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  1. Hasan SS, Thiruchelvam K, Kow CS, Ghori MU, Babar ZU
    Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 2017 Oct;17(5):431-439.
    PMID: 28825502 DOI: 10.1080/14737167.2017.1370376
    INTRODUCTION: Medication reviews is a widely accepted approach known to have a substantial impact on patients' pharmacotherapy and safety. Numerous options to optimise pharmacotherapy in older people have been reported in literature and they include medication reviews, computerised decision support systems, management teams, and educational approaches. Pharmacist-led medication reviews are increasingly being conducted, aimed at attaining patient safety and medication optimisation. Cost effectiveness is an essential aspect of a medication review evaluation. Areas covered: A systematic searching of articles that examined the cost-effectiveness of medication reviews conducted in aged care facilities was performed using the relevant databases. Pharmacist-led medication reviews confer many benefits such as attainment of biomarker targets for improved clinical outcomes, and other clinical parameters, as well as depict concrete financial advantages in terms of decrement in total medication costs and associated cost savings. Expert commentary: The cost-effectiveness of medication reviews are more consequential than ever before. A critical evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities from an economical aspect is crucial in determining if the time, effort, and direct and indirect costs involved in the review rationalise the significance of conducting medication reviews for older people in aged care facilities.
  2. Neoh CF, Kong DC
    Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 2014 Jun;14(3):319-34.
    PMID: 24708054 DOI: 10.1586/14737167.2014.906306
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is costly to treat and, has high morbidity and mortality. The addition of new protease inhibitors (i.e., boceprevir, telaprevir), to the standard dual therapy with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin, for the treatment of HCV infection has demonstrated superior efficacy with shorter treatment duration, but at higher drug acquisition costs and incidence of adverse events. Robust economic data are required to inform healthcare decision for the optimal use of these expensive antiviral agents. Accordingly, this review will explore the clinical and economic aspects of boceprevir-based treatment strategies. Important considerations, challenges and gaps for future pharmacoeconomic research in this setting are highlighted.
  3. Hasan SS, Kow CS, Curley LE, Baines DL, Babar ZU
    Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 2018 08;18(4):371-377.
    PMID: 29741099 DOI: 10.1080/14737167.2018.1474101
    INTRODUCTION: Anticoagulants refer to a variety of agents that inhibit one or more steps in the coagulation cascade. Generally, clinical conditions that require the prescribing of an oral anticoagulant increase in frequency with age. However, a major challenge of anticoagulation use among older patients is that this group of patients also experience the highest bleeding risk. To date, economic evaluation of prescribing of anticoagulants that includes the novel or newer oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in older adults has not been conducted and is warranted.

    AREAS COVERED: A review of articles that evaluated the cost of prescribing conventional (e.g. vitamin K antagonists) and NOACs (e.g. direct thrombin inhibitors and direct factor Xa inhibitors) in older adults.

    EXPERT COMMENTARY: While the use of NOACs significantly increases the cost of the initial treatment for thromboembolic disorders, they are still considered cost-effective relative to warfarin since they offer reduced risk of intracranial haemorrhagic events. The optimum anticoagulation with warfarin can be achieved by providing specialised care; clinics managed by pharmacists have been shown to be cost-effective relative to usual care. There are suggestions that genotyping the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes is useful for determining a more appropriate initial dose and thereby increasing the effectiveness and safety of warfarin.

  4. Leporowski A, Godman B, Kurdi A, MacBride-Stewart S, Ryan M, Hurding S, et al.
    Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 2018 Dec;18(6):655-666.
    PMID: 30014725 DOI: 10.1080/14737167.2018.1501558
    BACKGROUND: Prescribing of lipid-lowering agents (LLAs) has increased worldwide including in Scotland with increasing prevalence of coronary heart disease, and higher dose statins have been advocated in recent years. There have also been initiatives to encourage prescribing of generic versus patented statins to save costs without compromising care. There is a need to document these initiatives and outcomes to provide future direction.

    METHOD: Assessment of utilization (items dispensed) and expenditure of key LLAs (mainly statins) between 2001 and 2015 in Scotland alongside initiatives.

    RESULTS: Multiple interventions over the years have increased international nonproprietary name prescribing (99% for statins) and preferential prescribing of generic versus patented statins, and reduced inappropriate prescribing of ezetimibe. This resulted in a 50% reduction in expenditure of LLAs between 2001 and 2015 despite a 412% increase in utilization, increased prescribing of higher dose statins (71% in 2015) especially atorvastatin following generic availability, and reduced prescribing of ezetimibe (reduced by 72% between 2010 and 2015). As a result, the quality of prescribing has improved.

    CONCLUSION: Generic availability coupled with multiple measures has resulted in appreciable shifts in statin prescribing behavior and reduced ezetimibe prescribing, resulting in improvements in both the quality and efficiency of prescribing.

  5. Wang P, Liu GG, Jo MW, Purba FD, Yang Z, Gandhi M, et al.
    Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 2019 Aug;19(4):445-451.
    PMID: 30523723 DOI: 10.1080/14737167.2019.1557048
    Objectives: To compare the time trade-off (TTO) utility values of EQ-5D-5L health states elicited from different general populations in Asia. Methods: We analyzed the TTO data from seven Asian EQ-5D-5L valuation studies in which utility values of 86 EQ-5D-5L health states were elicited from general population samples. An eight-parameter multiplicative regression model including five dimension parameters (mobility [MO], self-care, usual activities [UA], pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression) and three level parameters (level 2 [L2], level 3 [L3], and level 4 [L4]) was used to model the data from each of the populations. The model coefficients were compared to understand how the valuations of EQ-5D-5L health states differ. Results: For dimension parameters, Korea and Indonesia generally had the highest and lowest values among the populations, respectively; UA and MO commonly had the highest and lowest values among the parameters, respectively. For level parameters, Singapore and Korea generally had the highest and lowest values, respectively; L2 showed less variance compared to L3 and L4. Koreans, Indonesians, and Singaporeans appeared to have different health preferences compared with other populations. Conclusion: Utility values of EQ-5D-5L health states differ among Asian populations, suggesting that each health system should establish and use its own value set.
  6. Dewi EK, Dahlui M, Chalidyanto D, Rochmah TN
    PMID: 31203686 DOI: 10.1080/14737167.2019.1633308
    Background: A good drug inventory planning system is important for an efficient budgeting, procurement, and cost control of drugs. When stagnant drugs in the inventory are too much, wastage due to expired and spoiled drugs could occur. These will not only cause loss of income but could also jeopardize healthcare service delivery. Research design and methods: This study aimed to determine the most efficient and effective management of stagnant and shortage drugs by comparing three pharmacy logistic methods; the economic order quantity (EOQ), minimum-maximum stock level (MMSL), and the traditional consumption of drug inventory, at RA Basoeni Hospital, Mojokerto. Drug inventory was analyzed to calculate the opportunity loss, opportunity cost, and proportions of both stagnant and shortage drugs. Results: We found that EOQ and MMSL performed best for control of stagnant drugs and shortage drugs, respectively. Both methods had proved as effective pharmacy logistic planning. In addition, EOQ produced the lowest opportunity cost for stagnant drugs besides the lowest opportunity loss for shortage drugs. Conclusion: The study concluded that EOQ is the most effective and efficient method to manage stagnant and shortage drugs at hospital pharmacy.
  7. Shah S, Abbas G, Hanif M, Anees-Ur-Rehman, Zaman M, Riaz N, et al.
    PMID: 31401898 DOI: 10.1080/14737167.2019.1650643
    Background: Health-care systems in Asian countries are diverse. The economic evaluation provides information on how to make efficient use of the resources available to obtain the maximum benefits. In Asia, diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes mellitus (DM), tuberculosis (TB) and epilepsy generate a heavy economic burden. The objective of this article is to provide a review of the economic burden of health to patients in Asian countries. Areas covered: All data were collected from already published research article and review papers. The databases searched were Science Direct, PubMed, MEDLINE and Google scholar. We found a total of 4456 articles on health economics. After reviewing the title, only 876 relevant articles were considered. Only 92 (n = 92) articles were considered on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Expert opinion: Available data give evidence that diseases are linked to the low socio-economic status of the Asian population. The cost per capita is high in Asian countries due to insufficient health-care facilities. The cost per capita in Asian countries ranges from $23 (Pakistan) to $1775 (Taiwan). The per capita cost of Malaysia, China, Singapore, and Thailand is $27 $83, $75, and $27, respectively.
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