Columbin, a diterpenoid furanolactone, was isolated purely for the first time from the plant species Tinspora bakis. The anti-inflammatory effects of columbin were studied in vitro, in silico and in vivo. The effect of columbin on nitric oxide was examined on lipopolysaccharide-interferon-gamma (LPS/IFN) induced RAW264.7 macrophages. In vitro and in silico cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activities of columbin using biochemical kit and molecular docking, respectively, were investigated. Mechanism of columbin in suppressing NF-kappaB-translocation was tested using Cellomics®NF-κB activation assay and ArrayScan Reader in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, effects of columbin in vivo that were done on carrageenan-induced mice paw-oedema were tested. Lastly, the in vitro and in vivo toxicities of columbin were examined on human liver cells and mice, respectively. Treatment with columbin or N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) inhibited LPS/IFN-γ-induced NO production without affecting the viability of RAW264.7. Pre-treatment of stimulated cells with columbin did not inhibit the translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus in LPS-stimulated cells. COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities of columbin were 63.7±6.4% and 18.8±1.5% inhibition at 100μM, respectively. Molecular docking study further helped in supporting the observed COX-2 selectivity. Whereby, the interaction of columbin with Tyr385 and Arg120 signifies its higher activity in COX-2, as Tyr385 was reported to be involved in the abstraction of hydrogen from C-13 of arachidonate, and Arg120 is critical for high affinity arachidonate binding. Additionally, columbin inhibited oedema formation in mice paw. Lastly, the compound was observed to be safe in vitro and in vivo. This study presents columbin as a potential anti-inflammatory drug.
The activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) are influenced by active glucocorticoids which are activated by 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) while hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) influences the activities of 11-βHSD1 in a cofactor manner. Dysregulation of PEPCK and H6PDH has been associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Sixteen male Sprague Dawley rats, fed ad libitum, were assigned to two groups, control and treated, with the treated group being given GA at 100mg/kg for one week. Blood and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, abdominal and quadriceps femoris muscle, liver and kidney were examined. GA treatment led to an overall significant decrease in blood glucose while HOMA-IR. PEPCK activities decreased in the liver but increased in the visceral adipose tissue. H6PDH activities also decreased significantly in the liver while 11β-HSD1 activities decreased significantly in all studied tissues except for subcutaneous adipose tissue. Adipocytes in the subcutaneous and visceral depots showed a reduction in size. Though increased glycogen storage was seen in the liver, no changes were observed in the kidneys and muscles. Results from this study may imply that GA could counteract the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by improving insulin sensitivity and probably by reduction of H6PDH, 11β-HSD1 and a selective decrease in PEPCK activities.
Painful neuropathy, a common complication of diabetes mellitus is characterized by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Recent studies emphasized on the role of non-neuronal cells, particularly microglia in the development of neuronal hypersensitivity. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of minocyline, a selective inhibitor of microglial activation to define the role of neuroimmune activation in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Cold allodynia and thermal and chemical hyperalgesia were assessed and the markers of inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress were estimated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Chronic administration of minocycline (40 and 80 mg/kg, i.p.) for 2 weeks started 2 weeks after diabetes induction attenuated the development of diabetic neuropathy as compared to diabetic control animals. In addition, minocyline treatment reduced the levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, lipid peroxidation, nitrite and also improved antioxidant defense in spinal cords of diabetic rats as compared to diabetic control animals. In contrast, minocycline (80 mg/kg, per se) had no effect on any of these behavioral and biochemical parameters assessed in age-matched control animals. The results of the present study strongly suggest that activated microglia are involved in the development of experimental diabetic neuropathy and minocycline exerted its effect probably by inhibition of neuroimmune activation of microglia. In addition, the beneficial effects of minocycline are partly mediated by its anti-inflammatory effect by reducing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and in part by modulating oxidative and nitrosative stress in the spinal cord that might be involved in attenuating the development of behavioral hypersensitivity in diabetic rats.
We previously showed that 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzylidine)cyclohexanone (BHMC), suppressed the synthesis of various proinflammatory mediators. In this study we explain the mechanism of action of BHMC in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced U937 monocytes and further show that BHMC prevents lethality of CLP-induced sepsis. BHMC showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on p38, JNK and ERK 1/2 activity as determined by inhibition of phosphorylation of downstream transcription factors ATF-2, c-Jun and Elk-1 respectively. Inhibition of these transcription factors subsequently caused total abolishment of AP-1-DNA binding. BHMC inhibited p65 NF-κB nuclear translocation and DNA binding of p65 NF-κB only at the highest concentration used (12.5μM) but failed to alter phosphorylation of JNK, ERK1/2 and STAT-1. Since the inhibition of p38 activity was more pronounced we evaluated the possibility that BHMC may bind to p38. Molecular docking experiments confirmed that BHMC fits well in the highly conserved hydrophobic pocket of p38 MAP kinase. We also show that BHMC was able to improve survival from lethal sepsis in a murine caecal-ligation and puncture (CLP) model.
The present study examined the potential antinociceptive activity of flavokawin B (6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone), a synthetic chalcone using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models in mice. It was demonstrated that flavokawin B (FKB; 0.3, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) administered via both oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition in the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid, with the i.p. route producing antinociception of approximately 7-fold more potent than the p.o. route. It was also demonstrated that FKB produced significant inhibition in the two phases of the formalin-induced paw licking test. In addition, the same treatment of flavokawin B (FKB) exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociceptive induced by intraplantar injections of glutamate and capsaicin. Likewise, this compound also induced a significant increase in the response latency period to thermal stimuli in the hot plate test and its antinociceptive effect was not related to muscle relaxant or sedative action. Moreover, the antinociception effect of the FKB in the formalin-induced paw licking test and the hot plate test was not affected by pretreatment of non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. The present results indicate that FKB produced pronounced antinociception effect against both chemical and thermal models of pain in mice that exhibited both peripheral and central analgesic activity.
Acidosis modulates physiologic and pathophysiologic processes but the mechanism of acidotic vasodilatation remains unclear. We therefore explored this in aortic rings from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. Phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction in endothelium-intact and -denuded rings were recorded under normal and acidotic pH with or without drug probes. Acidosis exerted a relaxant effect in endothelium-intact and -denuded euglycaemic and diabetic tissues. l-NAME or methylene blue partially inhibited acidotic relaxation in these endothelium-intact but not the -denuded tissues, with greater inhibition in the diabetic tissues, indicating that acidosis induces relaxation by endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms, the former being EDNO-cGMP mediated. Indomethacin had no effect on the tissues, indicating that cyclooxygenase products are neither involved in acidosis-induced vasodilatation nor in the modulation of phenylephrine-contraction. In euglycaemic tissues under normal pH, no K(+) channel blocker altered phenylephrine-contraction, but all (except glibenclamide) enhanced diabetic tissue contraction, indicating that normally, these channels (K(ir), K(V), BK(Ca), K(ATP)) do not modulate phenylephrine-contraction, but they (except K(ATP)) are expressed in diabetes where they attenuate phenylephine-induced contraction and modulate acidosis. Only the K(ir) channel modulates acidotic relaxation in euglycaemic tissues. Only tetraethylammonium and iberiotoxin enhanced phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-denuded diabetic tissues indicating that BK(Ca) attenuates phenylephrine-contraction and that acidotic relaxation in this condition is modulated by a tetraethylammonium-sensitive mechanism. In conclusion, acidosis causes vasodilatation in normal and diabetic tissues via endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms differentially modulated by a combination of a NO-cGMP process and K(+) channels, some of which are dormant in the normal state but activated in diabetes mellitus.
Curcumin is a highly pleiotropic molecule with significant regulatory effects upon inflammation and inflammatory related diseases. However curcumin has one major important limitation in which it has poor bioavailability. Design of synthetic structural derivatives of curcumin is but one approach that has been used to overcome its poor bioavailability while retaining, or further enhancing, its drug-like effects. We have synthesized a series of curcumin analogues and describe the effects of 2,6-bis-4-(hydroxyl-3-methoxy-benzylidine)-cyclohexanone or BHMC upon nitric oxide and cytokine synthesis in cellular models of inflammation. BHMC showed a significant dose-response inhibitory action upon the synthesis of NO and we have shown that this effect was due to suppression of both iNOS gene and enzyme expression without any effects upon scavenging of nitrite. We also demonstrated that BHMC has a very minimal effect upon iNOS activity with no effect at all upon the secretion of PGE(2) but has a strong inhibitory effect upon MCP-1 and IL-10 secretion and gene expression. Secretion and gene expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were moderately inhibited whereas IL-8 and IL-1beta were not altered. We conclude that BHMC selectively inhibits the synthesis of several inflammatory mediators. BHMC should be considered a promising drug lead for preclinical and further pharmacological studies.
Steroid-induced ocular hypertension (SIOH) is associated with topical and systemic use of steroids. However, SIOH-associated anterior and posterior segment morphological changes in rats have not been described widely. Here we describe the pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP) changes, quantitative assessment of trabecular meshwork (TM) and retinal morphological changes and changes in retinal redox status in response to chronic dexamethasone treatment in rats. We also evaluated the responsiveness of steroid-pretreated rat eyes to 5 different classes of antiglaucoma drugs that act by different mechanisms. Up to 80% of dexamethasone treated animals achieved significant and sustained IOP elevation. TM thickness was significantly increased and number of TM cells was significantly reduced in SIOH rats compared to the vehicle-treated rats. Quantitative assessment of retinal morphology showed significantly reduced thickness of ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner retina (IR) in SIOH rats compared to vehicle-treated rats. Estimation of retinal antioxidants including catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione showed significantly increased retinal oxidative stress in SIOH animals. Furthermore, steroid-treated eyes showed significant IOP lowering in response to treatment with 5 different drug classes. This indicated the ability of SIOH eyes to respond to drugs acting by different mechanisms. In conclusion, SIOH was associated with significant morphological changes in TM and retina and retinal redox status. Additionally, SIOH eyes also showed IOP lowering in response to drugs that act by different mechanisms of action. Hence, SIOH rats appear to be an inexpensive and noninvasive model for studying the experimental antiglaucoma drugs for IOP lowering and neuroprotective effects.
The past decade has witnessed a number of exciting developments in the field of mitochondrial dynamics - a phenomenon in which changes in mitochondrial shape and movement impact on cellular physiology and pathology. By undergoing fusion and fission, mitochondria are able to change their morphology between elongated interconnected networks and discrete fragmented structures, respectively. The cardiac mitochondria, in particular, have garnered much interest due to their unique spatial arrangement in the adult cardiomyocyte, and the multiple roles they play in cell death and survival. In this article, we review the role of the mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins as novel therapeutic targets for treating cardiovascular disease.
2,6-bis-(4-hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzylidine)cyclohexanone (BHMC) has been proven to selectively inhibit the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-induced U937 monocytes through specific interruption of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase enzymatic activity and improves the survival rate in a murine lethal sepsis model. The present study addressed the effects of BHMC upon lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells to determine the underlying mechanisms. The cytotoxicity effect of BHMC on HUVEC were determined by MTT assay. The effects of BHMC on endothelial dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide such as endothelial hyperpermeability, monocyte-endothelial adhesion, transendothelial migration, up-regulation of adhesion molecules and chemokines were evaluated. The effects of BHMC at transcriptional and post-translational levels were determined by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Western Blots. The mode of action of BHMC was dissected by looking into the activation of Nuclear Factor-kappa B and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases. BHMC concentration-dependently reduced endothelial hyperpermeability, leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and monocyte transendothelial migration through inhibition of the protein expression of adhesion molecules (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1) and secretion of chemokines (Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1) at the transcriptional level. BHMC restored endothelial dysfunction via selective inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase enzymatic activity which indirectly prevents the activation of Nuclear Factor-kappaB and Activator Protein-1 transcription factors. These findings further support earlier observations on the inhibition of BHMC on inflammatory events through specific disruption of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase enzymatic activity and provide new insights into the inhibitory effects of BHMC on lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial dysfunction.
Described since long as a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate the gene expression of proteins involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARs indeed regulate several physiologic processes, including lipid homeostasis, adipogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. PPARs bind natural or synthetic PPAR ligands can function as cellular sensors to regulate the gene transcription. Dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with insulin resistance are treated using agonists of PPARα and PPARγ, respectively. The PPARγ is a key regulator of insulin sensitization and glucose metabolism, and therefore is considered as an imperative pharmacological target to combat diabetic metabolic disease and insulin resistance. Of note, currently available PPARγ full agonists like rosiglitazone display serious adverse effects such as fluid retention/oedema, weight gain, and increased incidence of cardiovascular events. On the other hand, PPARγ partial agonists are being suggested to devoid or having less incidence of these undesirable events, and are under developmental stages. Current research is on the way for the development of novel PPARγ partial agonists with enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects. This review sheds lights on the current status of development of PPARγ partial agonists, for the management of T2DM, having comparatively less or no adverse effects to that of PPARγ full agonists.
Gemcitabine remains the standard treatment for pancreatic cancer, although most patients acquire resistance to the therapy. Up-regulated in pancreatic cancer, SIRT1 is involved in tumorigenesis and drug resistance. However the mechanism through which SIRT1 regulates drug sensitivity in cancer cells is mainly unknown. We hypothesise that inhibiting SIRT1 activity may increase sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine treatment through the regulation of apototic cell death, cell cycle, epithelial-mesenschymal-transition (EMT) and senescence. We demonstrate that gemcitabine or 6-Chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1 H-Carbazole-1-carboxamide (EX527) SIRT1 inhibitor reduces PANC-1 cell proliferation in vitro. EX527 enhanced sensitivity of PANC-1 cells to gemcitabine treatment through increased apoptosis. However, EX527 displayed no beneficial effect either as a monotreatment or in combination with gemcitabine in the modulation of cell cycle progression. Combination treatment did not reverse the two phenomena known to affect drug sensitivity, namely EMT and senescence, which are both induced by gemcitabine. Unexpectedly, EX527 promoted PANC-1 xenograft tumour growth in SCID mice compared to control group. Dual tX527 and gemcitabine displayed no synergistic effect compared to gemcitabine alone. The study reveals that SIRT1 is involved in chemoresistance and that inhibiting SIRT1 activity with EX527 sensitised PANC-1 cells to gemcitabine treatment in vitro. Sensitisation of cells is shown to be mainly through induction of micronuclei formation as a result of DNA damage and apoptosis in vitro. However, the absence of positive combinatorial effects in vivo indicates possible effects on cells of the tumor microenvironment and suggests caution regarding the clinical relevance of tissue culture findings with EX527.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide and novel therapeutic agents are needed to treat this disease. The plant-based alkaloid berberine has potential therapeutic applications for breast cancer, although a better understanding of the genes and cellular pathways regulated by this compound is needed to define the mechanism of its action in cancer treatment. In this review, the molecular targets of berberine in various cancers, particularly breast cancer, are discussed. Berberine was shown to be effective in inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in various cancerous cells. Some signaling pathways affected by berberine, including the MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase and Wnt/β-catenin pathways, are critical for reducing cellular migration and sensitivity to various growth factors. This review will discuss recent studies and consider the application of new prospective approaches based on microRNAs and other crucial regulators for use in future studies to define the action of berberine in cancer. The effects of berberine on cancer cell survival and proliferation are also outlined.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) have been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP). Since, the ACEIs cause increased tissue prostaglandin levels, we hypothesized that the mechanisms of ACEI-induced IOP reduction have similarity with those of prostaglandin analogs. The present study investigated the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokine activity modulation as the underlying mechanisms of ACEI-induced ocular hypotension. The IOP lowering effect of single drop of enalaprilat dehydrate 1% was evaluated in rats pretreated with a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor or a cytokine inhibitor. Effect of angiotensin receptor blocker, losartan potassium 2%, was also studied to evaluate involvement of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) in IOP lowering effect of ACEI. Topical treatment with single drop of enalaprilat resulted in significant IOP reduction in treated eye with mean peak reduction 20.3% at 3h post-instillation. Treatment with losartan resulted in a peak IOP reduction of 13.3%, which was significantly lower than enalaprilat, indicating involvement of mechanisms in addition to AT1 blockade. Pretreatment with a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor or a cytokine inhibitor significantly attenuated the enalprilat-induced IOP reduction with mean peak IOP reduction of 11.2% and 13.6% respectively. The IOP-lowering effect of enalaprilat seems to be attributed to reduced angiotensin II type 1 receptor stimulation and modulation of MMP and cytokines activities.
Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated protein 4-2 (Nedd4-2) mediates the internalisation / degradation of epithelial Na(+) channel subunits (α-, β- and γ-ENaC). Serum / glucocorticoid inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) and protein kinase A (PKA) both appear to inhibit this process by phosphorylating Nedd4-2-Ser(221), -Ser(327) and -Thr(246). This Nedd4-2 inactivation process is thought to be central to the hormonal control of Na(+) absorption. The present study of H441 human airway epithelial cells therefore explores the effects of SGK1 and / or PKA upon the phosphorylation / abundance of endogenous Nedd4-2; the surface expression of ENaC subunits, and electrogenic Na(+) transport. Effects on Nedd4-2 phosphorylation/abundance and the surface expression of ENaC were monitored by western analysis, whilst Na(+) absorption was quantified electrometrically. Acutely (20min) activating PKA in glucocorticoid-deprived (24h) cells increased the abundance of Ser(221)-phosphorylated, Ser(327)-phosphorylated and total Nedd4-2 without altering the abundance of Thr(246)-phosphorylated Nedd4-2. Activating PKA under these conditions did not cause a co-ordinated increase in the surface abundance of α-, β- and γ-ENaC and had only a very small effect upon electrogenic Na(+) absorption. Activating PKA (20min) in glucocorticoid-treated (0.2µM dexamethasone, 24h) cells, on the other hand, increased the abundance of Ser(221)-, Ser(327)- and Thr(246)-phosphorylated and total Nedd4-2; increased the surface abundance of α-, β- and γ-ENaC and evoked a clear stimulation of Na(+) transport. Chronic glucocorticoid stimulation therefore appears to allow cAMP-dependent control of Na(+) absorption by facilitating the effects of PKA upon the Nedd4-2 and ENaC subunits.
Effect of Rhinacanthin C on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidemia and pancreatic dysfunction in diabetes was investigated. In-vitro effect of Rhinacanthin C on glucose uptake was studied in 3T3-L1 cell line. Meanwhile, in-vivo effect of 28-days treatment with 5mg/kg/day or 20mg/kg/day Rhinacanthin C was studied in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced male diabetic rats. Following completion of treatment, fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, insulin and lipid profile levels were measured by biochemical assays. Histopathological changes in pancreas were observed by light microscopy while levels of pancreatic oxidative stress were determined by enzymatic assays. Expression of insulin, TNFα, Ikkβ and caspase-3 in pancreas were quantified by immunohistochemistry. Molecular docking was used to identify interactions between Rhinacathin C with SOD or GPx enzymes. Dose-dependent increase in glucose uptake was observed with increasing doses of Rhinacathin C. Plasma FBG, HbA1c and lipid profile except LDL levels and pancreatic malonaldehyde level were reduced but serum insulin and pancreatic anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) levels were increased in diabetic rats receiving Rhinacanthin C treatment. Decreased pancreatic histopathological changes with higher pancreatic insulin and Glut-2 levels but lower TNFα, Ikkβ and caspase-3 levels were observed in diabetic rats receiving Rhinacanthin C (P<0.05 compared to non-treated diabetic rats). In diabetic rats which received Rhinacathin C, changes in the above parameters did not achieve the value in non-diabetic rats. Docking shows Rhinacathin C possesses high degree interactions with SOD and GPx. By possessing these effects, Rhinacanthin C could be used as agent to alleviate pancreatic and other complications in diabetes.
Diabetes is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations. The present study aimed to examine the role of nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH), in the relaxation of ventral tail arteries of rats under diabetic conditions. Relaxations of tail arteries of control and diabetic rats were studied in wire myograph. Western blotting and immunostaining were used to determine the presence of proteins. Acetylcholine-induced relaxations were significantly smaller in arteries of diabetic compared to control rats (Rmax; 70.81 ± 2.48% versus 85.05 ± 3.15%). Incubation with the combination of non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, indomethacin and potassium channel blockers, TRAM 34 and UCL 1684, demonstrated that NO-mediated relaxation was attenuated significantly in diabetic compared to control rats (Rmax; 48.47 ± 5.84% versus 68.39 ± 6.34%). EDH-type (in the presence of indomethacin and NO synthase inhibitor, LNAME) and prostacyclin-mediated (in the presence of LNAME plus TRAM 34 and UCL 1684) relaxations were not significantly reduced in arteries of diabetic compared to control rats [Rmax: (EDH; 17.81 ± 6.74% versus 34.16 ± 4.59%) (prostacyclin; 15.85 ± 3.27% versus 17.23 ± 3.75%)]. Endothelium-independent relaxations to sodium nitroprusside, salbutamol and prostacyclin were comparable in the two types of preparations. Western blotting and immunostaining indicated that diabetes diminished the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), while increasing those of COX-1 and COX-2. Thus, since acetylcholine-induced NO-mediated relaxation was impaired in diabetes because of reduced eNOS protein expression, pharmacological intervention improving NO bioavailability could be useful in the management of diabetic endothelial dysfunction.
Quercetin is a bioflavonoid abundant in onions, apples, tea and red wine and one of the most studied flavonoids. Dietary quercetin intake is suggested to be health promoting, but this assumption is mainly based on mechanistic studies performed in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on stress-induced changes in oxidative biomarkers in the hypothalamus of rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to forced swimming stress for 45 min daily for 14 days. Effect of quercetin at three different doses (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight) on serum corticosterone and oxidative biomarkers (lipid hydroperoxides, antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidants) was estimated. Swimming stress significantly increased the serum corticosterone and lipid hydroperoxide levels. A significant decrease in total antioxidant levels and super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase levels was seen in the hypothalamus after stress and treatment with quercetin significantly increased these oxidative parameters and there was a significant decrease in lipid hydroperoxide levels. These data demonstrate that forced swimming stress produced a severe oxidative damage in the hypothalamus and treatment with quercetin markedly attenuated these stress-induced changes. Antioxidant action of quercetin may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of stress-induced oxidative damage in the brain.
This study set out to investigate the impact of chronic cumulative blockade of angiotensin II and adrenoceptors in WKY and SHR and to explore how the renovascular responses to adrenergic and angiotensin II receptor agonists may be interdependent. Rats were treated with either losartan, carvedilol or losartan+carvedilol for 7 days and on day eight, animals were pentobarbitone anaesthetized and prepared for renal haemodynamic study. Dose-response relationships were determined in terms of reduction/elevation in the magnitude of renal blood flow in response to intrarenal arterial injection of dopamine, phenylephrine and isoprenaline. Renal vascular responses were blunted in WKY and SHR treated with either losartan or carvedilol as compared to their untreated counterparts (P<0.05). In the combined treated rats, the vascular responses to isoprenaline and phenylephrine were restored to levels observed in the untreated rats, but the renal vasoconstrictor responses to dopamine decreased (P<0.05) in both WKY and SHR. There was a reduction of (P<0.05) in the magnitude of the isoprenaline induced renal vasodilation in all SHR as compared to WKY groups. The data obtained showed that the renal vascular action of dopamine, phenylephrine and isoprenaline depended on an intact renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in WKY and SHR. Treatment with losartan or carvedilol blunted the renal vasoconstrictor/vasodilator responses to sympathomimetics which was attenuated with the combined treatment. These observations using chronic blockade of adrenergic and angiotensin receptors demonstrated that there was a long standing interdependency between the RAS and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in determining the responsiveness of the renal vasculature of normal and hypertensive rats.
Angiotensin 1-7, a heptapeptide derived from metabolism of either angiotensin I or angiotensin II, is a biologically active peptide of the renin-angiotensin system. The present study investigated the effect of angiotensin 1-7 on the vasopressor action of angiotensin II in the renal and mesenteric vasculature of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Angiotensin II-induced dose-dependent vasoconstrictions in the renal vasculature. The pressor response was enhanced in the SHR and reduced in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat compared to WKY rats. Angiotensin 1-7 attenuated the angiotensin II pressor responses in the renal vasculature of WKY and SHR rats. However, the ability to reduce angiotensin II response was diminished in diabetic-induced rat kidneys. The effect of angiotensin 1-7 was not inhibited by 1-[(4-(Dimethylamino)-3-methylphenyl] methyl]-5-(diphenylacetyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-6-carboxylic acid ditrifluoroacetate (PD123319), an angiotensin AT(2) receptor antagonist. (D-ALA(7))-Angiotensin I/II (1-7) (D-ALA) (an angiotensin 1-7 receptor antagonist), indomethacin (a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor), and N(omega)-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME)(a nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor) abolished the attenuation by angiotensin 1-7 in both WKY rats and SHR, indicating that its action is mediated by angiotensin 1-7 receptor that is either coupled to the release of prostaglandins and/or nitric oxide. The vasopressor responses to angiotensin II in mesenteric vasculature bed was also dose-dependent but smaller in magnitude compared to the renal vasculature. The responses to angiotensin II were relatively smaller in SHR but no significant difference was observed between WKY and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Angiotensin 1-7 attenuated the angiotensin II pressor responses in WKY, SHR and diabetic-induced mesenteric bed. The attenuation was observed at the lower concentrations of angiotensin II in WKY and diabetic-induced rats but at higher concentrations in SHR. Similar observation as in the renal vasculature was seen with PD123319, D-ALA, and L-NAME. Indomethacin reversed the attenuation by angiotensin 1-7 only in the SHR mesenteric vascular bed. The present findings support the regulatory role of angiotensin 1-7 in the renal and mesenteric vasculature, which is differentially altered in hypertension and diabetes.