risk habits and risk of OPMD was explored using logistic regression analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 1634 subjects were recruited. Prevalence of OML for this population was 54.1%. Linea alba was the most common lesion seen (28.7%). This study showed an overall OPMD prevalence of 5.6%. The most common type of OPMD was leukoplakia (64.8%), followed by lichen planus (30.8%). Subjects who only smoked were found to have an increased risk for OPMD of almost four-fold (RR 3.74, 95%CI 1.89-7.41). The highest risk was found for betel quid chewers, where the increased risk observed was more than six times (RR 6.75, 95%CI 3.32-13.72). Alcohol consumption on its own did not seem to confer an increased risk for OPMD, however when practiced concurrently with smoking, a significant risk of more than five times was noted (RR 5.69 95%CI 3.14-10.29).

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of OML was 54.1%, with linea alba being the most commonly occurring lesion. Smoking, alcohol consumption and betel quid chewing were found to be associated with the prevalence of OPMD, which was 5.6%.

  7. Barraclough S, Morrow M
    Ethn Health, 2017 04;22(2):130-144.
    PMID: 27892686 DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2016.1244620
    OBJECTIVES: To identify the historical nexus between Malaysia's largest and politically dominant ethnic group and the political economy of tobacco, and to consider the implications of this connection for tobacco control.

    DESIGN: Primary and secondary documentary sources in both English and Malay were analysed to illuminate key events and decisions, and the discourse of industry and government. Sources included: speeches by Malaysian political and industry actors; tobacco industry reports, press releases and websites; government documents; World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco control literature; and press reports.

    RESULTS: Malays have the highest smoking prevalence among Malaysia's major ethnic groups. The tobacco industry has consistently been promoted as furthering Malay economic development. Malays play the major role in growing and curing. Government-owned Malay development trusts have been prominent investors in tobacco corporations, which have cultivated linkages with the Malay elite. The religious element of Malay ethnicity has also been significant. All Malays are Muslim, and the National Fatwa Council has declared smoking to be haram (forbidden); however, the Government has declined to implement this ruling.

    CONCLUSION: Exaggerated claims for the socio-economic benefits of tobacco production, government investment and close links between tobacco corporations and sections of the Malay elite have created a conflict of interest in public policy, limited the focus on tobacco as a health policy issue among Malays and retarded tobacco control policy. More recently, ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, regional free trade policies reducing the numbers of growers, concerns about smoking from an Islamic viewpoint, and anxieties about the effects of smoking upon youth have increasingly challenged the dominant discourse that tobacco furthers Malay interests. Nevertheless, the industry remains a formidable political and economic presence in Malaysia that is likely to continue to proclaim that its activities coincide with Malay socio-economic interests.

  8. Mas-Harithulfadhli-Agus AR, Hamid NA, Rohana AJ
    Ethn Health, 2021 Feb;26(2):264-279.
    PMID: 30041543 DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2018.1494820
    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among five-year-olds and factors associated with unsuccessful outcome of a Food Basket Programme (FBP) in a rural district of Kelantan, Malaysia.Design: Administrative health records from selected health clinics were reviewed. Study sample includes indigenous population or Orang Asli of Malaysia. Unsuccessful outcome was defined according to failure to complete the programme according to growth gain and on-time. Multiple logistics regression was used to assess the associated factors of unsuccessful outcome of FBP.Results: This study showed that the prevalence rates of malnutrition among children below five years old were 34.2% underweight, 16.4% thinness, 32.5% stunting and 3.0% overweight, with Orang Asli children faring the worse. Orang Asli children were also five times more likely to be unsuccessful in the FBP (p 
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