Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

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  1. Fatima N, Hafizur RM, Hameed A, Ahmed S, Nisar M, Kabir N
    Eur J Nutr, 2017 Mar;56(2):591-601.
    PMID: 26593435 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-1103-y
    PURPOSE: The present study was undertaken to explore the possible anti-diabetic mechanism(s) of Emblica officinalis (EO) and its active constituent, ellagic acid (EA), in vitro and in vivo.

    METHOD: Neonatal streptozotocin-induced non-obese type 2 diabetic rats were treated with a methanolic extract of EO (250 or 500 mg/kg) for 28 days, and blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma antioxidant status were measured. Insulin and glucagon immunostaining and morphometry were performed in pancreatic section, and liver TBARS and GSH levels were measured. Additionally, EA was tested for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose tolerance test.

    RESULTS: Treatment with EO extract resulted in a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the diabetic rats. It significantly increased serum insulin in the diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner. Insulin-to-glucose ratio was also increased by EO treatment. Immunostaining of pancreas showed that EO250 increased β-cell size, but EO500 increased β-cells number in diabetic rats. EO significantly increased plasma total antioxidants and liver GSH and decreased liver TBARS. EA stimulated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated islets and decreased glucose intolerance in diabetic rats.

    CONCLUSION: Ellagic acid in EO exerts anti-diabetic activity through the action on β-cells of pancreas that stimulates insulin secretion and decreases glucose intolerance.

  2. Abdulla MH, Sattar MA, Johns EJ, Abdullah NA, Khan MA
    Eur J Nutr, 2011 Dec;50(8):689-97.
    PMID: 21373947 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-011-0180-9
    AIM: To explore the hypothesis that high fructose intake results in a higher functional contribution of α1A-adrenoceptors and blunts the adrenergically and angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced renal vasoconstriction.

    METHODS: Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats received either 20% fructose solution [FFR] or tap water [C] to drink ad libitum for 8 weeks. The renal vasoconstrictor response to noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), methoxamine (ME) and Ang II was determined in the presence and absence of 5-methylurapidil (5-MU) (α1A-adrenoceptor antagonist) in a three-phase experiment (pre-drug, low- and high-dose 5-MU). Data, mean ± SEM were analysed by ANOVA or Student's unpaired t-test with significance at P < 0.05.

    RESULTS: FFR exhibited insulin resistance (HOMA index), hypertension and significant increases in plasma levels of glucose and insulin. All agonists caused dose-related reductions in cortical blood perfusion that were larger in C than in FFR while the magnitudes of the responses were progressively reduced with increasing doses of 5-MU in both C and FFR. The degree of 5-MU attenuation of the renal cortical vasoconstriction due to NA, ME and Ang II was significantly greater in the FFR compared to C.

    CONCLUSIONS: Fructose intake for 8 weeks results in smaller vascular response to adrenergic agonists and Ang II. The α1A-adrenoceptor subtype is the functional subtype that mediates renal cortical vasoconstriction in control rats, and this contribution becomes higher due to fructose feeding.

  3. Abdulla MH, Sattar MA, Abdullah NA, Hye Khan MA, Anand Swarup KR, Johns EJ
    Eur J Nutr, 2011 Jun;50(4):251-60.
    PMID: 20882287 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-010-0133-8
    PURPOSE: Fructose feeding induces a moderate increase in blood pressure, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia. This study investigated the role of α(1B)-adrenoceptor subtype in the control of renal hemodynamic responses to exogenously administered angiotensin II (Ang II) and a set of adrenergic agonists in a model of high fructose-fed rats.
    METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 8 weeks with 20% fructose in drinking water (FFR). The renal cortical vasoconstriction to noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), methoxamine (ME) and Ang II in the presence and absence of chloroethylclonidine (CEC) (α(1B)-adrenoceptor antagonist) was determined. Data, mean ± SEM or SD were subjected to ANOVA with significance at p 
  4. Heng EC, Karsani SA, Abdul Rahman M, Abdul Hamid NA, Hamid Z, Wan Ngah WZ
    Eur J Nutr, 2013 Oct;52(7):1811-20.
    PMID: 23287846 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-012-0485-3
    PURPOSE: Tocotrienol possess beneficial effects not exhibited by tocopherol. In vitro studies using animal models have suggested that these effects are caused via modulation of gene and protein expression. However, human supplementation studies using tocotrienol-rich isomers are limited. This study aims to identify plasma proteins that changed in expression following tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation within two different age groups.

    METHODS: Subjects were divided into two age groups-32 ± 2 (young) and 52 ± 2 (old) years old. Four subjects from each group were assigned with TRF (78% tocotrienol and 22% tocopherol, 150 mg/day) or placebo capsules for 6 months. Fasting plasma were obtained at 0, 3, and 6 months. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol levels were determined. Plasma proteome was resolved by 2DE, and differentially expressed proteins identified by MS. The expressions of three proteins were validated by Western blotting.

    RESULTS: Six months of TRF supplementation significantly increased plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Proteins identified as being differentially expressed were related to cholesterol homeostasis, acute-phase response, protease inhibitor, and immune response. The expressions of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein E precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor were validated. The old groups showed more proteins changing in expression.

    CONCLUSIONS: TRF appears to not only affect plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols, but also the levels of plasma proteins. The identity of these proteins may provide insights into how TRF exerts its beneficial effects. They may also be potentially developed into biomarkers for the study of the effects and effectiveness of TRF supplementation.

  5. Robert SD, Ismail AA, Rosli WI
    Eur J Nutr, 2016 Oct;55(7):2275-80.
    PMID: 26358163 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-1037-4
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine whether fenugreek seed powder could reduce the glycemic response and glycemic index (GI) when added to buns and flatbreads.

    METHODS: In a randomised, controlled crossover trial, ten healthy human subjects (five men, five women) were given 50 g glucose (reference food, twice); buns (0 and 10 % fenugreek seed powder); and flatbreads (0 and 10 % fenugreek seed powder) on six different occasions. Finger prick capillary blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal. The palatability of the test meals was scored using Likert scales.

    RESULTS: The incremental areas under the glucose curve value of buns and flatbreads with 10 % fenugreek (138 ± 17 mmol × min/L; 121 ± 16 mmol × min/L) were significantly lower than those of 0 % fenugreek bun and flatbreads (227 ± 15 mmol × min/L; 174 ± 14 mmol × min/L, P = <0.01). Adding 10 % fenugreek seed powder reduced the GI of buns from 82 ± 5 to 51 ± 7 (P 

  6. Firouzi S, Majid HA, Ismail A, Kamaruddin NA, Barakatun-Nisak MY
    Eur J Nutr, 2017 Jun;56(4):1535-1550.
    PMID: 26988693 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-016-1199-8
    AIM: Evidence of a possible connection between gut microbiota and several physiological processes linked to type 2 diabetes is increasing. However, the effect of multi-strain probiotics in people with type 2 diabetes remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of multi-strain microbial cell preparation-also refers to multi-strain probiotics-on glycemic control and other diabetes-related outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes.

    DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, controlled clinical trial.

    SETTING: Diabetes clinic of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 136 participants with type 2 diabetes, aged 30-70 years, were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either probiotics (n = 68) or placebo (n = 68) for 12 weeks.

    OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes were glycemic control-related parameters, and secondary outcomes were anthropomorphic variables, lipid profile, blood pressure and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium quantities were measured before and after intervention as an indicator of successful passage of the supplement through gastrointestinal tract.

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed on all participants, while per-protocol (PP) analysis was performed on those participants who had successfully completed the trial with good compliance rate.

    RESULTS: With respect to primary outcomes, glycated hemoglobin decreased by 0.14 % in the probiotics and increased by 0.02 % in the placebo group in PP analysis (p 

  7. Hussin AM, Ashor AW, Schoenmakers I, Hill T, Mathers JC, Siervo M
    Eur J Nutr, 2017 Apr;56(3):1095-1104.
    PMID: 26848580 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-016-1159-3
    BACKGROUND: In addition to regulating calcium homoeostasis and bone health, vitamin D influences vascular and metabolic processes including endothelial function (EF) and insulin signalling. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were conducted to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on EF and to examine whether the effect size was modified by health status, study duration, dose, route of vitamin D administration, vitamin D status (baseline and post-intervention), body mass index (BMI), age and type of vitamin D.

    METHODS: We searched the Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases from inception until March 2015 for studies meeting the following criteria: (1) RCT with adult participants, (2) vitamin D administration alone, (3) studies that quantified EF using commonly applied methods including ultrasound, plethysmography, applanation tonometry and laser Doppler.

    RESULTS: Sixteen articles reporting data for 1177 participants were included. Study duration ranged from 4 to 52 weeks. The effect of vitamin D on EF was not significant (SMD: 0.08, 95 % CI -0.06, 0.22, p = 0.28). Subgroup analysis showed a significant improvement of EF in diabetic subjects (SMD: 0.31, 95 % CI 0.05, 0.57, p = 0.02). A non-significant trend was found for diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.02; p = 0.07) and BMI (β = 0.05; p = 0.06).

    CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation did not improve EF. The significant effect of vitamin D in diabetics and a tendency for an association with BMI may indicate a role of excess adiposity and insulin resistance in modulating the effects of vitamin D on vascular function. This remains to be tested in future studies.

  8. Vlassopoulos A, Masset G, Charles VR, Hoover C, Chesneau-Guillemont C, Leroy F, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2017 Apr;56(3):1105-1122.
    PMID: 26879847 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-016-1161-9
    PURPOSE: To describe the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS) developed to guide the reformulation of Nestlé products, and the results of its application in the USA and France.

    DESIGN: The NNPS is a category-specific system that calculates nutrient targets per serving as consumed, based on age-adjusted dietary guidelines. Products are aggregated into 32 food categories. The NNPS ensures that excessive amounts of nutrients to limit cannot be compensated for by adding nutrients to encourage. A study was conducted to measure changes in nutrient profiles of the most widely purchased Nestlé products from eight food categories (n = 99) in the USA and France. A comparison was made between the 2009-2010 and 2014-2015 products.

    RESULTS: The application of the NNPS between 2009-2010 and 2014-2015 was associated with an overall downwards trend for all nutrients to limit. Sodium and total sugars contents were reduced by up to 22 and 31 %, respectively. Saturated Fatty Acids and total fat reductions were less homogeneous across categories, with children products having larger reductions. Energy per serving was reduced by <10 % in most categories, while serving sizes remained unchanged.

    CONCLUSIONS: The NNPS sets feasible and yet challenging targets for public health-oriented reformulation of a varied product portfolio; its application was associated with improved nutrient density in eight major food categories in the USA and France. Confirmatory analyses are needed in other countries and food categories; the impact of such a large-scale reformulation on dietary intake and health remains to be investigated.

  9. Obón-Santacana M, Lujan-Barroso L, Freisling H, Cadeau C, Fagherazzi G, Boutron-Ruault MC, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2017 Apr;56(3):1157-1168.
    PMID: 26850269 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-016-1165-5
    PURPOSE: Acrylamide was classified as 'probably carcinogenic' to humans in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In 2002, public health concern increased when acrylamide was identified in starchy, plant-based foods, processed at high temperatures. The purpose of this study was to identify which food groups and lifestyle variables were determinants of hemoglobin adduct concentrations of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) in 801 non-smoking postmenopausal women from eight countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    METHODS: Biomarkers of internal exposure were measured in red blood cells (collected at baseline) by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) . In this cross-sectional analysis, four dependent variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, sum of total adducts (HbAA + HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to identify determinants of the four outcome variables. All dependent variables (except HbGA/HbAA) and all independent variables were log-transformed (log2) to improve normality. Median (25th-75th percentile) HbAA and HbGA adduct levels were 41.3 (32.8-53.1) pmol/g Hb and 34.2 (25.4-46.9) pmol/g Hb, respectively.

    RESULTS: The main food group determinants of HbAA, HbGA, and HbAA + HbGA were biscuits, crackers, and dry cakes. Alcohol intake and body mass index were identified as the principal determinants of HbGA/HbAA. The total percent variation in HbAA, HbGA, HbAA + HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA explained in this study was 30, 26, 29, and 13 %, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Dietary and lifestyle factors explain a moderate proportion of acrylamide adduct variation in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

  10. Zamora-Ros R, Knaze V, Rothwell JA, Hémon B, Moskal A, Overvad K, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2016 Jun;55(4):1359-75.
    PMID: 26081647 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-0950-x
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations. The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    METHODS: Dietary data at baseline were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing.

    RESULTS: Mean total polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group, followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5-56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1-61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food sources of total polyphenols. A total of 437 different individual polyphenols were consumed, including 94 consumed at a level >1 mg/day. The most abundant ones were the caffeoylquinic acids and the proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers.

    CONCLUSION: This study describes the large number of dietary individual polyphenols consumed and the high variability of their intakes between European populations, particularly between MED and non-MED countries.

  11. Mikail MA, Ahmed IA, Ibrahim M, Hazali N, Abdul Rasad MS, Abdul Ghani R, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2016 Jun;55(4):1435-44.
    PMID: 26091909 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-0961-7
    PURPOSE: The consequence of the increased demand due to the population expansion has put tremendous pressure on the natural supply of fruits. Hence, there is an unprecedented growing interest in the exploration of the potentials of underutilized fruits as alternatives to the commercially available fruits. Baccaurea angulata is an underutilized fruit widely distributed in Borneo Island of Malaysia. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of B. angulata whole fruit (WF), skin (SK) and pulp (PL) juices on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant enzymes in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet.

    METHODS: Thirty-six male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to six groups. Rabbits were fed either a standard pellet (group NC) or a high-cholesterol diet (groups HC, PC, WF, SK and PL). Groups WF, SK and PL were also given 1 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF, SK and PL juices, respectively.

    RESULTS: Baccaurea angulata had high antioxidant activities. The administration of the various juices significantly reduced (p 

  12. Sundram K, French MA, Clandinin MT
    Eur J Nutr, 2003 Aug;42(4):188-94.
    PMID: 12923649
    Partial hydrogenation of oil results in fats containing unusual isomeric fatty acids characterized by cis and trans configurations. Hydrogenated fats containing trans fatty acids increase plasma total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol while depressing HDL-cholesterol levels. Identifying the content of trans fatty acids by food labeling is overshadowed by a reluctance of health authorities to label saturates and trans fatty acids separately. Thus, it is pertinent to compare the effects of trans to saturated fatty acids using stable isotope methodology to establish if the mechanism of increase in TC and LDL-cholesterol is due to the increase in the rate of endogenous synthesis of cholesterol. Ten healthy normocholesterolemic female subjects consumed each of two diets containing approximately 30% of energy as fat for a fourweek period. One diet was high in palmitic acid (10.6% of energy) from palm olein and the other diet exchanged 5.6% of energy as partially hydrogenated fat for palmitic acid. This fat blend resulted in monounsaturated fatty acids decreasing by 4.9 % and polyunsaturated fats increasing by 2.7%. The hydrogenated fat diet treatment provided 3.1% of energy as elaidic acid. For each dietary treatment, the fractional synthesis rates for cholesterol were measured using deuterium-labeling procedures and blood samples were obtained for blood lipid and lipoprotein measurements. Subjects exhibited a higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol level when consuming the diet containing trans fatty acids while also depressing the HDL-cholesterol level. Consuming the partially hydrogenated fat diet treatment increased the fractional synthesis rate of free cholesterol. Consumption of hydrogenated fats containing trans fatty acids in comparison to a mixtur e of palmitic and oleic acids increase plasma cholesterol levels apparently by increasing endogenous synthesis of cholesterol.
  13. Witlox WJA, van Osch FHM, Brinkman M, Jochems S, Goossens ME, Weiderpass E, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2020 Feb;59(1):287-296.
    PMID: 30737562 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-019-01907-8
    PURPOSE: The role of diet in bladder carcinogenesis has yet to be established. To date most studies have investigated dietary components individually, rather than as dietary patterns, which may provide stronger evidence for any influence of diet on bladder carcinogenesis. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with many health benefits, but few studies have investigated its association with bladder cancer risk.

    METHODS: We investigated the potential association between the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and risk of developing bladder cancer by pooling 13 prospective cohort studies included in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants (BLEND) study and applying a Cox regression analysis.

    RESULTS: Dietary data from 646,222 study participants, including 3639 incident bladder cancer cases, were analysed. We observed an inverse association between Mediterranean diet and bladder cancer risk (HRhigh 0.85 [95% CI 0.77, 0.93]). When stratifying the results on non-muscle-invasive or muscle-invasive disease or sex the association remained similar and the HR estimate was consistently below 1.00 both for medium and high adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A consistent association was observed when disregarding fat or alcohol intake.

    CONCLUSION: We found evidence that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced risk of developing bladder cancer, suggesting a positive effect of the diet as a whole and not just one component.

  14. Leow SS, Sekaran SD, Sundram K, Tan Y, Sambanthamurthi R
    Eur J Nutr, 2013 Mar;52(2):443-56.
    PMID: 22527284 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-012-0346-0
    BACKGROUND: Water-soluble phenolics from the oil palm possess significant biological properties.

    PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to discover the role of oil palm phenolics (OPP) in influencing the gene expression changes caused by an atherogenic diet in mice.

    METHODS: We fed mice with either a low-fat normal diet (14.6 % kcal/kcal fat) with distilled water, or a high-fat atherogenic diet (40.5 % kcal/kcal fat) containing cholesterol. The latter group was given either distilled water or OPP. We harvested major organs such as livers, spleens and hearts for microarray gene expression profiling analysis. We determined how OPP changed the gene expression profiles caused by the atherogenic diet. In addition to gene expression studies, we carried out physiological observations, blood hematology as well as clinical biochemistry, cytokine profiling and antioxidant assays on their blood sera.

    RESULTS: Using Illumina microarrays, we found that the atherogenic diet caused oxidative stress, inflammation and increased turnover of metabolites and cells in the liver, spleen and heart. In contrast, OPP showed signs of attenuating these effects. The extract increased unfolded protein response in the liver, attenuated antigen presentation and processing in the spleen and up-regulated antioxidant genes in the heart. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction validated the microarray gene expression fold changes observed. Serum cytokine profiling showed that OPP attenuated inflammation by modulating the Th1/Th2 axis toward the latter. OPP also increased serum antioxidant activity to normal levels.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that OPP may possibly attenuate atherosclerosis and other forms of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Zamora-Ros R, Alghamdi MA, Cayssials V, Franceschi S, Almquist M, Hennings J, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2019 Dec;58(8):3303-3312.
    PMID: 30535794 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-018-1874-z
    PURPOSE: Coffee and tea constituents have shown several anti-carcinogenic activities in cellular and animal studies, including against thyroid cancer (TC). However, epidemiological evidence is still limited and inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this association in a large prospective study.

    METHODS: The study was conducted in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort, which included 476,108 adult men and women. Coffee and tea intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires.

    RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 first incident differentiated TC cases (including 601 papillary and 109 follicular TC) were identified. Coffee consumption (per 100 mL/day) was not associated either with total differentiated TC risk (HRcalibrated 1.00, 95% CI 0.97-1.04) or with the risk of TC subtypes. Tea consumption (per 100 mL/day) was not associated with the risk of total differentiated TC (HRcalibrated 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.02) and papillary tumor (HRcalibrated 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.03), whereas an inverse association was found with follicular tumor risk (HRcalibrated 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99), but this association was based on a sub-analysis with a small number of cancer cases.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, coffee and tea consumptions were not associated with TC risk.

  16. Nawawi KNM, Belov M, Goulding C
    Eur J Nutr, 2020 Aug;59(5):2237-2248.
    PMID: 31520160 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-019-02074-6
    INTRODUCTION: There is growing evidence that a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) improves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. We aimed to retrospectively investigate the effects of this diet in Irish IBS cohort over a 12-month follow-up period, including after re-introduction of the high FODMAP foods.

    METHODS: All the tertiary referrals seen by an FODMAP-trained dietician were reviewed (2013-2016). Patients were evaluated for IBS symptoms by a questionnaire (four-point Likert scale). Subsequently, advice regarding the low FODMAP diet was given. Symptoms' response was assessed at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, by use of the same questionnaire. Re-introduction of high FODMAP foods was aimed to commence at the subsequent follow-up.

    RESULTS: A total of 164 patients were identified. Thirty-seven patients were excluded due to failure to attend for follow-up. Hundred and twenty-seven patients (77% patients, of which 85% were female) completed the initial 3-month follow-up. Forty-five percent (74/164) and twenty-five percent (41/164) of the patients had continued follow-up at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Of the 127 patients who returned for follow-up, their commonest baseline symptoms were lethargy (92%), bloating (91%), flatulence (91%), and abdominal pain (89%). All symptoms were significantly improved at the initial follow-up (p 

  17. Khodavandi A, Alizadeh F, Razis AFA
    Eur J Nutr, 2021 Jun;60(4):1707-1736.
    PMID: 32661683 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-020-02332-y
    PURPOSE: It is unclear how dietary intake influences the ovarian cancer. The present paper sets out to systematically review and meta-analyze research on dietary intake to identify cases having high- or low-risk ovarian cancer.

    METHODS: Scopus, PubMed, and Wiley Online Libraries were searched up to the date November 24, 2019. Two reviewers were requested to independently extract study characteristics and to assess the bias and applicability risks with reference to the study inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were performed to specify the relationship between dietary intake and the risk of ovarian cancer identifying 97 cohort studies.

    RESULTS: No significant association was found between dietary intake and risk of ovarian cancer. The results of subgroup analyses indicated that green leafy vegetables (RR = 0.91, 95%, 0.85-0.98), allium vegetables (RR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.96), fiber (RR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98), flavonoids (RR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.89) and green tea (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.49-0.76) intake could significantly reduce ovarian cancer risk. Total fat (RR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18), saturated fat (RR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.22), saturated fatty acid (RR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36), cholesterol (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22) and retinol (RR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00-1.30) intake could significantly increase ovarian cancer risk. In addition, acrylamide, nitrate, water disinfectants and polychlorinated biphenyls were significantly associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

    CONCLUSION: These results could support recommendations to green leafy vegetables, allium vegetables, fiber, flavonoids and green tea intake for ovarian cancer prevention.

  18. Kruger MC, Chan YM, Kuhn-Sherlock B, Lau LT, Lau C, Chin YS, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2016 Aug;55(5):1911-21.
    PMID: 26264387 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-1007-x
    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of a high-calcium vitamin D-fortified milk with added FOS-inulin versus regular milk on serum parathyroid hormone, and bone turnover markers in premenopausal (Pre-M) and postmenopausal (PM) women over 12 weeks.

    METHODS: Premenopausal women (n = 136, mean age 41 (±5) years) and postmenopausal women [n = 121, mean age 59 (±4) years] were recruited, and each age group randomised into two groups to take two glasses per day of control = regular milk (500 mg calcium per day) or intervention (Int) = fortified milk (1000 mg calcium for pre-M women and 1200 mg calcium for PM women, 96 mg magnesium, 2.4 mg zinc, 15 µg vitamin D, 4 g FOS-inulin per day). At baseline, week 4 and week 12 serum minerals and bone biochemical markers were measured and bone density was measured at baseline.

    RESULTS: Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) vitamin D3] levels among groups were between 49 and 65 nmol/L at baseline, and over the 12 weeks of supplementation, the fortified milk improved vitamin D status in both Int groups. CTx-1 and PINP reduced significantly in both Pre-M and PM groups over the 12 weeks, with the changes in CTx-1 being significantly different (P 

  19. Yahya HM, Day A, Lawton C, Myrissa K, Croden F, Dye L, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2016 Aug;55(5):1839-47.
    PMID: 26210882 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-1001-3
    BACKGROUND: Establishing and linking the proposed health benefits of dietary polyphenols to their consumption requires measurement of polyphenol intake in appropriate samples and an understanding of factors that influence their intake in the general population.

    METHODS: This study examined polyphenol intake estimated from 3- and 7-day food diaries in a sample of 246 UK women aged 18-50 years. Estimation of the intake of 20 polyphenol subclasses commonly present in foods consumed by the sample studied was done using Phenol-Explorer(®) and USDA polyphenol databases. Women were participants in the Leeds Women's Wellbeing Study (LWW) (n = 143), a dietary intervention study aimed at overweight women (mean age 37.2 ± 9.4 years; mean BMI 30.8 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)), and the Diet and Health Study (DH) (n = 103) which aimed to examine the relationship between polyphenol intake and cognitive function (mean age 25.0 ± 9.0 years; mean BMI 24.5 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)).

    RESULTS: The estimated intake of polyphenol subclasses was significantly different between the two samples (p 

  20. Chang CY, Kanthimathi MS, Tan AT, Nesaretnam K, Teng KT
    Eur J Nutr, 2018 Feb;57(1):179-190.
    PMID: 27632019 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-016-1307-9
    PURPOSE: Limited clinical evidence is available on the effects of amount and types of dietary fats on postprandial insulinemic and gastrointestinal peptide responses in metabolic syndrome subjects. We hypothesized that meals enriched with designated: (1) amount of fats (50 vs 20 g), (2) fats with differing fatty acid composition (saturated, SFA; monounsaturated, MUFA or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFA) would affect insulinemic and gastrointestinal peptide releases in metabolic syndrome subjects.

    METHODS: Using a randomized, crossover and double-blinded design, 15 men and 15 women with metabolic syndrome consumed high-fat meals enriched with SFA, MUFA or n-6 PUFA, or a low-fat/high-sucrose (SUCR) meal. C-peptide, insulin, glucose, gastrointestinal peptides and satiety were measured up to 6 h.

    RESULTS: As expected, SUCR meal induced higher C-peptide (45 %), insulin (45 %) and glucose (49 %) responses compared with high-fat meals regardless of types of fatty acids (P < 0.001). Interestingly, incremental area under the curve (AUC0-120min) for glucagon-like peptide-1 was higher after SUCR meal compared with MUFA (27 %) and n-6 PUFA meals (23 %) (P = 0.01). AUC0-120min for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide was higher after SFA meal compared with MUFA (23 %) and n-6 PUFA meals (20 %) (P = 0.004). Significant meal x time interaction (P = 0.007) was observed for ghrelin, but not cholecystokinin and satiety.

    CONCLUSIONS: The amount of fat regardless of the types of fatty acids affects insulin and glycemic responses. Both the amount and types of fatty acids acutely affect the gastrointestinal peptide release in metabolic syndrome subjects, but not satiety.

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