The ciprofloxacin resistance of Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae is mediated primarily through alterations in type II topoisomerase (gyrA) gene and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance-conferring genes (qnr). This study aimed to define the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance-conferring genes (qnr) and type II topoisomerase (gyrA) alterations of a population of ciprofloxacin-resistant (n = 21), intermediate (n = 8), and sensitive (n = 18) K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from a teaching hospital at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Cassia (C.) surattensis Burm. f. (Leguminosae), a medicinal herb native to tropical equatorial Asia, was commonly used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of methanolic flower extract of C. surattensis against Aspergillus (A.) niger.
The emergence of novel diseases caused by microbial pathogens and the undesirable side effects of certain antibiotics has been a recent dilemma in the medical arena. Consequently, it has stirred the discovery of many naturally occurring agents which could possibly provide important ramifications against various pharmacological targets and to combat various ailments. The main aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the crude methanolic extract of Piper (P.) sarmentosum against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
AIM: To determine the usefulness of prednisolone in increasing the number of Toxoplasma (T.) gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites in mice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mice were water-fasted prior to being immunosuppressed with oral inoculation of prednisolone. Tachyzoites of 7T gondii RH strain were inoculated into mice and the number of the parasites in the intraperitoneal fluids was then determined at 96 hs post-infection. In addition, tachyzoites of T. gondii ME49 strains were orally introduced into mice and the number of brain cysts formed was observed by microscopic observation at 45 days post-infection.
RESULTS: T. gondii propagation was found to be significantly improved by introduction of the prednisolone (p = 0.0004); and the number of parasite showed positive correlation with the increment in dosage of prednisolone (r = 0.9051).
CONCLUSIONS: The use of prednisolone greatly improved the number of parasite formed in mice: both tachyzoite and cyst forms.
AIM: A method was developed to separate contaminant-free viable Toxoplasma gondii cysts from brain samples of infected mice for molecular biology studies and reinfection.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mice brains were homogenized and washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) Tween 80 prior to fractionation using 19-22% dextran solution. Finally, the supernatant was purified by two-step membrane filtration (100-160 microm and < 10 microm) to obtain pure T. gondii cyst. The isolates were analyzed through microscopic observation, qPCR and by reinfection of new batch of mice.
RESULTS: T. gondii cysts were best isolated with 21% dextran solution and two step filtration.
CONCLUSIONS: The method was observed not to disrupt the integrity of the cysts containing bradyzoites. In addition, the isolated cysts in the filtrate were found to be contaminant-free, viable and able to infect healthy mice when introduced orally; which, mimics the natural infectivity pathway.
Sea urchin gonad is considered as a highly prized delicacy in several countries. It is also rich in valuable bioactive compounds including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and β-carotene. This study was undertaken to examine the antimicrobial properties of the ovary extract from sea urchin Diadema setosum against selected Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
Channa (C.) striatus (Malay-Haruan), is a fresh water snakehead fish, consumed as a rejuvenating diet in post-parturition period in local Malay population. The aqueous extract of C. striatus fillet (AECSF) was reported to act through serotonergic receptor system in a previous study. There is no scientific report on neuropharmacological effects of C. striatus. Based on these data, the antidepressant-like effect of C. striatus was evaluated in mice models of depression.
Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. The etiology and pathophysiology of appendicitis have been well investigated. Aggregatibacter aphrophilus is a fastidious gram-negative coccobacilli. Detection of this organism in clinical samples and its differentiation from Haemophilus aphrophilus or from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in routine microbiology settings could be difficult.
The Gracilaria (G.) sp are widely used in the traditional medicine in Malaysia. The methanol extract of Gracilaria changii B.M. Xia & I.A. Abbott (Gracilariaciae) was evaluated for antiyeast activity against Candida albicans (Berkhout).
Ganoderma (G.) boninense is a white rot fungus, which can be found in the palm oil tree. Several studies have shown that G. boninense has antimicrobial and antagonistic properties. However, there is limited information reported on antifungal properties especially on Candida (C) albicans. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the anti-Candida activity of G. boninense against C albicans.
Tsukamurella spp. are a rare but important cause of intravascular catheter-related bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. The organism is an aerobic, Gram-positive, weakly acid-fast bacillus that is difficult to differentiate using standard laboratory methods from other aerobic actinomycetales such as Nocardia spp., Rhododoccus spp., Gordonia spp., and the rapid growing Mycobacterium spp. We report a case of Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens catheter-related bacteremia in a 51-year-old haematology patient who responded to treatment with imipenem and subsequent line removal. 16srRNA sequencing allowed for the prompt identification of this organism.
Hevea brasiliensis extracts could potentially be employed as a relatively low cost resource for various anti-fungal activities due to the simplicity of the extract preparation and its abundance especially in the tropical region. Latex B-serum was reported to have anti-cancer property and its specificity in anti-fungal property has not been elucidated. The present study was conducted to determine the anti-fungal activity of Hevea latex B-serum against Candida (C.) albicans (a rounded cell fungus) and Aspergillus (A.) niger (a filamentous fungus).
Candida (C.) albicans infection in its biofilm mode of growth has taken centre point with the increasing recognition of its role in human infections due to the development of resistance to the commonly used antibiotic or phenotypic adaptation within the biofilm. Hence, in this study the inhibitory effect of methanol extract of Cassia (C.) spectabilis leaves was evaluated against biofilm forming C. albicans.
Vernonia (V.) cinerea Less (Asteraceae) have many therapeutic uses in the practice of traditional medicine. The methanol extract of V cinerea, was screened for antiyeast activity against pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.
Hevea brasiliensis extract could potentially be employed as a relatively low cost resource for various anti-fungal activities due to the simplicity of latex preparation and the abundance of latex that can be obtained in rubber producing regions. The present study was aimed at examining the species specific anti-fungal property of H. brasilensis latex C-serum against Aspergillus niger.
To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal potential of the native Bacillus thuringiensis isolate BtReXO2, which was isolated from a tropical rain forest ecosystem in Malaysia. This study also aimed at determining the phenotypic and biochemical characteristics of the isolate.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) as a probiotic to enhance the cellular innate immune response of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) challenged with a bacterial fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila.
The efficacy of dietary inclusion of various parts of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) extract on growth and hematological parameters of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings were investigated.
The objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of the antimicrobial properties of the mucus extract of snakehead fish, Channa striatus against selected human and fish pathogenic microbes.