STUDY DESIGN: The study is a prospective observational study which included 122 patients who had symptomatic POP stage III and IV. AvaultaPlus™ (collagen coated, CC group) was compared to Perigee™ (non collagen coated, NC group). Introital ultrasound morphology, measure of neovascularization by color Doppler and clinical outcomes were assessed. Student t test was used for comparison of pre- and post-operation continuous data (p value of <0.05).
RESULTS: A total of 110 (CC group=50, NC group=60) women completed the study. A woman in the CC group developed ureteral injury. Both groups had comparable morphologic and clinical outcomes however, the onset of changes in mesh thickness and neovascularization occurred earlier in the NC group (1 month) compared to the CC group (6 months to 1 year).
CONCLUSION: CC group was comparable to the NC group in terms of erosion rate, ultrasound and clinical assessment. Collagen coating may induce delayed inflammatory response however may also delay tissue integration. The onset of changes in mesh thickness and neovascularization may give us an insight toward utilization of collagen coated mesh for host-tissue integration.
STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross sectional study involving primigravida in their third trimester of pregnancy, who attended the Patient Assessment Centre of a tertiary referral hospital in Klang Valley from July 2012 to June 2013. The participants were chosen randomly using convenience sampling. A face-to-face interview and a review of their antenatal record were done by trained interviewers. Data on sociodemographic and risk factors were obtained followed by the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF). The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 20.0.
RESULTS: A total of 306 women were involved. The prevalence of urinary incontinence during third trimester was 34.3% (95%CI: 29.0, 39.7). Stress incontinence (64.8%) is the commonest followed by mixed incontinence (24.8%) and urge incontinence (6.7%). Childhood enuresis (p=0.003) and previous history of urinary incontinence (p<0.001) were significantly associated with urinary incontinence. More than 50 percent of women with urinary incontinence in the third trimester felt that it did not affect their daily activities at all. Only 10% of women felt greatly affected by this problem.
CONCLUSION: Urinary incontinence is not uncommon among primigravida however many women did not feel that it affected their quality of life. Childhood enuresis and history of urinary incontinence were proven risk factors.
STUDY DESIGN: Participants were randomized to intravenous bolus injection of 100mcg carbetocin or 10IU oxytocin after cesarean delivery of the baby. The primary outcome is any additional uterotonic which may be administered by the blinded provider for perceived inadequate uterine tone with or without hemorrhage in the first 24hours after delivery. Secondary outcomes include operating time, perioperative blood loss, change in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, blood transfusion and reoperation for postpartum hemorrhage.
RESULTS: Additional uterotonic rates were 107/276 (38.8%) vs. 155/271 (57.2%) [RR 0.68 95% CI 0.57-0.81 p<0.001; NNTb 6 95% CI 3.8-9.8], mean operating time 45.9±16.0 vs. 44.5±13.1minutes p=0.26, mean blood loss 458±258 vs. 446±281ml p=0.6, severe postpartum hemorrhage (≥1000ml) rates 15/276 (5.4%) vs. 10/271 (3.7%) p=0.33 and blood transfusion rates 6/276 (2.2%) vs. 10/271 (3.7%); p=0.30 for carbetocin and oxytocin arms respectively. There was only one case of re-operation (oxytocin arm). In the cases that needed additional uterotonic 98% (257/262) was started intraoperatively and in 89% (234/262) the only additional uterotonic administered was an oxytocin infusion over 6hours.
CONCLUSION: Fewer women in the carbetocin arm needed additional uterotonics but perioperative blood loss, severe postpartum hemorrhage, blood transfusion and operating time were not different.
STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective observational study involving vaginally nulliparous women who presented to a tertiary urogynaecology unit with symptoms and signs of pelvic floor dysfunction between 2006 and 2014. Nulliparous women were compared with those who delivered exclusively by Caesarean Section (CS). All had undergone a standardised clinical interview, ICS POP-Q assessment and 3D/4D translabial pelvic floor ultrasound. Main outcome measures included sonographically determined pelvic organ position and hiatal dimensions on Valsalva and pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC).
RESULTS: Of 2930 women seen during the study period, 242 had never given birth vaginally. One hundred and twenty-nine (53 %) were nulliparous, and 113 (47 %) were delivered by CS only. The CS group demonstrated significantly higher pelvic organ mobility in the anterior compartment (all P < 0.05) and a larger hiatal area on Valsalva (P = 0.004). All sonographic measures of pelvic floor muscle function demonstrated greater tissue displacement on PFMC in the CS group (all P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Compared to nulliparas, women who delivered exclusively by CS showed increased pelvic organ descent on Valsalva and tissue displacement on PFMC, implying increased tissue elasticity/ compliance or reduced stiffness, consistent with a small permanent hormonal and/or mechanical effect of pregnancy.
STUDY DESIGN: A survey was conducted by electronic questionnaire to obstetricians across Wales and midwives across North Wales. The questionnaire was distributed to obstetricians using the Wales Information System. Midwives were surveyed using a health board wide distribution list. This was followed by a literature review using dictionaries, standard texts, professional bodies and websites. References were obtained for the UK, USA, India, Malaysia and West Indies.
RESULTS: There were 143 responses from 63 doctors and 80 midwives. 5% of doctors and 49 % of midwives did not include stillbirths after 24 completed weeks in their definition of parity. 84 % of all surveyed described having a previous twin delivery as Para 2. 23 references were obtained for a definition of parity. Parity was variability defined as the number of conceptions, pregnancies, births and babies. Only 12 sources offered a definition in reference to multiple pregnancy. Of these, 8 sources defined multiple births as a single parous event.
CONCLUSIONS: There are variations in definitions for the term parity from referenced sources and variation in understanding amongst staff surveyed. We recommend UK professional bodies take into consideration the findings of this study and provide a standard consensus definition of parity.
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