Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Raihan R, Azzeri A, H Shabaruddin F, Mohamed R
    Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol, 2018 05 01;8(1):54-56.
    PMID: 29963463 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1259
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death globally. In Malaysia liver cancer is the eighth most common cause of cancer for both gender and fifth most common cause of cancer for males. Liver cancer is a cause of premature death in Malaysia: The trend from 1990 to 2010 was observed upward. Since 1990, the annual years of life lost (YLLs) from liver cancer have increased by 31.5%. Older persons are at higher risk and there is male predominance observed. Curative surgical resection, liver transplantation, and supportive symptomatic care, including percutaneous ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and noncurative transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) are among available treatment facilities. Yet the survival rate is very poor as majority of patients present at very advanced stage. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remained the leading cause of HCC in Malaysia. Several studies showed cryptogenic causes, which are mainly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) among the predominant causes of HCC in Malaysia than hepatitis C virus (HCV), alcohol, or any other reason. This mainly correlates with the increasing incidence of diabetes and obesity in Malaysia. How to cite this article: Raihan R, Azzeri A, Shabaruddin FH, Mohamed R. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Malaysia and Its Changing Trend. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2018;8(1):54-56.
  2. Chakraborty S, Chakravorty R, Alam S, Kabir Y, Mahtab M, Islam MA, et al.
    Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol, 2020 3 3;9(2):84-90.
    PMID: 32117696 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1303
    Aim: Attainment of sustainable development goal (SDG) targets requires reducing the rate of new hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced infection and mortality rate to 90% and 65%, respectively, by 2030. Therefore, it is important to investigate the feasibility of reducing the required rates of HBV-induced infection and death incidents at the current rate of vaccination coverage in Bangladesh. Moreover, factors influencing vaccination coverage like negative bias toward girls during immunization can affect the current vaccination program and ultimately hinder the efforts to reduce HBV-induced infection and death rates. To investigate the possibility of reducing HBV-induced infection and death rates with current vaccination coverage, we adopted mathematical molding-based approach.

    Materials and methods: We developed a mathematical model based on the susceptible-infectious-recovered model to simulate the HBV-induced infection in children under the age of five at three different vaccination rates: 80, 90, and 95%. Additionally the impact of current vaccination coverage was assessed on HBV-induced death rates in the future. Moreover, we took advantage of the mathematical model to investigate the impact of negative bias toward girls in vaccination program on HBV-induced infection and death rates.

    Results: The model simulations revealed that 10% increase in the vaccination rate from 80 to 90% can potentially contribute to the significant lowering (around 40%) of HBV-induced infection rate among children. When increased by 5% of vaccination rate from 90 to 95%, the HBV-infection rate is likely to be decreased by another 22%. Likewise, 44% reduction in HBV-induced death rate in the future (2050 onward) can potentially be achieved by 10% increase in the current vaccination rate from 80 to 90%, whereas 5% increase in the current vaccination rate (90-95%) may lead to 24% further reduction of death rate. These results underscored the significant impact of vaccination in reducing HBV-induced infection among children and future death rates in adults. Moreover, at 90% vaccination coverage, the negative bias of vaccination toward girls contributes to an increase of 15 and 12% of HBV-induced infection and death rates, respectively, in female subjects compared to their male counterparts.

    Conclusion: The current vaccination coverage (80-90%) is further aggravated by untimely vaccination, dropouts from vaccination program, and negative bias toward girls in vaccination program. Therefore, if the current situation persists, it will not be possible to accomplish the required reduction in HBV-induced infection and death rates by 2030, according to the SDG guidelines. Moreover negative bias in the vaccination program may intensify the HBV-induced infection and death rates in the future.

    Clinical significance: In light of the mathematical model, we suggest that the vaccination coverage should be increased to 95% without any negative bias toward girls. To accomplish this, the concerning authorities must ensure timely and full completion of the HBV vaccine schedules, reducing dropouts from vaccination program, and lastly preventing negative bias toward girls to uplift vaccination coverage to more than 95% with gender equality. Without these strategies, the necessary reduction in the HBV-induced infection and death rates in Bangladesh may not be attained per SDG directives.

    How to cite this article: Chakraborty S, Chakravorty R, Alam S, et al. A Dynamic Mathematical Modeling Revelation about the Impact of Vaccination on Hepatitis B Virus-induced Infection and Death Rate in Bangladesh. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2019;9(2):84-90.

  3. Radzi Ah M, S Tan S, Mohamed R, Jaya F, K S, C Aun A, et al.
    Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol, 2019 02 01;8(2):101-107.
    PMID: 30828549 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1273
    Background: Two major challenges in implementing budget-constrained Hepatitis screening and treatment campaign in Malaysia are the availability of low-cost point of care tests (POCT) and nucleic acid tests (NAT) for hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid (HCV RNA) and hepatitis B virus dioxyribo nucleic acid (HBV DNA). We evaluated the performance of these tests in this study.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the diagnostic performance of four POCT brands at 12 sites in Malaysia. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the POCTs for the detection of HBsAg and anti-HCV in a finger-stick capillary or venepuncture whole-blood samples compared with test results from lab-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or chemi-luminescence immunoassay (CLIA) assay as the reference standard. We also conducted a cross-sectional study on 30 to 139 serum specimen panel to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a low-cost in-house Applied Biosystem®TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (ABS) for the detection of HCV RNA and HBV DNA, compare with Roche Cobas® Ampliprep/TaqMan assay (COBAS).

    Results: Between March and December 2017, we enroll 295 participants for the evaluation of POCT for HBsAg and another 307 participants for POCT anti-HCV evaluation. Three of the four POCT brands dropped out of evaluation early on account of sub-optimal sensitivity. The sensitivity of the remaining POCT for HBsAg was 95.2%and specificity 100%, while the POCT for anti-HCV has a sensitivity of 98.1% and specificity 100%.Hepatitis B virus dioxyribo nucleic acid and HCV RNA concentrations detected by the ABS were systematically higher than those measured by COBAS (mean bias +0.10 and +0.17 log10 IU/mL respectively). The 95% limits of agreement between the two assays are -1.28 to 1.47 log10 IU/mL for HBV DNA and -0.41 to 0.75 log10 IU/mL for HCV RNA.

    Conclusion: We found adequate evidence for the diagnostic validity of a low-cost POCT for anti-HCV and HBsAg, as well as for an in-house nucleic acid tests (NAT), to provide support for their broader use in our Hepatitis screening and treatment campaign.

    Abbreviations: ABS: Applied Biosystem®TaqMan real-time PCR assay, CI: Confidence interval, CLD: Chronic liver disease, CLIA: Chemi-luminescence immunoassay, COBAS: Roche Cobas® Ampliprep/ TaqMan assay, DAA: Direct Acting Anti-Viral drugs, EIA: Enzyme immunoassay, HBV: Hepatitis B virus, HCV: Hepatitis C virus, HFPM: Hepatitis Free Pahang Malaysia, LOA: Limits of agreement, LOD: Limit of detection, MOH: Ministry of Health, Malaysia, NAT: Nucleic Acid Tests, POCT: Point of Care Tests, SD: Standard deviation, WHO: World Health OrganizationHow to cite this article: Radzi AHM, Tan SS, Mohamed R, Jaya F, Senamjit K, Aun AC, Kutty GA, Wong HS, Abdullah R, Seman MR, Mahtab MA, Morad Z, Lim TO. Hepatitis Screening and Treatment Campaign in Malaysia-Validation of Low-cost Point of Care Screening Tests and Nucleic Acid Tests for Hepatitis B and C. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol, 2018;8(2):101-107.

  4. Lee SL, Sidhu J, Ng CY
    Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol, 2021 11 18;11(2):97-99.
    PMID: 34786364 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1350
    Cervical adenocarcinoma accounts for 25% of invasive cervical cancer which frequently metastasize distantly to the lungs, liver, bone, and brain. Metastases to the common bile duct from cervical cancer are exceedingly rare with few reported cases in the literature. Diagnosis of bile duct metastases from cervical cancer can be established with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology, biliary cytobrushing, or direct cholangioscopy with biopsy, and this would guide further therapies such as endoscopic biliary drainage and systemic chemotherapy. We hereby present a rare case of obstructive jaundice from metastatic biliary stricture with "beaded" appearance in a patient with cervical adenocarcinoma. How to cite this article: Lee SL, Sidhu J, Ng CY. Metastatic Biliary Stricture with "Beaded" Appearance from Cervical Adenocarcinoma. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2021;11(2):97-99.
  5. Raihan R, Tabassum S, Al-Mahtab M, Nessa A, Jahan M, Shamim Kabir CM, et al.
    Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol, 2015 Jan-Jun;5(1):7-10.
    PMID: 29201677 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1120
    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has many faces. Precore and core promoter mutants resemble inactive carrier status. The identification of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in hepatocytes may have variable clinical significance. The present study was undertaken to detect HBcAg in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and to assess the efficacy of detection system by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP).

    Materials and methods: The study was done in 70 chronic HBV-infected patients. Out of 70 patients, eight (11.4%) were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and 62 (88.57%) were HBeAg negative. Hepatitis B core antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) methods in liver tissue.

    Results: All HBeAg positive patients expressed HBcAg by both IIF and IIP methods. Out of 62 patients with HBeAg-negative CHB, HBcAg was detected by IIF in 55 (88.7%) patients and by IIP in 51 (82.26%) patients. A positive relation among viral load and HBcAg detection was also found. This was more evident in the case of HBeAg negative patients and showed a positive relation with HBV DNA levels.

    Conclusion: Hepatitis B core antigen can be detected using the IIF from formalin fixed paraffin block preparation and also by IIP method. This seems to reflect the magnitudes of HBV replication in CHB.

    How to cite this article: Raihan R, Tabassum S, Al-Mahtab M, Nessa A, Jahan M, Kabir CMS, Kamal M, Aguilar JC. Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Hepatocytes of Chronic Hepatitis B: Comparison between Indirect Immunofluorescence and Immunoperoxidase Method. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):7-10.
  6. Raihan R
    Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol, 2016 Jan-Jun;6(1):52-55.
    PMID: 29201726 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1167
    Malaysia is multiethnic, with a population of 31,127,247 comprising a mixture of Malays (50.1%), Chinese (22.6%), Indians (6.7%), Aborigines (11.8%), others (0.7%), and noncitizens (8.2%). Like other countries in the region, viral hepatitis is an important public health problem in Malaysia. The 3 most common causes for hepatitis in Malaysia are hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis A has been a reportable disease in Malaysia since 1988. Due to the introduction of government control programs, the national incidence rate has dropped steadily. It is now estimated that 50% of Malaysians less than 30 years of age do not have antibodies to hepatitis A and are therefore susceptible to the disease, which can be prevented by reinforcing the hygiene status of the general population. Malaysia is a country of medium seroprevalence for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in the general population (1.5-9.8%). The major route of transmission is from infected mother to fetus. There are an estimated 1 million people chronically infected with hepatitis B in Malaysia. Approximately 75% of all viral hepatitis cases are due to hepatitis B infection, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) accounts for more than 80% of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases seen in Malaysia and HCC is the 3rd most common malignant neoplasm and among the 10 leading causes of death. Most common genotypes are B and C. Incidence rates among Chinese, Malays, and Indians are 36, 26, and 15% respectively. The hepatitis B vaccination program for children was introduced in 1989, which successfully managed to reduce the seroprevalence of infection among Malaysians to 0.01% (graph 4, 2014). But the disease burden will still remain high for some time as the infected people are getting older and living longer. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a growing problem in Malaysia. An estimated 453,700 people were living with HCV infection in Malaysia in 2009 (2.5% of the population aged 15-64 years), of whom 59% acquired their infection through injection and the most common genotypes found are genotype 3 and 1. The HCV-related disease burden is already high and is forecast to rise steeply over the coming decades under current levels of antiviral treatment. Increased governmental resources to improve HCV screening and treatment rates and to reduce transmission are essential to address the high projected HCV disease burden in Malaysia.

    How to cite this article: Raihan R. Hepatitis in Malaysia: Past, Present, and Future. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):52-55.
  7. Raihan R, Mohamed R, Radzi Abu Hassan M, Md Said R
    Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol, 2017 Jan-Jun;7(1):65-67.
    PMID: 29201775 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1214
    Malaysia is a country where an estimated 1 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and an estimated 2.5% of the adult population are positive for antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Effective nationwide vaccine coverage seems to be a highly effective measure to prevent new HBV infection. Treatment of HCV infection is also a regular practice in Malaysia. These measures highlight the possibility to reach the World Health Organization elimination target by 2030. To achieve this target, the Health Ministry and other nongovernmental organizations, such as My Commitment to Cure (MyC2C) are working together to develop a strategic road map to reach the global elimination target in Malaysia by 2030. How to cite this article: Raihan R, Mohamed R, Hasan MRA, Rosaida MS. Chronic Viral Hepatitis in Malaysia: "Where are we now?" Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(1):65-67.
  8. Ozbey G, Hanafiah A
    Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol, 2017 Jan-Jun;7(1):34-39.
    PMID: 29201769 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1208
    H. pylori infection is a global public health problem associated with some gastrointestinal diseases in children, especially in developing countries, since prevalence of H. pylori is low in the developed world. Both noninvasive (stool antigen test, urea breath test, and blood test) and invasive (histology, rapid urease test, and microbiological culture) tests have been utilized to detect H. pylori infection. However, a single test is not reliable enough and does not provide accurate enough data to determine H. pylori infection among children. Risk factors of H. pylori infection in children were related to ethnicities, household properties, geographic location, living conditions, water sources, type of housing, presence/absence of sewage systems, and garbage collection within the living environment. These risk factors were usually associated with the socioeconomic status of the family. This review article aims to determine the gaps in the knowledge of the epidemiology, risk factors, and diagnostic tests of H. pylori infection among children. How to cite this article: Ozbey G, Hanafiah A. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(1):34-39.
  9. Gundamaraju R, Vemuri R
    Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol, 2014 Jan-Jun;4(1):51-54.
    PMID: 29264319 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1096
    Greedy colon which is a synonym of constipation is a serious condition in the human body which may lead to complications, like damage of the rectal tissue, cellular dehydration and colorectal cancer. Diabetes mellitus, although a systemic disease with diverse clinical symptoms, is also related with cellular dehydration. Understanding the pathophysiological aspects of diabetes mellitus and greedy colon may shed light in the management of either of these conditions. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate an association of tissue dehydration during diabetes mellitus and constipation. The adverse side effects of atropine will be discussed due to its M3 blockage effect and reduction in peristalsis keeping in mind the importance of these facts in the context of public health importance, especially in geriatric health. How to cite this article: Gundamaraju R, Vemuri R. Pathophysiology of Greedy Colon and Diabetes: Role of Atropine in worsening of Diabetes. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):51-54.
  10. Raihan R, Akbar SMF
    Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol, 2023;13(2):152-158.
    PMID: 38222956 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1412
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bangladesh's unique epidemiological landscape presents an intriguing puzzle. This South Asian nation, with its complex sociodemographic and environmental factors, is home to a diverse array of hepatitis-B virus (HBV) genotypes, identified as Genotype C, with Genotypes D and A also making a significant contribution to the viral landscape. Reviewing such insights is necessary not only to underscore the country's regional diversity in HBV strains but also to bring into focus the clinical implications these genetic variations may have on disease progression and management.

    METHODS: A thorough database search covered various sources using relevant keywords like "Hepatitis B virus genotypes", "HBV genotypes in Bangladesh", and "HBV clinical implications". The review synthesized findings and analyzed HBV genotype prevalence and clinical implications in Bangladesh.

    RESULTS: Genotypes C and D collectively represent 82% of chronic hepatitis-B infection (CHB) cases in Bangladesh, underscoring their regional prevalence. The geographic context is pivotal in understanding HBV infection dynamics and disease progression in this area. Notably, genotype C and the presence of A1762T/G1764A mutations appear to have a distinct impact on disease development, potentially affecting the immune response in CHB patients. This highlights the need for tailored management approaches in this specific region. Further research is vital to confirm and elaborate on these findings, particularly in relation to how these mutations influence the host's immune response.

    CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, studies on HBV genotypes in Bangladesh stress the need for genotype-specific clinical considerations and more research to improve diagnostics and therapies.

    HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Raihan R, Akbar SMF. A Narrative Review on the Specific Pattern of HBV Genotype in Bangladesh: Clinical Implications for Management. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2023;13(2):152-158.

  11. Ozbey G, Sproston E, Hanafiah A
    PMID: 32742971 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1310
    Owing to its strong acid production, the stomach was known to be a bacteria-free organ for many years. On the other hand, the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and other acid-resistant microbiota that are to persist in the stomach challenged this. It is now recognized that the existence of H. pylori and non-H. pylori species have been linked to the improvement of gastric disease; despite this, there is little published data on the interaction of gastric bacterial flora and the resultant effect on gastric health. The stomach has a unique microbiota including five major phyla, such as Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These phyla are identified in both H. pylori-infected and uninfected persons. The resident gastric microflora may mediate the role of H. pylori in the gastric diseases. This article aims to review previous studies that examine the impact of H. pylori infection and the effect of resident gastric microbiota on gut health and disease conditions.

    HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Ozbey G, Sproston E, Hanafiah A. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gastric Microbiota. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2020;10(1):36-41.

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