Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

  1. Mohd Zahid AZ, Ismail Z, Abdullah B, Daud S
    PMID: 25614093 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.12.018
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the experience of medical students during a clinical attachment in obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G).
    STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire was distributed to medical students who completed their O&G posting between August 2012 and August 2013. The first part included basic demographic details (age, gender, and ethnicity) and frequency of actual clinical experience; the second part explored students' perception of their training and their relationship with other staff, in particular feeling of discrimination by specified groups of medical personnel. The responses were recorded using a Likert scale and were recategorised during analysis.
    RESULTS: A total of 370 questionnaires were distributed, and 262 completed questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 71%. Female students had a significantly higher median (IqR) number of vaginal examinations performed 0.25(0.69) (p=0.002) compared to male students. Male students experienced a higher proportion of patient rejections during medical consultation, 87% vs. 32% of female students (p<0.001), a higher rate of refusal for clerking (71.4% vs. 57.5% of females, p=0.035) and a higher rate of patients declining consent for internal examination (93.3% vs. 67.6% of females, p<0.001). The majority of male students felt that their gender negatively affected their learning experience (87% vs. 27.4% of the female students, p<0.001). Male students reported a significantly higher proportion of discrimination against their gender by medical officers (p=0.018) and specialists/consultants (p<0.001) compared to females but there was no discrimination between genders by staff nurses or house officers. A majority (58%) of female students stated an interest in pursuing O&G as a future career compared to 31.2% of male students.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed that gender bias exists in our clinical setting as male students gain significantly less experience than female students in pelvic examination skills. We also demonstrated that compared to female students, male students experience higher levels of discrimination against their gender by trainers who are medical officers and specialists/consultants. Trainers must improve their attitudes towards male students, to encourage them and make them feel welcome in the clinical area. We must minimize gender discrimination and educational inequities experienced by male students, in order to improve their learning experience.
    KEYWORDS: Gender discrimination; Obstetrics and gynaecology; Training
  2. Lo TS, Tan YL, Wu PY, Cortes EF, Pue LB, Al-Kharabsheh A
    PMID: 25265496 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.09.015
    To evaluate the ultrasound morphology and its clinical outcome among women who had undergone Miniarc™ vs Monarc™ in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI).
  3. Nadarajah R, Quek YS, Kuppannan K, Woon SY, Jeganathan R
    PMID: 24813099 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.02.021
    To show whether a clinically significant difference in success rates exists between expectant and surgical management of early pregnancy loss.
  4. Lim L, Wong H, Yong E, Singh K
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2012 Feb;160(2):219-22.
    PMID: 22137571 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2011.11.017
    OBJECTIVE: Teenage abortions predispose women to adverse pregnancy outcomes in subsequent pregnancies such as anemia, stillbirths, preterm deliveries and low birth weight babies. We aim to profile the women presenting for abortions in our institution and determine risk factors for late presentation for abortions.
    STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective cohort study, all women who underwent an abortion at the National University Hospital, Singapore, from 2005 to 2009 were recruited. Data was obtained from a prepared questionnaire during the mandatory pre-abortion counseling sessions. Profiles of women aged <20 years were compared with those ≥ 20 years old using Chi-square test if the assumptions for Chi-square test were met; otherwise, Fisher's exact test was carried out. Logistic regression was used to investigate the risk factors for second trimester termination of pregnancy.
    RESULTS: 2109 women presented for induced abortions, of which 1998 had single abortion throughout the course of the study. The mean age of women with single abortion was 29.1 years (sd 7). In the group of women with single abortion, 182 (9.1%) were teenage abortions. In contrast to women ≥ 20 years of age, pregnant teenagers were more likely not to have used any contraception (51.1% vs. 25.2%) and more likely to present late for abortions (39.6% vs. 15.9%). Other risk factors for late presentation for abortions include Malay ethnicity, singlehood, nulliparity and lack of prior usage of contraception.
    CONCLUSION: Teenagers are more likely to have no prior contraceptive usage and to present late for abortions. Lack of proper sexual education and awareness of contraceptive measures may have a major contributory factor to such a trend in teenage abortions. Recommendations have been made in order to curb this societal problem.
  5. Tan PC, Vani S, Lim BK, Omar SZ
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2010 Apr;149(2):153-8.
    PMID: 20097465 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2009.12.031
    To evaluate prevalence, risk factors and clinical severity correlates of anxiety and depression caseness in hyperemesis gravidarum (HG).
  6. Wong LP, Sam IC
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2010 Jan;148(1):90-5.
    PMID: 19910102 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2009.10.002
    Cervical HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease among college-age women. This study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes towards HPV infection, HPV vaccination and cervical cancer among female university students, to provide insight into development of HPV educational information.

    A cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample. A total of 1083 ethnically diverse female students attending a public university were approached and 650 were interviewed.

    Knowledge regarding HPV, HPV vaccination, cervical screening and cervical cancer risk factors was remarkably poor. Across the sample, the mean total knowledge score (14-item) was only 3.25 (S.D. +/-2.41; 95% CI 3.07-3.44). Only 10.3% had heard of the newly released HPV vaccine. Approximately 48% of participants indicated an intention to receive an HPV vaccine. Intention to receive an HPV vaccine was significantly associated with knowledge of HPV and genital warts (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.25-1.88), and knowledge of cervical screening and cervical cancer risk factors (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.11-1.33). Of those who refused HPV vaccination, 50.9% doubted the safety and efficacy of the new vaccine, and 41.5% perceived themselves as not at risk of HPV infection.

    The findings suggest that providing education about the etiology of cervical cancer and the HPV link is an essential component to enhance HPV vaccine uptake.
  7. Mansor A, Arumugam K, Omar SZ
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2010 Mar;149(1):44-6.
    PMID: 20042263 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2009.12.003
    To determine if shoulder dystocia can be predicted in babies born weighing 3.5 kg or more.
  8. Noordin L, San GT, Singh HJ, Othman MS, Hafizah W
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2008 Jan;136(1):67-73.
    PMID: 18079036
    To ascertain the embryotoxicity of peritoneal fluid from infertile women with endometriosis (PF-E), on mouse embryos in culture and to examine the effect of pyruvate in the culture medium on PF-E induced embryotoxicity.
  9. Mohamed M, Larmie ET, Singh HJ, Othman MS
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2007 Sep;134(1):15-9.
    PMID: 17050061
    An imbalance of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator substances in the placenta has been postulated in the pathogenesis of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). There is however little information available on the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) in women with PIH. The aim of this study therefore was to determine tissue kallikrein and kininogen levels and their distribution patterns in fetoplacental tissues from both normotensive pregnant (NTP) women and women with PIH.
  10. Lo TS, Cortes EFM, Wu PY, Tan YL, Al-Kharabsheh A, Pue LB
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2016 Mar;198:138-144.
    PMID: 26849040 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2016.01.004
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sonologic and clinical outcome of collagen coated (CC) versus non-collagen coated (NC) anterior vaginal mesh (AVM) for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery.

    STUDY DESIGN: The study is a prospective observational study which included 122 patients who had symptomatic POP stage III and IV. AvaultaPlus™ (collagen coated, CC group) was compared to Perigee™ (non collagen coated, NC group). Introital ultrasound morphology, measure of neovascularization by color Doppler and clinical outcomes were assessed. Student t test was used for comparison of pre- and post-operation continuous data (p value of <0.05).

    RESULTS: A total of 110 (CC group=50, NC group=60) women completed the study. A woman in the CC group developed ureteral injury. Both groups had comparable morphologic and clinical outcomes however, the onset of changes in mesh thickness and neovascularization occurred earlier in the NC group (1 month) compared to the CC group (6 months to 1 year).

    CONCLUSION: CC group was comparable to the NC group in terms of erosion rate, ultrasound and clinical assessment. Collagen coating may induce delayed inflammatory response however may also delay tissue integration. The onset of changes in mesh thickness and neovascularization may give us an insight toward utilization of collagen coated mesh for host-tissue integration.

  11. Abdullah B, Ayub SH, Mohd Zahid AZ, Noorneza AR, Isa MR, Ng PY
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2016 Mar;198:110-115.
    PMID: 26808667 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2016.01.006
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence among primigravida in the third trimester, its risk factors and its effect to quality of life.

    STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross sectional study involving primigravida in their third trimester of pregnancy, who attended the Patient Assessment Centre of a tertiary referral hospital in Klang Valley from July 2012 to June 2013. The participants were chosen randomly using convenience sampling. A face-to-face interview and a review of their antenatal record were done by trained interviewers. Data on sociodemographic and risk factors were obtained followed by the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF). The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 20.0.

    RESULTS: A total of 306 women were involved. The prevalence of urinary incontinence during third trimester was 34.3% (95%CI: 29.0, 39.7). Stress incontinence (64.8%) is the commonest followed by mixed incontinence (24.8%) and urge incontinence (6.7%). Childhood enuresis (p=0.003) and previous history of urinary incontinence (p<0.001) were significantly associated with urinary incontinence. More than 50 percent of women with urinary incontinence in the third trimester felt that it did not affect their daily activities at all. Only 10% of women felt greatly affected by this problem.

    CONCLUSION: Urinary incontinence is not uncommon among primigravida however many women did not feel that it affected their quality of life. Childhood enuresis and history of urinary incontinence were proven risk factors.

  12. Razali N, Md Latar IL, Chan YK, Omar SZ, Tan PC
    PMID: 26773246 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2015.12.017
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the uterotonic effect of carbetocin compared with oxytocin in emergency cesarean delivery.

    STUDY DESIGN: Participants were randomized to intravenous bolus injection of 100mcg carbetocin or 10IU oxytocin after cesarean delivery of the baby. The primary outcome is any additional uterotonic which may be administered by the blinded provider for perceived inadequate uterine tone with or without hemorrhage in the first 24hours after delivery. Secondary outcomes include operating time, perioperative blood loss, change in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, blood transfusion and reoperation for postpartum hemorrhage.

    RESULTS: Additional uterotonic rates were 107/276 (38.8%) vs. 155/271 (57.2%) [RR 0.68 95% CI 0.57-0.81 p<0.001; NNTb 6 95% CI 3.8-9.8], mean operating time 45.9±16.0 vs. 44.5±13.1minutes p=0.26, mean blood loss 458±258 vs. 446±281ml p=0.6, severe postpartum hemorrhage (≥1000ml) rates 15/276 (5.4%) vs. 10/271 (3.7%) p=0.33 and blood transfusion rates 6/276 (2.2%) vs. 10/271 (3.7%); p=0.30 for carbetocin and oxytocin arms respectively. There was only one case of re-operation (oxytocin arm). In the cases that needed additional uterotonic 98% (257/262) was started intraoperatively and in 89% (234/262) the only additional uterotonic administered was an oxytocin infusion over 6hours.

    CONCLUSION: Fewer women in the carbetocin arm needed additional uterotonics but perioperative blood loss, severe postpartum hemorrhage, blood transfusion and operating time were not different.

  13. Wong KK, Goh KL
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 1992 Jul 03;45(2):149-51.
    PMID: 1499849
    A 34-year-old multigravid woman with symptomatic primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) of the liver had a successful pregnancy. A healthy baby was born prematurely at 36 weeks of gestation. Six months prior to the conception of this pregnancy, stage III PBC had been diagnosed. Portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis had not developed. It is uncommon for pregnancy to occur in the presence of PBC. In the case presented, the outcome of pregnancy was good and the liver function had not been significantly affected by the pregnancy.
  14. Kuppuvelumani P, Rachagan SP, Syed N, Kumar G, Cheah PL
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 1993 Mar;48(3):220-2.
    PMID: 8335141
    A large retroperitoneal liposarcoma presented clinically as an ovarian tumour in an infertile woman. The importance of computed tomography in the differential diagnosis and the appropriate management of retroperitoneal liposarcoma is presented with a review of the relevant literature.
  15. Othman NH, Ismail AN
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 1993 Dec 15;52(2):135-7.
    PMID: 8157142
    A case of endometrial infection by Entamoeba histolytica is described in an elderly lady who presented with profuse vaginal discharge and was clinically misdiagnosed as endometrial carcinoma.
  16. Ng SC, Wong KK, Raman S, Bosco J
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 1990 Oct;37(1):83-5.
    PMID: 2376282
    A young primigravida had idiopathic warm antibody (IgG) autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) occurring in the third trimester of pregnancy. Her haemolytic process was responsive to steroid therapy and no transfusion was needed. She delivered a healthy baby with no evidence to haemolysis, though his red cells were coated with IgG which was probably of maternal origin.
  17. Rachagan SP, Sivanesaratnam V
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 1984 Jan;16(5):321-6.
    PMID: 6608460
    Caesarean hysterectomy is a useful surgical procedure. However, the increased blood supply to the pelvis during pregnancy, distortion of the anatomy caused by the enlarged uterus, fragility of oedematous pelvic tissues and adhesions from prior caesarean sections predispose to poor haemostasis and urinary tract injuries. In this series all the cases were done as an emergency procedure and, despite the multiple obstetric complications, there was no maternal mortality and the incidence of post-operative morbidity was low.
  18. Kamisan Atan I, Zhang W, Shek KL, Dietz HP
    PMID: 33561585 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2021.01.047
    OBJECTIVE: Vaginal childbirth is an established main aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of female pelvic floor dysfunction. However, pregnancy itself is also likely to have an effect. This study investigated the effect of pregnancy on pelvic floor functional anatomy.

    STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective observational study involving vaginally nulliparous women who presented to a tertiary urogynaecology unit with symptoms and signs of pelvic floor dysfunction between 2006 and 2014. Nulliparous women were compared with those who delivered exclusively by Caesarean Section (CS). All had undergone a standardised clinical interview, ICS POP-Q assessment and 3D/4D translabial pelvic floor ultrasound. Main outcome measures included sonographically determined pelvic organ position and hiatal dimensions on Valsalva and pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC).

    RESULTS: Of 2930 women seen during the study period, 242 had never given birth vaginally. One hundred and twenty-nine (53 %) were nulliparous, and 113 (47 %) were delivered by CS only. The CS group demonstrated significantly higher pelvic organ mobility in the anterior compartment (all P < 0.05) and a larger hiatal area on Valsalva (P = 0.004). All sonographic measures of pelvic floor muscle function demonstrated greater tissue displacement on PFMC in the CS group (all P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared to nulliparas, women who delivered exclusively by CS showed increased pelvic organ descent on Valsalva and tissue displacement on PFMC, implying increased tissue elasticity/ compliance or reduced stiffness, consistent with a small permanent hormonal and/or mechanical effect of pregnancy.

  19. Maraj H, Kumari S
    PMID: 34129962 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2021.05.042
    OBJECTIVES: We assessed clinical interpretation of the word parity amongst obstetricians and midwives in Wales and performed a literature review to identify a standardised definition.

    STUDY DESIGN: A survey was conducted by electronic questionnaire to obstetricians across Wales and midwives across North Wales. The questionnaire was distributed to obstetricians using the Wales Information System. Midwives were surveyed using a health board wide distribution list. This was followed by a literature review using dictionaries, standard texts, professional bodies and websites. References were obtained for the UK, USA, India, Malaysia and West Indies.

    RESULTS: There were 143 responses from 63 doctors and 80 midwives. 5% of doctors and 49 % of midwives did not include stillbirths after 24 completed weeks in their definition of parity. 84 % of all surveyed described having a previous twin delivery as Para 2. 23 references were obtained for a definition of parity. Parity was variability defined as the number of conceptions, pregnancies, births and babies. Only 12 sources offered a definition in reference to multiple pregnancy. Of these, 8 sources defined multiple births as a single parous event.

    CONCLUSIONS: There are variations in definitions for the term parity from referenced sources and variation in understanding amongst staff surveyed. We recommend UK professional bodies take into consideration the findings of this study and provide a standard consensus definition of parity.

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