Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 67 in total

  1. Asif M, Iqbal MA, Hussein MA, Oon CE, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2016 Jan 27;108:177-187.
    PMID: 26649905 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.11.034
    The current mechanistic study was conducted to explore the effects of increased lipophilicity of binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes on cytotoxicity. Two new silver(I)-N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) complexes (3 and 4), having lypophilic terminal alkyl chains (Octyl and Decyl), were derived from meta-xylyl linked bis-benzimidazolium salts (1 and 2). Each of the synthesized compounds was characterized by microanalysis and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were tested for their cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer c as well normal cell lines using MTT assay. Based on MTT assay results, complex 4 was found to be selectively toxic towards human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT 116). Complex 4 was further studied in detail to explore the mechanism of cell death and findings of the study revealed that complex 4 has promising pro-apoptotic and anti-metastatic activities against HCT 116 cells. Furthermore, it showed pronounced cytostatic effects in HCT 116 multicellular spheroid model. Hence, binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes with longer terminal aliphatic chains have worth to be further studied against human colon cancer for the purpose of drug development.
  2. Haque RA, Choo SY, Budagumpi S, Iqbal MA, Al-Ashraf Abdullah A
    Eur J Med Chem, 2015 Jan 27;90:82-92.
    PMID: 25461313 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.11.005
    A series of benzimidazole-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) proligands {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (1/4), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (2/5) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium-1-ylmethylbenzene dibromide/dihexafluorophosphate (3/6)} has been synthesized by the successive N-alkylation method. Ag complexes {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (7), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (8) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidene)-1-ylmethylbenzene disilver(I) dihexafluorophosphate (9)} of NHC ligands have been synthesized by the treatment of benzimidazolium salts with Ag2O at mild reaction conditions. Both, NHC proligands and Ag-NHC complexes have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR and FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis technique. Additionally, the structure of the NHC proligand 5 and the mononuclear Ag complexes 7 and 8 has been elucidated by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the complexes exhibit the same general structural motif with linear coordination geometry around the Ag centre having two NHC ligands. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial potentials of reported compounds against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria evidenced the higher activity of mononuclear silver(I) complexes. The anticancer studies against the human derived colorectal cancer (HCT 116) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell lines using the MTT assay method, revealed the higher activity of Ag-NHC complexes. The benzimidazolium salts 4-6 and Ag-NHC complexes 7-9 displayed the following IC50 values against the HCT 116 and HT29 cell lines, respectively, 31.8 ± 1.9, 15.2 ± 1.5, 4.8 ± 0.6, 10.5 ± 1.0, 18.7 ± 1.6, 1.20 ± 0.3 and 245.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 0.8, 146.1 ± 3.1, 7.6 ± 0.7, 5.5 ± 0.8, 103.0 ± 2.3 μM.
  3. Taha M, Ismail NH, Lalani S, Fatmi MQ, Atia-Tul-Wahab, Siddiqui S, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2015 Mar 6;92:387-400.
    PMID: 25585009 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.01.009
    In an effort to design and synthesize a new class of α-glucosidase inhibitor, we synthesized benzothiazole hybrid having benzohydrazide moiety (5). Compound 5 was reacted with various substituted aryl aldehyde to generate a small library of compounds 6-35. Synthesis of compounds was confirmed by the spectral information. These compounds were screened for their α-glucosidase activity. They showed a varying degree of α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values ranging between 5.31 and 53.34 μM. Compounds 6, 7, 9-16, 19, 21-30, 32-35 showed superior activity as compared to standard acarbose (IC50 = 906 ± 6.3 μM). This has identified a new class of α-glucosidase inhibitors. The predicted physico-chemical properties indicated the drug appropriateness for most of these compounds, as they obey Lipinski's rule of five (RO5). A hybrid B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) was employed for energy, minimization of 3D structures for all synthetic compounds using 6-311 + G(d,p) basis sets followed by molecular docking to explore their interactions with human intestinal C- and N-terminal domains of α-glucosidase. All compounds bind to the prospective allosteric site of the C- terminal domain, and consequently, may be considered as mixed inhibitors. It was hypothesized that both the dipole moment and H-bond interactions govern the biological activation of these compounds.
  4. Al Muqarrabun LM, Ahmat N
    Eur J Med Chem, 2015 Mar 6;92:514-30.
    PMID: 25599949 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.01.026
    The family Sterculiaceae is one of the most important families among flowering plants. Many of its members demonstrate medicinal properties and have been used for the treatment of various ailments and wounds. A wide range of compounds including alkaloids, phenyl propanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids and other types of compounds including hydrocarbons, sugars, quinones, phenolic acids, lactones, lignans, amine and amides have been isolated from several species in this family. Few studies have reported that some extracts and single compounds isolated from this family exhibited several biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The present review is an effort to provide information about the traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of species from family Sterculiaceae, and to uncover the gaps and potentials requiring further research opportunities regarding the chemistry and pharmacy of this family.
  5. Ariffin A, Rahman NA, Yehye WA, Alhadi AA, Kadir FA
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Nov 24;87:564-77.
    PMID: 25299680 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.10.001
    New multipotent antioxidants (MPAOs), namely 1,3,4-thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles bearing the well-known free radical scavenger butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), were designed and synthesized using an acid-(base-) catalyzed intramolecular dehydrative cyclization reaction of the corresponding 1-acylthiosemicarbazides. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the designed antioxidants was performed along with the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) training set. Experimental studies based on antioxidant activity using DPPH and lipid peroxidation assays verified the predictions obtained by the PASS-assisted design strategy. Compounds 4a-b, 5a-b and 6a-b showed an inhibition of stable DPPH free radicals at a 10(-4) M more than the well-known standard antioxidant BHT. Compounds with p-methoxy substituents (4b, 5b and 6b) were more active than o-methoxy substituents (4a, 5a and 6a). With an IC50 of 2.85 ± 1.09 μM, compound 6b exhibited the most promising in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation, inhibiting Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation of essential oils derived from the egg yolk-based lipid-rich medium by 86.4%. The parameters for the drug-likeness of these BHT derivatives were also evaluated according to Lipinski's 'rule-of-five'. All of the BHT derivatives were found to violate one of Lipinski's parameters (Log P ≥ 5) even though they have been found to be soluble in protic solvents. The predictive TPSA and %ABS data allow for the conclusion that these compounds could have a good capacity for penetrating cell membranes. Therefore, these novel MPAOs containing lipophilic and hydrophilic groups can be proposed as potential antioxidants for tackling oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation processes.
  6. Yoon YK, Ali MA, Wei AC, Shirazi AN, Parang K, Choon TS
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Aug 18;83:448-54.
    PMID: 24992072 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.06.060
    Two series of novel benzimidazole derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their SIRT1 and SIRT2 inhibitory activity. Among the newly synthesized compounds, compound 4j displayed the best inhibitory activity for SIRT1 (IC50 = 54.21 μM) as well as for SIRT2 (IC50 = 26.85 μM). Cell proliferation assay showed that compound 4j possessed good antitumor activity against three different types of cancer cells derived from colon (HCT-116), breast (MDA-MB-468) and blood-leukemia (CCRF-CEM) with cell viability of 40.0%, 53.2% and 27.2% respectively at 50 μM. Docking analysis of representative compound 4j into SIRT2 indicated that the interaction with receptor was primarily due to hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions.
  7. Takhi M, Sreenivas K, Reddy CK, Munikumar M, Praveena K, Sudheer P, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Sep 12;84:382-94.
    PMID: 25036796 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.07.036
    A novel and potent series of ene-amides featuring azetidines has been developed as FabI inhibitors active against drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens particularly staphylococcal organisms. Most of the compounds from the series possessed excellent biochemical inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus FabI enzyme and whole cell activity against clinically relevant MRSA, MSSA and MRSE organisms which are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in community as well as hospital settings. The binding mode of one of the leads, AEA16, in Escherichia coli FabI enzyme was determined unambiguously using X-ray crystallography. The lead compounds displayed good metabolic stability in mice liver microsomes and pharmacokinetic profile in mice. The in vivo efficacy of lead AEA16 has been demonstrated in a lethal murine systemic infection model.
  8. Yoon YK, Ali MA, Wei AC, Choon TS, Ismail R
    Eur J Med Chem, 2015 Mar 26;93:614-24.
    PMID: 24996257 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2013.06.025
    A total of 51 novel benzimidazoles were synthesized by a 4-step reaction starting from basic compound 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid under relatively mild reaction conditions. The structure of the novel benzimidazoles was confirmed by mass spectra as well as (1)H NMR spectroscopic data. Out of the 51 novel synthesized compounds, 42 of them were screened for their antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain using BacTiter-Glo™ Microbial Cell Viability (BTG) method. Results of activity screened using Alamar Blue method was also provided for comparison purposes. Two of the novel benzimidazoles synthesized showed moderately good activity with IC50 of less than 15 μM. Compound 5g, ethyl 2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1-(2-morpholinoethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylate, was found to be the most active with IC50 of 11.52 μM.
  9. Devi Bala B, Muthusaravanan S, Choon TS, Ashraf Ali M, Perumal S
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Oct 6;85:737-46.
    PMID: 25129868 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.08.009
    A general method for the synthesis of a library of hitherto unreported amino-1,4-naphthoquinone-appended triazoles was accomplished via a sequential three-component reaction of substituted N-propargylaminonaphthoquinones with variously substituted alkyl bromides/2-bromonaphthalene-1,4-dione and sodium azide in the presence of Et3N/CuI in water. Aminonaphthoquinone-appended iminochromene-triazole hybrid heterocycles were also synthesized from the amino-1,4-naphthoquinone-appended-1,2,3-triazolylacetonitriles. All the triazole hybrids were screened for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB). Among the triazoles, 2-(((1-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)amino)naphthalene-1,4-dione (7d) emerged as the most active one with IC50 = 1.87 μM, being more potent than the anti-TB drugs, cycloserine (6 times), pyrimethamine (20 times) and equipotent as the drug ethambutol (IC50 
  10. Lim FP, Dolzhenko AV
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Oct 6;85:371-90.
    PMID: 25105925 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.07.112
    Purines can be considered as the most ubiquitous and functional N-heterocyclic compounds in nature. Structural modifications of natural purines, particularly using isosteric ring systems, have been in the focus of many drug discovery programs. Fusion of 1,3,5-triazine ring with pyrrole, pyrazole, imidazole, 1,2,3-triazole or 1,2,4-triazole results in seven bicyclic heterocyclic systems isosteric to purine. Application of the isosterism concept for the development of new compounds with therapeutic potential in areas involving purinergic regulation or purine metabolism led to significant advances in medicinal chemistry of the azolo[1,3,5]triazines. These 1,3,5-triazine-based purine-like scaffolds significantly increase level of molecular diversity and allow covering chemical space in the important areas of medicinal chemistry. Some of these azolo[1,3,5]triazine systems have become privileged scaffolds in the development of inhibitors of various kinases, phosphodiesterase, xanthine oxidase, and thymidine phosphorylase, antagonists of adenosine and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors, anticancer and antiviral agents.
  11. Taha M, Ismail NH, Jamil W, Rashwan H, Kashif SM, Sain AA, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Sep 12;84:731-8.
    PMID: 25069019 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.07.078
    4-Methylbenzimidazole 1-28 novel derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antiglycation and antioxidant activities. Compounds 1-7 and 11 showed excellent activities ranged 140-280 μM, better than standard drug rutin (294.46 ± 1.50 μM). Compound 1-28 were also evaluated for DPPH activities. Compounds 1-8 showed excellent activities, ranging 12-29 μM, better than standard drug n-propylgallate (IC50 = 30.30 ± 0.40 μM). For superoxide anion scavenging activity, compounds 1-7 showed better activity than standard n-propylgallate (IC50 = 106.34 ± 1.6 μM), ranged 82-104 μM. These compounds were found to be nontoxic to THP-1 cells.
  12. Bukhari SN, Jantan I, Masand VH, Mahajan DT, Sher M, Naeem-ul-Hassan M, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Aug 18;83:355-65.
    PMID: 24980117 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.06.034
    A series of novel carbonyl compounds was synthesized by a simple, eco-friendly and efficient method. These compounds were screened for anti-oxidant activity, in vitro cytotoxicity and for inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. The effect of these compounds against amyloid β-induced cytotoxicity was also investigated. Among them, compound 14 exhibited strong free radical scavenging activity (18.39 μM) while six compounds (1, 3, 4, 13, 14, and 19) were found to be the most protective against Aβ-induced neuronal cell death in PC12 cells. Compounds 4 and 14, containing N-methyl-4-piperidone linker, showed high acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity as compared to reference drug donepezil. Molecular docking and QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) studies were also carried out to determine the structural features that are responsible for the acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.
  13. Mai CW, Yaeghoobi M, Abd-Rahman N, Kang YB, Pichika MR
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Apr 22;77:378-87.
    PMID: 24675137 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.03.002
    In the present study, a series of 46 chalcones were synthesised and evaluated for antiproliferative activities against the human TRAIL-resistant breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), cervical (HeLa), ovarian (Caov-3), lung (A549), liver (HepG2), colorectal (HT-29), nasopharyngeal (CNE-1), erythromyeloblastoid (K-562) and T-lymphoblastoid (CEM-SS) cancer cells. The chalcone 38 containing an amino (-NH2) group on ring A was the most potent and selective against cancer cells. The effects of the chalcone 38 on regulation of 43 apoptosis-related markers in HT-29 cells were determined. The results showed that 20 apoptotic markers (Bad, Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-w, Bid, Bim, CD40, Fas, HSP27, IGF-1, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5, Livin, p21, Survivin, sTNF-R2, TRAIL-R2, XIAP, caspase-3 and caspase-8) were either up regulated or down regulated.
  14. Netalkar PP, Netalkar SP, Budagumpi S, Revankar VK
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 May 22;79:47-56.
    PMID: 24721314 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.03.083
    Air and moisture stable coordination compounds of late first row transition metals, viz. Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II), with a newly designed ligand, 2-(2-benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)hydrazono)propan-1-ol (LH), were prepared and successfully characterized using various spectro-analytical techniques. The molecular structures of the ligand and nickel complex were unambiguously determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The [Ni(LH)2]Cl2.3H2O complex is stabilized by intermolecular CH⋯π stacking interactions between the methyl hydrogen and the C18 atom of the phenyl ring (C11-H11B⋯C18) forming 1D zig-zag chain structure. Both, the ligand and its copper complex, were electrochemically active in the working potential range, showing quasi-reversible redox system. The interactions of all the compounds with calf thymus DNA have been comprehensively investigated using electronic absorption spectroscopy, viscosity, electrochemistry and thermal denaturation studies. The cleavage reaction on pBR322 DNA has been monitored by agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the ligand can bind to CT-DNA through partial intercalation, whereas the complexes bind electrostatically. Further, [Ni(LH)2]Cl2.3H2O and [CuLCl(H2O)2] complexes in the series have high binding and cleavage affinity towards pBR322 DNA. Additionally, all the compounds were screened for anti-tuberculosis activity. All the complexes revealed an MIC value of 0.8 μg/mL, which is almost 8 times active than standard used (Streptomycin, 6.25 μg/mL).
  15. Khan KM, Rahim F, Wadood A, Kosar N, Taha M, Lalani S, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Jun 23;81:245-52.
    PMID: 24844449 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.05.010
    In our effort directed toward the discovery of new anti-diabetic agent for the treatment of diabetes, a library of biscoumarin derivative 1-18 was synthesized and evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. All eighteen (18) compounds displayed assorted α-glucosidase activity with IC50 values 16.5-385.9 μM, if compared with the standard acarbose (IC50 = 906 ± 6.387 μM). In addition, molecular docking studies were carried out to explore the binding interactions of biscoumarin derivatives with the enzyme. This study has identified a new class of potent α-glucosidase inhibitors.
  16. Bera H, Ojha Pk, Tan BJ, Sun L, Dolzhenko AV, Chui WK, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 May 6;78:294-303.
    PMID: 24686016 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.03.063
    In our drug discovery program, a series of 2-thioxo-pyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazin-4-ones were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their TP inhibitory potential. All the synthesized analogues conferred a varying degree of TP inhibitory activity, comparable or better than positive control, 7-deazaxanthine (7-DX, 2) (IC50 value = 42.63 μM). A systematic approach to the lead optimization identified compounds 3c and 4a as the most promising TP inhibitors, exhibiting mixed mode of enzyme inhibition. Moreover, selected compounds demonstrated the ability to attenuate the expression of the angiogenic markers (viz. MMP-9 and VEGF) in MDA-MB-231 cells at sublethal concentrations. In addition, molecular docking studies revealed the plausible binding orientation of these inhibitors towards TP, which was in accordance with the experimental results. Taken as a whole, these compounds would constitute a new direction for the design of novel TP inhibitors with promising antiangiogenic properties.
  17. Chew ST, Lo KM, Lee SK, Heng MP, Teoh WY, Sim KS, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Apr 9;76:397-407.
    PMID: 24602785 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.02.049
    Four new copper(II) complexes containing phosphonium substituted hydrazone (L) with the formulations [CuL]Cl(3), [Cu(phen)L]Cl(4), [Cu(bpy)L]Cl(5), [Cu(dbpy)L]Cl(6), (where L = doubly deprotonated hydrazone; phen = 1,10'-phenanthroline; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; dbpy = 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods and in the case of crystalline products by X-ray crystallography. The cytotoxicity and topoisomerase I (topo I) inhibition activities of these compounds were studied. It is noteworthy that the addition of N,N-ligands to the copper(II) complex lead to the enhancement in the cytotoxicity of the compounds, especially against human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line (PC-3). Complex 4 exhibits the highest activity against PC-3 with the IC₅₀ value of 3.2 μΜ. The complexes can also inhibit topo I through the binding to DNA and the enzyme.
  18. Khan KM, Naz F, Taha M, Khan A, Perveen S, Choudhary MI, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Mar 3;74:314-23.
    PMID: 24486414 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.01.001
    Thiourea derivatives (1-38) were synthesized and evaluated for their urease inhibition potential. The synthetic compounds showed a varying degree of in vitro urease inhibition with IC50 values 5.53 ± 0.02-91.50 ± 0.08 μM, most of which are superior to the standard thiourea (IC₅₀ = 21.00 ± 0.11 μM). In order to ensure the mode of inhibition of these compounds, the kinetic study of the most active compounds has been carried out. Most of these inhibitors were found to be mixed-type of inhibitors, except compounds 13 and 30 which were competitive, while compound 19 was identified as non-competitive inhibitor with Ki values between 8.6 and 19.29 μM.
  19. Garudachari B, Isloor AM, Satyanarayana MN, Fun HK, Hegde G
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Mar 3;74:324-32.
    PMID: 24486415 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.01.008
    Three series of 8-trifluoromethylquinoline based 1,2,3-triazoles derivatives (5a-c, 6a-d and 7a-c) were synthesized by multi-step reactions by click chemistry approach. Synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral studies and X-ray analysis. The final compounds were screened for their in-vitro antimicrobial activity by well plate method (zone of inhibition). Compounds 5c, 6b, 8b, 11 and 12 were found to be active against tested microbial strains. The results are summarized in Tables 5 and 6.
  20. Suthar SK, Boon HL, Sharma M
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Mar 3;74:135-44.
    PMID: 24457265 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2013.12.052
    The C-3, C-17 and C-22 congeners of pentacyclic triterpenoids reduced lantadene A (3), B (4) and 22β-hydroxyoleanolic acid (5) were synthesized and were tested in vitro for their NF-κB and IKKβ inhibitory potencies and cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells. The lead congeners 12 and 13 showed IC50 of 0.56 and 0.42 μmol, respectively against TNF-α induced activation of NF-κB. The congeners 12 and 13 exhibited inhibition of IKKβ in a single-digit micromolar dose and at the same time, 12 and 13 showed marked cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells with IC50 of 0.12 and 0.08 μmol, respectively. The lead ester congeners were stable in the acidic pH, while hydrolyzed readily in the human blood plasma to release the active parent moieties.
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