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  1. Shah KV, Dandawate CN, Bhatt PN
    F1000Res, 2012;1:61.
    PMID: 24627765 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.1-61.v1
    Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus (KFDV), discovered in 1957, is a member of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) complex. Diseases caused by members of the TBEV complex occur in many parts of the world. KFDV produces a hemorrhagic fever in humans in South India and fatal illnesses in both species of monkeys in the area, the black faced langur (Presbytis entellus) and the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata). Experimental infection of the langur and the bonnet macaque with early mouse passage KFDV strain P9605 resulted in a viremia of up to 11 days duration, peak viremia titers as high as 10 (9), and death in 82 = 100% of the animals. Prolonged passage of the KFDV strain P9605 in monkey kidney tissue culture resulted in a markedly reduced virulence of the virus for both species; peak viremia titers in monkeys decreased by 2.5 to 4.0 log LD 50 (p= 0.001), and the mortality decreased to 10% (p= 0.001). In challenge experiments, monkeys previously infected with tissue-culture-adapted KFDV, or with the related Langat virus from Malaysia, were fully protected against virulent KFDV. These studies in non-human primates lend support to the idea that a live virus vaccine from a member of the TBEV complex may be broadly protective against infections by other members of the TBEV complex.
  2. Dalby A, Shamsir MS
    F1000Res, 2015;4:589.
    PMID: 26539292 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.6831.1
    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used extensively to model the folding and unfolding of proteins. The rates of folding and unfolding should follow the Arrhenius equation over a limited range of temperatures. This study shows that molecular dynamic simulations of the unfolding of crambin between 500K and 560K do follow the Arrhenius equation. They also show that while there is a large amount of variation between the simulations the average values for the rate show a very high degree of correlation.
  3. Akbar R, Jusoh SA
    F1000Res, 2013;2:64.
    PMID: 24555044 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.2-64.v2
    Envelope glycoproteins of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) play an important role in the virus assembly and initial entry into host cells. Conserved charged residues of the E2 transmembrane (TM) domain were shown to be responsible for the heterodimerization with envelope glycoprotein E1. Despite intensive research on both envelope glycoproteins, the structural information is still not fully understood. Recent findings have revealed that the stem (ST) region of E2 also functions in the initial stage of the viral life cycle. We have previously shown the effect of the conserved charged residues on the TM helix monomer of E2. Here, we extended the model of the TM domain by adding the adjacent ST segment. Explicit molecular dynamics simulations were performed for the E2 amphiphilic segment of the ST region connected to the putative TM domain (residues 683-746). Structural conformation and behavior are studied and compared with the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived segment of E2 ( 2KQZ.pdb). We observed that the central helix of the ST region (residues 689 - 703) remained stable as a helix in-plane to the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, the TM domain appeared to provide minimal contribution to the structural stability of the amphipathic region. This study also provides insight into the orientation and positional preferences of the ST segment with respect to the membrane lipid-water interface.
  4. Chua SK, Qureshi AM, Krishnan V, Pai DR, Kamal LB, Gunasegaran S, et al.
    F1000Res, 2017;6:208.
    PMID: 28649365 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.10892.1
    Background Citations of papers are positively influenced by the journal's impact factor (IF). For non-open access (non-OA) journals, this influence may be due to the fact that high-IF journals are more often purchased by libraries, and are therefore more often available to researchers, than low-IF journals. This positive influence has not, however, been shown specifically for papers published in open access (OA) journals, which are universally accessible, and do not need library purchase. It is therefore important to ascertain if the IF influences citations in OA journals too. Methods 203 randomized controlled trials (102 OA and 101 non-OA) published in January 2011 were included in the study. Five-year citations for papers published in OA journals were compared to those for non-OA journals. Source papers were derived from PubMed. Citations were retrieved from Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The Thompson-Reuter's IF was used. Results OA journals were found to have significantly more citations overall compared to non-OA journals (median 15.5 vs 12, p=0.039). The IF did not correlate with citations for OA journals (Spearman's rho =0.187, p=0.60). The increase in the citations with increasing IF was minimal for OA journals (beta coefficient = 3.346, 95% CI -0.464, 7.156, p=0.084). In contrast, the IF did show moderate correlation with citations for articles published in non-OA journals (Spearman's rho=0.514, p<0.001). The increase in the number of citations was also significant (beta coefficient = 4.347, 95% CI 2.42, 6.274, p<0.001). Conclusion It is better to publish in an OA journal for more citations. It may not be worth paying high publishing fees for higher IF journals, because there is minimal gain in terms of increased number of citations. On the other hand, if one wishes to publish in a non-OA journal, it is better to choose one with a high IF.
  5. Muchlisin ZA, Batubara AS, Fadli N, Muhammadar AA, Utami AI, Farhana N, et al.
    F1000Res, 2017;6:258.
    PMID: 28529702 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.10715.1
    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the species diversity of eels native to Aceh waters based on genetic data. Sampling was conducted in western coast waters of Aceh Province, Indonesia, from July to August 2016. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples, a genomic region from the 5' region of the cox1 gene was amplified and sequenced, and this was then used to analyse genetic variation. The genetic sequences were blasted into the NCBI database. Based on this analysis there were three valid species of eels that occurred in Aceh waters, namely Anguilla marmorata, A. bicolor bicolor, and A. bengalensis bengalensis.
  6. Allinjawi K, Sharanjeet-Kaur SK, Akhir SM, Mutalib HA
    F1000Res, 2016;5:2742.
    PMID: 28163898 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.9971.1
    Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in relative peripheral refractive error produced by two different designs of progressive soft contact lenses in myopic schoolchildren. Methods: Twenty-seven myopic schoolchildren age between 13 to 15 years were included in this study. The measurements of central and peripheral refraction were made using a Grand-Seiko WR-5100K open-field autorefractometer without correction (baseline), and two different designs of progressive contact lenses (PCLs) (Multistage from SEED & Proclear from Cooper Vision) with an addition power of +1.50 D. Refractive power was measured at center and at eccentricities between 35º temporal to 35º nasal visual field (in 5º steps). Results: Both PCLs showed a reduction in hyperopic defocus at periphery. However, this reduction was only significant for the Multistage PCL (p= 0.015), (Proclear PCL p= 0.830).  Conclusion: Multistage PCLs showed greater reduction in peripheral retinal hyperopic defocus among myopic schoolchildren in comparison to Proclear PCLs.
  7. Woi PJ, Kaur S, Waugh SJ, Hairol MI
    F1000Res, 2016;5:1961.
    PMID: 28184281 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.9410.1
    The human visual system is sensitive in detecting objects that have different luminance level from their background, known as first-order or luminance-modulated (LM) stimuli. We are also able to detect objects that have the same mean luminance as their background, only differing in contrast (or other attributes). Such objects are known as second-order or contrast-modulated (CM), stimuli. CM stimuli are thought to be processed in higher visual areas compared to LM stimuli, and may be more susceptible to ageing. We compared visual acuities (VA) of five healthy older adults (54.0±1.83 years old) and five healthy younger adults (25.4±1.29 years old) with LM and CM letters under monocular and binocular viewing. For monocular viewing, age had no effect on VA [F(1, 8)= 2.50, p> 0.05]. However, there was a significant main effect of age on VA under binocular viewing [F(1, 8)= 5.67, p< 0.05].  Binocular VA with CM letters in younger adults was approximately two lines better than that in older adults. For LM, binocular summation ratios were similar for older (1.16±0.21) and younger (1.15±0.06) adults. For CM, younger adults had higher binocular summation ratio (1.39±0.08) compared to older adults (1.12±0.09). Binocular viewing improved VA with LM letters for both groups similarly. However, in older adults, binocular viewing did not improve VA with CM letters as much as in younger adults. This could reflect a decline of higher visual areas due to ageing process, most likely higher than V1, which may be missed if measured with luminance-based stimuli alone.
  8. Farouk Musa A, Quan CZ, Xin LZ, Soni T, Dillon J, Hay YK, et al.
    F1000Res, 2018;7:164.
    PMID: 30254739 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.13244.2
    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common after cardiac surgery and has been associated with poor outcome and increased resource utilization. The main objective of this study is to determine the incidence of POAF in Malaysia and identify the predictors of developing POAF. The secondary outcome of this study would be to investigate the difference in mortality and morbidity rates and the duration of intensive care unit (ICU), high dependency unit (HDU) and hospital stay between the two. Methods: This is a retrospective single-center, cross sectional study conducted at the National Heart Institute, Malaysia. Medical records of 637 who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in 2015 were accrued. Pre-operative, operative and post-operative information were subsequently collected on a pre-formulated data collection sheet. Data were then analyzed using IBM SPSS v23. Results: The incidence of POAF in our study stands at 28.7% with a mean onset of 45±33 hours post operatively. Variables with independent association with POAF include advancing age, Indian population, history of chronic kidney disease, left ventricular ejection fraction and beta-blocker treatment. The mortality rate is significantly higher statistically ( p < 0.05), and similarly the incidence of stroke. The incidence of other post-operative complications was also significantly higher statistically. The duration of ICU, HDU and hospital stays were statistically longer ( p < 0.001) with higher rates of ICU readmissions and reintubations seen. Conclusion: We conclude that the incidence of POAF in Malaysia is comparable to the figures in Western countries, making POAF one of the most commonly encountered condition after CABG with similar higher rates of mortality, poor outcomes and longer duration of stay, and therefore increased cost of care. Strategies to reduce the incidence of AF after cardiac surgery should favorably affect surgical outcomes and reduce utilization of resources and thus lower cost of care.
  9. Kuspradini H, Wulandari I, Putri AS, Tiya SY, Kusuma IW
    F1000Res, 2018;7:1839.
    PMID: 30774930 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.16620.2
    Background:Litsea angulata is a plant species belonging to Lauraceae family that is distributed throughout Indonesia, Malaysia, and New Guinea. The seeds have been traditionally used by local people in Kalimantan, Indonesia for the treatment of boils; however, there is no information about the potency of its branch, bark and leaves yet. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity as well as the phytochemical constituent of Litsea angulata branch, bark, and leaves. Methods: Extraction was performed by successive maceration method using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol solvent. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The antimicrobial activity using the 96 well-plate microdilution broth method against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Results: Based on the phytochemical analysis, it showed that extract of L. angulata contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, and coumarin. The results showed that all extracts of plant samples displayed the ability to inhibit DPPH free radical formation and all tested microorganisms. Conclusions:L. angulata contains secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, carotenoids, and coumarin. The antioxidant activity on different plant extracts was a range as very strong to weak capacity. All extracts in this study could inhibit the growth of S. aureus and S. mutans.
  10. Thomas BAWM, Kaur S, Hairol MI, Ahmad M, Wee LH
    F1000Res, 2018;7:1834.
    PMID: 30815251 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.17006.1
    Background: Congenital colour vision deficiency (CCVD) is an untreatable disorder which has lifelong consequences. Increasing use of colours in schools has raised concern for pupils with CCVD. This case-control study was conducted to compare behavioural and emotional issues among age, gender and class-matched pupils with CCVD and normal colour vision (NCV). Methods: A total of 1732 pupils from 10 primary schools in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur were screened, of which 46 pupils (45 males and 1 female) had CCVD. Mothers of male pupils with CCVD (n=44) and NCV (n=44) who gave consent were recruited to complete a self-administered parent report form, Child Behaviour Checklist for Ages 4-18 (CBCL/ 4-18) used to access behavioural and emotional problems. The CBCL/ 4-18 has three broad groupings: Internalising, Externalising and Total Behaviour Problems. Internalising Problems combines the Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints and Anxiety/ Depression sub constructs, while Externalising Problems combines the Delinquent and Aggressive Behaviour sub constructs. Results: Results from CBCL/ 4-18 showed that all pupils from both groups had scores within the normal range for all constructs. However, results from the statistical analysis for comparison, Mann-Whitney U test, showed that pupils with CCVD scored significantly higher for Externalising Problems (U=697.50, p=0.02) and Total Behaviour Problems (U=647.00, p= 0.01). Significantly higher scores were observed in Withdrawn (U=714.00, p=0.02), Thought Problems (U=438.50, p<0.001) and Aggressive Behaviour (U=738.00, p=0.04). Odds ratios, 95% CI, showed significant relative risk for high Total Behaviour Problem (OR:2.39 ,CI:1.0-5.7), Externalising Problems (OR:2.32, CI:1.0-5.5), Withdrawn (OR:2.67, CI:1.1-6.5), Thought Problems (OR:9.64, CI:3.6-26.1) and Aggressive Behaviour (OR:10.26, CI:3.4-31.0) scores among pupils with CCVD. Conclusion: Higher scores among CCVD pupils indicates that they present more behavioural and emotional problems compared to NCV pupils. Therefore, school vision screenings in Malaysia should also include colour vision to assist in the early clinical management of CCVD children.
  11. Muchlisin ZA, Murda T, Yulvizar C, Dewiyanti I, Fadli N, Afrido F, et al.
    F1000Res, 2017;6:137.
    PMID: 28357045 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.10693.1
    Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish ( Tor tambra) fry. MethodsLactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg -1 (control), 5 ml kg -1, 10 ml kg -1 and 15 ml kg -1 were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic) to 10 ml kg -1 of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg -1. Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg -1. Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg -1 of feed.
  12. Alvarez MF, Bolívar-Mejía A, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Ramirez-Vallejo E
    F1000Res, 2017;6:390.
    PMID: 28503297 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.11078.2
    BACKGROUND: In the last three years, chikungunya virus disease has been spreading, affecting particularly the Americas, producing more than two million cases. In this setting, not only new disease-related epidemiological patterns have been found, but also new clinical findings have been reported by different research groups. These include findings on the cardiovascular system, including clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic alterations. No previous systemic reviews have been found in major databases about it.

    METHODS: We performed a systematic review looking for reports about cardiovascular compromise during chikungunya disease. Cardiac compromise is not so common in isolated episodes; but countries where chikungunya virus is an epidemic should be well informed about this condition. We used 6 bibliographical databases as resources: Medline/Pubmed, Embase, ScienceDirect, ClinicalKey, Ovid and SciELO. Dengue reports on cardiovascular compromise were included as well, to compare both arbovirus' organic compromises. Articles that delved mainly into the rheumatic articular and cutaneous complications were not considered, as they were not in line with the purpose of this study. The type of articles included were reviews, meta-analyses, case-controls, cohort studies, case reports and case series. This systematic review does not reach or performed a meta-analysis.

    RESULTS: Originally based on 737 articles, our reviewed selected 40 articles with 54.2% at least mentioning CHIKV cardiovascular compromise within the systemic compromise. Cardiovascular manifestations can be considered common and have been reported in France, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Colombia, Venezuela and USA, including mainly, but no limited to: hypotension, shock and circulatory collapse, Raynaud phenomenon, arrhythmias, murmurs, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, congestive insufficiency, heart failure and altered function profile (Troponins, CPK).

    CONCLUSIONS: Physicians should be encouraged to keep divulgating reports on the cardiovascular involvement of chikungunya virus disease, to raise awareness and ultimately encourage suitable diagnosis and intervention worldwide. More research about cardiovascular involvement and manifestations of systemic Chikungunya virus infection is urgently needed.

  13. Angers-Loustau A, Petrillo M, Bengtsson-Palme J, Berendonk T, Blais B, Chan KG, et al.
    F1000Res, 2018;7.
    PMID: 30026930 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.14509.2
    Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are expected to play a crucial role in the surveillance of infectious diseases, with their unprecedented capabilities for the characterisation of genetic information underlying the virulence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) properties of microorganisms.  In the implementation of any novel technology for regulatory purposes, important considerations such as harmonisation, validation and quality assurance need to be addressed.  NGS technologies pose unique challenges in these regards, in part due to their reliance on bioinformatics for the processing and proper interpretation of the data produced.  Well-designed benchmark resources are thus needed to evaluate, validate and ensure continued quality control over the bioinformatics component of the process.  This concept was explored as part of a workshop on "Next-generation sequencing technologies and antimicrobial resistance" held October 4-5 2017.   Challenges involved in the development of such a benchmark resource, with a specific focus on identifying the molecular determinants of AMR, were identified. For each of the challenges, sets of unsolved questions that will need to be tackled for them to be properly addressed were compiled. These take into consideration the requirement for monitoring of AMR bacteria in humans, animals, food and the environment, which is aligned with the principles of a "One Health" approach.
  14. Yeo LF, Aghakhanian FF, Tan JSY, Gan HM, Phipps ME
    F1000Res, 2019;8:175.
    PMID: 31275564 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.17706.3
    Background: The indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia, also known as Orang Asli, have gradually been urbanized. A shift towards non-communicable diseases commonly associated with sedentary lifestyles have been reported in many tribes. This study engaged with a semi-urbanized Temiar tribe from Kampong Pos Piah, Perak, who are experiencing an epidemiological transition. Methods:  Weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1C and lipid levels were measured as indicators of cardio-metabolic health. DNA was extracted from saliva using salting-out method followed by PCR amplification of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and sequencing on Illumina MiSeq. Microbiome analysis was conducted on Qiime v1.9. Statistical analysis was conducted using Qiime v1.9 and R.   Results: The study revealed that 60.4% of the Temiar community were overweight/obese, with a higher prevalence among women. HbA1C levels showed that 45% of Temiar had pre-diabetes. Insulin resistance was identified in 21% of Temiar by using a surrogate marker, TG/HDL. In total, 56.5% of Temiar were pre-hypertensive, and the condition was prevalent across all age-groups. The saliva microbiome profiles of Temiar revealed significant differences by gender, BMI, abdominal obesity as well as smoking status. The relative abundance of the genus Bifidobacterium was increased in men whereas the genera  Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Leptotrichia, Neisseria and Streptococcus were increased in women. Proteobacteria was significantly depleted in smokers. Conclusions: Temiar from Pos Piah had a high prevalence of cardio-metabolic risks, including general and abdominal obesity, pre-diabetes, prehypertension and hypertension. This phenomenon has not been previously reported in this tribe. The saliva microbiome profiles were significantly different for individuals of different gender, BMI, abdominal obesity and smoking status.
  15. Anggraini L, Marlida Y, Wizna W, Jamsari J, Mirzah M, Adzitey F, et al.
    F1000Res, 2018 10 19;7:1663.
    PMID: 32201563 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.16224.3
    Background: Dadih (fermented buffalo milk) is a traditional Indonesian food originating from West Sumatra province. The fermentation process is carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are naturally present in buffalo milk.  Lactic acid bacteria have been reported as one of potential producers of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA acts as a neurotransmitter inhibitor of the central nervous system. Methods: In this study, molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of GABA producing LAB isolated from indigenous dadih of West Sumatera were determined. Identification of the GABA-producing LAB DS15 was based on conventional polymerase chain reaction. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to identify LAB DS15. Results: PCR of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of LAB DS15 gave an approximately 1400 bp amplicon.  Phylogenetic analysis showed that LAB DS15 was Pediococcusacidilactici, with high similarity of 99% at 100% query coverage to Pediococcusacidilactici strain DSM 20284. Conclusions: It can be concluded that GABA producing LAB isolated from indigenous dadih was Pediococcus acidilactici.
  16. Mudatsir M, Anwar S, Fajar JK, Yufika A, Ferdian MN, Salwiyadi S, et al.
    F1000Res, 2019;8:1441.
    PMID: 32399182 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.20144.1
    Background: Some Ebola vaccines have been developed and tested in phase III clinical trials. However, assessment of whether public have willingness to purchase or not, especially in unaffected areas, is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine willingness to pay (WTP) for a hypothetical Ebola vaccine in Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 August to 30 December 2015 in five cities in Aceh province of Indonesia. Patients' family members who visited outpatient departments were approached and interviewed about their sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of Ebola, attitude towards vaccination practice and their WTP for a hypothetical Ebola vaccine. A multivariable linear regression model assessed the relationship between these explanatory variables and WTP. Results: During the study, 500 participants were approached and interviewed. There were 424 (84.8%) respondents who completed the interview and 74% (311/424) expressed their acceptance for an Ebola vaccine. There were 288 participants who were willing to pay for an Ebola vaccine (92.6% out of 311). The mean of WTP was US$2.08 (95% CI: 1.75-2.42). The final multivariable model indicated that young age, high educational attainment, working as a private employee, entrepreneur or civil servant (compared to farmers), being unmarried, and residing in a suburb (compared to a city) were associated with higher WTP. Conclusions: Although the proportion of the participants who would accept the Ebola vaccine was relatively high, the amount they were willing to pay for Ebola vaccine was very low. This finding would indicate the need of subsidies for Ebola vaccine in the country.
  17. Handajani J, Effendi N, Sosroseno W
    F1000Res, 2020;9:186.
    PMID: 32399205 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.22536.2
    Background: Estrogen expression levels may be associated with age and may affect keratinization of the hard palate. Keratinized epithelium expresses cytokeratin 5 and 14 in the basal layer. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the levels of salivary estrogen and number of cytokeratin 5-positive oral epithelial cells. Methods: A total of 30 female subjects were recruited and divided into children, adults and elderly (N=10 per group). Salivary estrogen levels and cytokeratin 5-expressing oral epithelial cells were assessed using ELISA and immunohistological methods, respectively. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with post hoc LSD test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed that both the number of cytokeratin 5-positive cells and the level of salivary estrogen were significantly higher in adults but decreased in the elderly, as compared with those in children (p<0.05). Furthermore, the levels of salivary estrogen were significantly correlated with the number of cytokeratin 5-positive cells (r=0.815). The ANOVA result showed significance difference cytokeratin 5 expression and estrogen level (p<0.05). The post hoc LSD test revealed cytokeratin 5 expression and estrogen level to be significantly different in children, adults, and elderly participants (p<0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that the profile of salivary estrogen and oral epithelial cell-expressed cytokeratin 5 may be positively correlated with age and depend on age.
  18. Andoy-Galvan JA, Lugova H, Patil SS, Wong YH, Baloch GM, Suleiman A, et al.
    F1000Res, 2020;9:160.
    PMID: 32399203 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.22236.1
    Background: Recent studies have shown that higher income is associated with a higher risk for subsequent obesity in low- and middle-income countries, while in high-income countries there is a reversal of the association - higher-income individuals have a lower risk of obesity. The concept of being able to afford to overeat is no longer a predictor of obesity in developed countries. In Malaysia, a trend has been observed that the prevalence of obesity increases with an increase in income among the low-income (B40) group. This trend, however, was not further investigated. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the association of income and other sociodemographic factors with obesity among residents within the B40 income group in an urban community.  Methods: This cross-sectional study used a systematic sampling technique to recruit participants residing in a Program Perumahan Rakyat (PPR), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The sociodemographic characteristics were investigated through face-to-face interviews. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated and coded as underweight, normal, overweight and obese according to the cut-off points for the Asian population. A chi-squared test was used to compare the prevalence of obesity in this study with the national prevalence. A generalized linear model was introduced to identify BMI predictors. Results: Among the 341 participants, 25 (7.3%) were underweight, 94 (27.6%) had normal weight, 87 (25.5%) were overweight, and 135 (39.6%) were obese. The proportion of obese adults (45.8%) was significantly higher than the national prevalence of 30.6% (p<0.001). Among all the tested variables, only income was significantly associated with BMI (p=0.046). Conclusion: The proportion of obesity in this urban poor community was higher compared with the national average. BMI increased as the average monthly household income decreased.
  19. Gleadow R, Macfarlan B, Honeydew M
    F1000Res, 2015;4:898.
    PMID: 26594348 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.7032.2
    Making material available through learning management systems is standard practice in most universities, but this is generally seen as an adjunct to the 'real' teaching, that takes place in face-to-face classes. Lecture attendance is poor, and it is becoming increasingly difficult to engage students, both in the material being taught and campus life. This paper describes the redevelopment of a large course in scientific practice and communication that is compulsory for all science students studying at our Melbourne and Malaysian campuses, or by distance education. Working with an educational designer, a blended learning methodology was developed, converting the environment provided by the learning management system into a teaching space, rather than a filing system. To ensure focus, topics are clustered into themes with a 'question of the week', a pre-class stimulus and follow up activities. The content of the course did not change, but by restructuring the delivery using educationally relevant design techniques, the content was contextualised resulting in an integrated learning experience. Students are more engaged intellectually, and lecture attendance has improved. The approach we describe here is a simple and effective approach to bringing this university's teaching and learning into the 21 (st) century.
  20. Susilowati H, Artanto S, Yulianto HDK, Sosroseno W, Hutomo S
    F1000Res, 2019;8:1008.
    PMID: 32025288 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.19327.2
    Background: Pyocyanin (PCN), a highly pathogenic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, induces caspase 3-dependent human B cell (Raji cells) death. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to assess whether antigen-specific IgY antibodies may be protective on PCN-induced Raji cell death. Methods: Chickens were subcutaneously immunized with Freund's complete adjuvant containing PCN, and then given two boosted immunizations.  Anti-PCN IgY antibodies were purified from egg yolk and detected using an agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and ELISA. Protective effects of antigen-specific IgY on Raji cells were tested using a cell viability assay. Results: AGPT results showed the formation of strong immune complex precipitates, whilst ELISA further confirmed the presence of IgY antibodies specific to PCN at significant concentration. Further experiments showed that anti-PCN IgY antibodies significantly increased PCN-treated Raji cell viability in a dose-dependent fashion (p<0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that anti-PCN IgY antibodies may be protective on PCN-induced Raji cell death.
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