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  1. Khan AA, Asari MA, Pasha MA
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2015 12 29;75(3):306-310.
    PMID: 26711654 DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2015.0130
    Variations of the sciatic nerve have been extensively studied in the past including its relationship with the piriformis muscle and associated clinical conditions like piriformis syndrome and sciatica. In the present study we noticed some interesting variations of the sciatic nerve, which were slightly different from the cases described earlier. In the previous studies most of the authors described the higher division of sciatic nerve and none of them discussed its formation. In this study we tried to look its formation from the sacral plexus and its divisions in the thigh. We noticed that in one cadaver the two components of the sciatic nerve originated directly from the sacral plexus and coursed down without merging in the thigh. Should this be called a higher division or non formation of the sciatic nerve? On the other hand in two other cadavers, the two divisions after emerging separately from the sacral plexus, united in the gluteal region and in the thigh respectively. Should we call this as higher division or low formation of the sciatic nerve? In two other cadavers the sciatic nerve emerged from the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis and divided in the gluteal region itself. Ideally this should be called as higher division of sciatic nerve.
  2. Khan AA, Asari MA, Hassan A, Aiman N
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2013 Feb;72(1):82-5.
    PMID: 23749717
    Anatomical variations in the femoral vein are of great clinical importance especially in cases of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Knowledge of the variable anatomy of the femoral vein is important to minimise false-negative findings on ultrasound examination in patients with DVT and help to explain the 'silent' DVT. Furthermore, the presence of a duplicated femoral vein itself is associated with higher incidence of DVT. These venous anomalies are usually due to the truncular venous malformation. In the present study, while dissecting the right lower limb, we found a case of variation of the femoral vein. In this case, besides a duplicated femoral vein, we also noticed a 3rd interconnecting channel near the apex of the femoral triangle joining the two veins. This variation has not been reported previously by other authors. Considering its uniqueness and clinical importance, we decided to report this case.
  3. Khan AA, Asari MA, Hassan A
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2011 Nov;70(4):291-4.
    PMID: 22117248
    Wormian bones are a subset of the small intrasutural bones that lie between the cranial sutures formed by the bones of the skull vault. They are formed due to additional ossification centres in or near sutures. They are usually considered as normal variants and seem to be determined genetically in certain populations. They have been linked with rapid cranial expansion as they appear in great number in hydrocephalic skulls. They are commonly found in the lambdoid suture and fontanelles but are occasionally seen in other sutures especially the coronal, squamosal, and sagittal sutures. We examined 25 dried human skulls with the aim to find out the occurrence and variations of Wormian bones, and surprisingly we found Wormian bones in the coronal, squamosal, and sagittal sutures in 6 skulls. These are uncommon sites of occurrence of sutural bones as reported in the literature. These findings prompted us to report these cases as their presence can lead to confusion in diagnosis in cases of skull fractures.
  4. D'Souza UJ, Narayana K, Zain A, Raju S, Nizam HM, Noriah O
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2006 Feb;65(1):6-10.
    PMID: 16783728
    The effects of exposure to low doses of paraquat, a herbicide, via the dermal route were studied on the spermatozoa of Sprague-Dawley rats. Paraquat (1, 1'-dimethyl-4, 4'-bipyridinium dichloride) was administered once a day for five days, at intervals of 24 h at 0, 6, 15 and 30 mg/kg, and the rats were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 28, and 42 after the last exposure. The sperm suspensions were obtained by mincing the caudae epididymes and ductus deferens for the purpose of performing a sperm morphology test, sperm count and analysis of sperm mortality and sperm motility, as per the standard procedures. The sperm count was decreased (p < 0.05) only on days 7 and 14 but sperm abnormalities increased on all days (p < 0.05). Sperm mortality increased at higher dose-levels (p < 0.05) except on day 42, and motility was affected by 30 mg/kg only on day 42. In conclusion, paraquat is a genotoxic and cytotoxic agent to germ cells in the male rat.
  5. Mat Taib CN, Hassan SN, Esa N, Mohd Moklas MA, San AA
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2016 09 26;76(1):38-43.
    PMID: 27665953 DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2016.0045
    Formation, distribution and possible communication of the median nerve are essential to know in treatment and surgeries of various conditions of injuries e.g. repair or reconstruction of the median nerve post traumatic accident. In the present study, 44 upper limbs were dissected. Root forming the median nerve, the median nerve in relation with the axillary artery and communication of the median nerve with other nerves were noted.
  6. Yousef Kalafi E, Town C, Kaur Dhillon S
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2018;77(2):179-193.
    PMID: 28868609 DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2017.0079
    Identification of taxonomy at a specific level is time consuming and reliant upon expert ecologists. Hence the demand for automated species identification incre-ased over the last two decades. Automation of data classification is primarily focussed on images while incorporating and analysing image data has recently become easier due to developments in computational technology. Research ef-forts on identification of species include specimens' image processing, extraction of identical features, followed by classifying them into correct categories. In this paper, we discuss recent automated species identification systems, mainly for categorising and evaluating their methods. We reviewed and compared different methods in step by step scheme of automated identification and classification systems of species images. The selection of methods is influenced by many variables such as level of classification, number of training data and complexity of images. The aim of writing this paper is to provide researchers and scientists an extensive background study on work related to automated species identification, focusing on pattern recognition techniques in building such systems for biodiversity studies. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 2: 179-193).
  7. Hui Lian H, Hayati F, Ali AA, Azizan N, Che Ani MF, Suhaili MA, et al.
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2018;77(2):400-402.
    PMID: 29064546 DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2017.0097
    We present the case of a 16-year-old boy presented with 2-week episode of wor-sening lower abdominal pain. Clinically, there was a tender palpable mass on the suprapubic region. Ultrasonography showed an absent spleen at its usual area, instead suprapubic mass suggestive of ectopic spleen was identified. An emer-gency laparotomy revealed a congested spleen in the pelvic cavity. Splenectomy was undertaken as it was non-viable. The patient was discharged uneventfully with triple vaccinations. We describe this unique entity with its literature review. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 2: 400-402).
  8. Allouh MZ, Abu Ghaida JH, Jarrar AA, Khasawneh RR, Mustafa AG, Bashaireh KM
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2016 02 26;75(3):388-392.
    PMID: 26916201 DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2016.0007
    The human carrying angle (CA) is a measure of the lateral deflection of the forearm from the arm. The importance of this angle emerges from its functional and clinical relevance. Previous studies have correlated this angle with different parameters including age, gender, and handedness. However, no reports have focused on race-dependent variations in CA or its relation to various components of the elbow joint. This study aimed to investigate the variations in CA with respect to race and inter-epicondylar distance (IED) of the humerus. The study included 457 Jordanian and 345 Malaysian volunteers with an age range of 18-21 years. All participants were right-hand dominant with no previous medical history in their upper limbs. Both CA and IED were measured by well-trained medical practitioners according to a well-established protocol. Regardless of race, CA was greater on the dominant side and in females. Furthermore, CA was significantly greater in Malaysian males compared to Jordanian males, and significantly smaller in Malaysian females compared to their Jordanian counterparts. Finally, CA significantly decreased with increasing IED in both races. This study supports effects of gender and handedness on the CA independent of race. However, CA also varies with race, and this variation is independent of age, gender, and handedness. The evaluation also revealed an inverse relationship between CA and IED. These findings indicate that multiple factors including race and IED should be considered during the examination and management of elbow fractures and epicondylar diseases.
  9. Gwani AS, Asari MA, Mohd Ismail ZI
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2017;76(4):682-688.
    PMID: 28553850 DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2017.0049
    BACKGROUND: The foot is composed of medial, lateral and transverse arches which, particularly the medial arch, provide it with the ability to function both as a flexible and rigid structure for proper locomotion. Arches of the foot, as well as their effect on lower extremity function, have been studied. However, quantitative data on the relationship between these arches still remain scanty. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine how the three arches of the foot intercorrelate.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-six participants (58 males, 18 females) were recruited to participate in the study. Bilateral weight-bearing lateral radiographs of the right foot were taken from each participant. Navicular heights (NH), medial cuneiform height (MCH), calcaneal inclination angle (CIA) and calcaneal-first metatarsal angle (C1MA) were measured to represent the medial arch. The lateral arch was represented by cuboid height (CH) and calcaneal-fifth metatarsal angle (C5MA) whereas; MCH and CH represented the transverse arch. Mean difference of variables between males and females was compared using independent t-test while the correlation between the variables was determined using Pearson correlation.

    RESULTS: All the variables were not significantly related to gender. Significant moderate to excellent linear correlations were observed between the variables. CIA showed the strongest correlation with C1MA (r = -0.90) and C5MA (r = -0.84) whereas, CH had the least correlation with other variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: The moderate to excellent correlations between the variables indicate that deformation or elevation of the medial arch may consequently result in similar movements of the lateral and transverse arches and vice versa.

  10. Ho JY, Ngeow WC, Lim D, Wong CS
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2021 Jun 29.
    PMID: 34184752 DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2021.0060
    BACKGROUND: There is concern regarding immediate implantation in the molar region because of discrepancy between socket size and inserted implant diameter. The purpose of this study was to assess the local anatomy of the posterior mandibular region in relation to immediate implant placement using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using CBCT imaging data, 204 mandibular first molars and 201 mandibular second molars were assessed for the interradicular and alveolar bone dimensions, tooth sizes and proximity to vital structures. The cross-sectional mandibular shape and root configuration of these molars were determined.

    RESULTS: Distances to the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) from the root apices of the first molar were significantly greater than the second molar. Up to 14.5% of second molars had less than 10mm of vertical bone height between the IAC and furcation bone crest. Interradicular bone width of <3mm was found in 57% of second molars. All first molars in this study had two to three roots while 16% of second molars presented with a single root. The prevalent mandible shape at the first and second molars was the parallel and undercut ridges, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The mandibular second molars from samples of a Southeast Asian population presented with greater anatomical difficulties for immediate implant placement which include absent or inadequate interradicular bone thickness, higher incidence of unfavorable mandible shape and increased proximity to vital structures.

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