Genetic counseling (GC) and genetic testing are vital risk management strategies in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndromes. Hitherto, cancer genetic testing amongst Asians has been described only in developed and high-income Asian countries. We studied the uptake and acceptance of GC and genetic testing services to Asian BRCA carriers in a middle-income country. A total of 363 patients were tested by full sequencing and large rearrangement analysis of both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in the Malaysian Breast Cancer (MyBrCa) Genetic Study. Of these, 49 index patients (13.5%) were found to carry deleterious mutations. GC pre- and post- result disclosures were provided and these groups of patients and their families were studied. GC and genetic testing were accepted by 82% of Malaysian patients at high risk for HBOC syndromes. However, risk assessment was limited by large, geographically dispersed, often polygamous or polyandrous families, and the lack of complete cancer registry. Cultural taboos about cancer diagnoses, social marginalization and lack of regulatory control of genetic discrimination were significant concerns. Only 78% of index patients informed their families of their risks and 11% of relatives came forward when offered free counseling and testing. Even when GC and genetic testing are provided at no cost, there remain significant societal and regulatory barriers to effective cancer genetic services in this underserved Asian population. Families believe there is a need for regulatory protection against genetic discrimination. Further studies are needed in the area of increasing awareness about the potential benefits of GC and genetic testing in Asians.
A truncating mutation (1100delC) in the cell cycle checkpoint kinase-2 gene, CHEK2, has been identified as a risk factor for familial and sporadic breast cancer in some Northern and Western European populations. However, the prevalence of CHEK2*1100delC in breast cancer appears to be population dependent. We analysed the prevalence of CHEK2*1100delC in 668 breast cancer cases, of which 542 were invasive breast cancers, from a hospital-based cohort of breast cancer patients from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The variant was not found in any patients in this cohort, suggesting that CHEK2*1100delC is rare in our population, and unlikely to contribute significantly to risk to breast cancer among the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups in Malaysia. This suggests that screening for this allele should not be routinely conducted in Malaysia.