The cestode fauna of the darkspotted numbfish, Narcine maculata (Shaw) (Torpediniformes: Narcinidae), from Malaysian Bomrneo was examined for the first time. This work resulted in the discovery of a new genus and two new species of Anteroporidae (Lecanicephalidea). Sesquipedalapex comicus gen. n., sp. n. was erected on the basis of the peculiarities of its scolex, in particular its possession of an extremely long apical modification of the scolex proper, which readily distinguishes it from the other genus in the family. The genus is also distinct in its possession of acetabula that are in the form of suckers, rather than bothridiate in form. This species was found to deeply embed its elongate apical structure for much of its length within the intestinal mucosa, provoking a papilliform expansion of the outer wall of the spiral intestine at the site of attachment. The second new species, Anteropora klosmamorphis sp. n., is readily distinguished from its congeners on the basis of testis number and bothridial shape. Both new species are hyperapolytic. The diagnosis of Anteroporidae is amended to accommodate both new taxa. This increases the total number of genera in the family to two, and the total number of species to five.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of a paratype specimen (gravid female) of the philometrid nematode Paraphilometroides nemipteri Moravec et Shaharom-Harrison, 1989, the type species of Paraphilometroides Moravec et Shaharom-Harrison, 1989, made it possible to recognise the true structure of the cephalic end and the shape of cuticular ornamentations on the body. In contrast to other philometrid genera, the cephalic end is angular in lateral view and rounded in dorsoventral view; large external cephalic papillae are fused together to form a marked dorsal and a ventral ala, each bent into a curve; six minute internal papillae, including a pair of previously not reported lateral papillae, were found; amphids were indistinct. Cuticular ornamentations (inflations) were found to be transversely elongated. These features, especially the unique cephalic structure, clearly distinguish Paraphilometroides from other philometrids and confirm the validity of this genus. Moravec and Shaharom-Harrison (1989) erected the hitherto monotypic philometrid genus Paraphilometroides Moravec et Shaharom-Harrison, 1989 with the type species P. Nemipteri Moravec et Shaharom-Harrison, 1989, described from females found in the fins and operculum of the marine fish (notchedfin threadfin bream) Nemipterusperonii (Valenciennes) from off the South China Sea coast, Malaysia. The male of P. nemipteri remains unknown. The authors distinguished Paraphilometroides from the related genus Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 mainly by the unusual structure of the female cephalic end, which is unique within the family Philometridae (see Moravec 2006). However, P. nemipteri was studied only by light microscopy (LM), whereas some details of the cephalic structure, especially the cephalic papillae of gravid philometrid females are usually difficult to observe by LM due to a various degree of their reduction and atrophy (Moravec 2004); in the past, some philometrid species were even reported to have no cephalic papillae. Consequently, the only reliable method to study the cephalic structures in philometrids is the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Therefore, one of the ethanol-preserved paratype specimens (gravid female) of P. nemipteri, deposited in the Helminthologi-cal Collection of the Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre
One new and three previously described species of Trianchoratus Price et Berry, 1966 were collected from the gills of Channa lucius (Cuvier) and Channa striata (Bloch) from the Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and Endau-Rompin, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. They are Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp.n., T. malayensis Lim, 1986 and T. pahangensis Lim, 1986 from C. lucius, and T. ophicephali Lim, 1986 from C. striata. The new species differs from the Trianchoratus species hitherto described from channids and anabantoids in having two ventral anchors with a long curved inner root and one dorsal anchor with a curved inner root and lacking an outer root. A table summarizing the known species of heteronchocleidins (Trianchoratus, Eutrianchoratus and Heteronchocleidus) and Sundanonchus reported from fish hosts of different families (Channidae, Helostomatidae, Anabantidae and Osphronemidae) is provided.
Cryptosporidium fragile sp. n. (Apicomplexa) is described from black-spined toads, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider) (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae) from the Malay Peninsula. The parasitized animals were directly imported from Malaysia and harboured C. fragile at the time of arrival. Oocysts were subspherical to elliptical with irregular contour in optical section, measuring 6.2 (5.5-7.0) x 5.5 (5.0-6.5) microm. Oocyst wall was smooth and colourless in light microscopy. The endogenous development of C. fragile in the stomach of black-spined toad was analysed in detail using light and electron microscopy. Cryptosporidian developmental stages were confined to the surface of gastric epithelial cells. In transmission experiments, C. fragile has not been infective for one fish species, four amphibian species, one species of reptile and SCID mice. Full length small subunit rRNA gene sequence was obtained. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed distinct status of C. fragile within the clade of species with gastric localisation including Cryptosporidium muris Tyzzer, 1907, Cryptosporidium serpentis Levine, 1980 and Cryptosporidium andersoni Lindsay, Upton, Owens, Morgan, Mead et Blagburn, 2000. Described characteristics differentiate C. fragile from the currently recognized Cryptosporidium species. Our experience with the description of C. fragile has led us to revise the recommended criteria for an introduction of a new Cryptosporidium species name. C. fragile is the first species described and named from an amphibian host. Its prevalence of 83% (15/18) in black-spined toads within the 3 months after importation calls for strict quarantine measures and import regulation for lower vertebrates.
Sixteen labrid species, including four Bodianus spp., were examined in New Caledonia (South Pacific) and monogeneans were found only on Bodianus perditio (Quoy et Gaimard). This species, Haliotrema banana sp. n., is the second Haliotrema species to be described from the labrids, the first being Haliotrema bodiani Yamaguti, 1968 from Bodianus albotaeniatus (Valenciennes), previously designated as B. bilunulatus (Lacépède). The new species is similar to H. bodiani in soft reproductive parts but differs from it in the morphologies of the hard haptoral parts, mainly in the shape of the dorsal bar (bar-shaped vs V-shaped in H. bodiani) and ventral bar. It is similar to Haliotrema spirale Yamaguti, 1968 and Haliotrema minutospirale Yamaguti, 1968 in the shape of the anchors and bars but differs from them in the detailed structures of the copulatory organ and vaginal system.
As part of a metazoan parasite survey of elasmobranchs from Malaysian Borneo, specimens of Rhoptrobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 were collected from the eagle rays Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray) and Aetomylaeus niehofii (Bloch et Schneider). The type species is redescribed from its type host, and a neotype specimen is designated. In addition, three new species of Rhoptrobothrium are described: R. chongi sp. n., R. gambangi sp. n. and R. limae sp. n. Rhoptrobothrium myliobatidis conspicuously differs from the three new species in its lack of a secondary areola; R. limae is distinguished from R. chongi and R. gambangi based on its greater total length; R. chongi possesses conspicuously stalked remi, while R. gambangi possesses short remi, often folded anteriorly. Rhoptrobothrium is somewhat unusual among tetraphyllideans in its possession of a "metascolex," a character it shares with other taxa in the Thysanocephalinae (i.e., Myzocephalus Shipley et Hornell, 1906, Myzophyllobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 and Thysanocephalum Linton, 1889). The morphology of the "metascolex" of Rhoptrobothrium is investigated and new terminology is suggested to standardise the names given to structures constituting a metascolex. As a result, Rhoptrobothrium is considered to possess cephalic peduncle extensions, termed remi. In Rhoptrobothrium, each remus bears, at its distal end, a primary areola, and, in the case of the three new species, also a secondary areola proximal to the primary areola. Myzocephalus and Myzophyllobothrium are tentatively considered to possess remi; the configuration of the "metascolex" of Thysanocephalum, however, is not considered homologous to the condition in the other three genera currently placed in the Thysanocephalinae.
Myliocotyle borneoensis sp. n. and M. multicrista sp. n. (Monocotylidae: Heterocotylinae) are described from the gills of the mottled eagle ray, Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray), and the banded eagle ray A. nichofii (Bloch et Schneider) (Myliobatidae), respectively, collected from the northern coast of Malaysian Borneo. These are the first monogeneans to be described on elasmobranchs from Borneo. The formerly monotypic Myliocotyle (for M. pteromylaei) was distinguished from other monocotylids by the distribution and morphology of the eight sclerotised dorsal haptoral accessory structures and the morphology of the male copulatory organ. However, we have determined that M. pteromylaei has ten structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor. Myliocotyle borneoensis is distinguished from M. pteromylaei by the morphology of the male copulatory organ and its accessory piece. Myliocotyle multicrista has 12 sclerotised dorsal haptoral accessory structures and a male copulatory organ with two accessory pieces. Additional sclerotised ridges across the ventral surfaces of each loculus (except the posterior-most pair) are also present in M. multicrista. The diagnosis for Myliocotyle is revised given our discovery of additional dorsal haptoral accessory structures in the type species and to accommodate other new characters of the two new species. Anterior secretions of Myliocotyle are discussed.
Neopolystoma liewi sp. n. is described from the conjunctival cavity of the Malayan box turtle Cuora amboinensis (Daudin, 1802), in Peninsular Malaysia. This is the first record of Neopolystoma in Malaysia and the fourth polystomatid species described from C. amboinensis. Of the 27 Malayan box turtles examined, 8 were found to be infected. A maximum of 2 parasites per eye and 4 individuals per host was recorded. N. liewi sp. n. differs from all other members of the genus by possessing few and short genital spines and small marginal hooks. The oncomiracidium has 64 ciliated cells arranged symmetrically about the sagittal axis.
Five species of adult nematodes, unidentifiable nematode larvae, and three species of acanthocephalans, were found in freshwater ornamental fishes newly imported into Germany from Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, Sri Lanka and Thailand. The following species were identified: Adult Nematoda: Pseudocapillaria tomentosa, Capillariidae gen. sp., Dichelyne hartwichi sp. n., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pintoi and Spinitectus allaeri; Acanthocephala: Pseudogorgorhynchus arii gen. et sp. n., Neoechinorhynchus sp. and Pallisentis sp. The nematode Dichelyne hartwichi sp. n. (male only) from the intestine of Chelonodon fluviatilis (Hamilton) from Thailand is characterised mainly by the presence of minute cuticular spines on the tail tip, length of spicules (510 microns) and arrangement of caudal papillae. The acanthocephalan Pseudogorgorhynchus arii sp. n. from the intestine of Ariopsis seemanni (Günther) from Colombia represents a new genus Pseudogorgorhynchus gen. n., differing from other genera of the Rhadinorhynchidae mainly in possessing a small proboscis armed with markedly few (18) hooks arranged in six spiral rows. Spinitectus macheirus Boomker et Puylaert, 1994 and Spinitectus moraveci Boomker et Puylaert, 1994 are considered junior synonyms of Spinitectus allaeri Campana-Rouget, 1961.
Five Malaysian isolates of the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum Welch were cultured in vitro following the method of Trager and Jensen (1976, 1977) and subsequently cloned using the limiting dilution method of Rosario (1981). Thirty clones were obtained and were later characterized against schizontocidal drugs, chloroquine, mefloquine and quinine, using the modified in vitro microtechnique. Results showed that these local isolates were heterogeneous and most of the clones exhibited similar pattern of susceptibility as their parent isolate except for ST 168 clone and two ST 195 clones that were sensitive but two ST 165 clones, two ST 168 clones and five ST 195 clones were resistant against quinine, respectively. Results also indicated that they were pure clones compared to their parent isolate because their drug susceptibility studies were significantly different (p < 0.05).
Six clones were obtained from each Plasmodium falciparum (Welch, 1897) isolate from different geographical areas, Gombak A (Malaysian), Gombak C (Malaysian), ST 9 (Malaysian, ST 12 (Malaysian), ST 85 (Malaysian, ST 148 (Malaysian), Gambian (African) and TGR (Thailand) isolates using the limiting dilution method (Rosario 1981). Forty-eight clones were obtained and were characterized by an electrophoresis isoenzyme analysis of PEPE (Peptidase E) (EC. 3.4.11 or 13). Results showed that they were pure clones as they were monovariant with regards to this enzyme unlike their parent isolates which were divariant.
Faecal samples of 56 common house crows (Corvus splendens Vieillot) were collected from the Petaling Jaya and Kelang districts of Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, and examined for coccidia. Intestinal tracts of 8 of the above crows wee histologically examined under light microscopy to determine the site of coccidial infection and the endogenous stages present. Fifty three (94.6%) crows had coccidial oocysts morphologically conforming to only one species of Isospora in their faeces at the time they were examined. The sporulated oocysts were found to be Isospora corviae (Ray et al. 1952) which has been emended to I. corvi. These oocysts are redescribed in greater detail. Corvus splendens is a new host record for I. corvi. Coccidial infection was observed in all the intestinal tracts and generally confined to the anterior two thirds of the intestine. The parasites occurred within intestinal epithelial cells, located usually above the host cell nucleus. Developmental stages of both the asexual and sexual phases were found in the epithelium, and are deemed to be the endogenous stages of I. corvi on the basis of the oocysts recovered from the same crows used for histological study. These stages are described here for the first time. The prevalence of I. corvi, its relationship with the host C. splendens, and its probable transmission from C. macrorhynchus are discussed.
A new nematode species, Paraphilometroides nemipteri sp. n. is described from the female specimens collected from the dorsal fin and operculum of the marine perciforme fish, Nemipterus peronii off Kuala Terengganu coastal waters in Malaysia. It considerably differs from all other species in Philometridae in the structure of the head end (presence of wide dorsal and ventral cephalic cuticular alae supported by special inner transverse muscular formations) and, therefore, a new genus Paraphilometroides gen. n. has been erected to accommodate it. Additional characteristic features of P. nemipteri are the presence of cuticular bosses on the body, eight cephalic papillae in the outer circle and four small papillae in the inner circle, and the absence of caudal protrusions.
A helminthological examination of 367 wood rats, Rattus tiomanicus, in an oil-palm. estate 24 miles north of Kuala Lumpur conducted during 1973 revealed 8 species of helminths: 5 nematodes. Angiostrongylus malaysiensis (54.2% of the rats infected), Hepatojarakus malayae (48.5%), Nippostrongylus braziliensis (48.0%), Gongylonema neoplasticum (0.3%), Syphacia muris (17.7%); 3 cestodes, Hymenolepis diminuta (6.0%), Hymenolepis nana (7.6%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (cysticercus) (12.0%) and 1 pentastomid, Armillifer sp. (nymph) (0.8%). Overall helminthic infection rates seemed to be higher than those previously reported in this host species.
Haemadipsid leeches are among the most successful terrestrial invertebrates in Bornean rainforests. They are very common ectoparasites of vertebrates, and their abundance has facilitated the conduction of numerous projects in the fields of ecology, zoogeography and taxonomy. We undertook research on two species inhabiting lowland dipterocarp forest, Haemadipsa picta Moore, 1929 and Haemadipsa subagilis (Moore, 1929), in order to address the following questions: (a) is there a difference in leech abundance between trails and off-trails?; (b) is ambush location dependent on specimen size or is species-specific?; (c) is intra- and interspecific competition limited by differences in foraging behaviours or vertical niche partitioning? Our results clearly show that H. picta is more abundant on trails than on off-trails and is vertically dispersed within the understory; the size of a specimen is strongly correlated with plant height. Haemadipsa subagilis was found not to exhibit such patterns. We suggest a possible lowering of interspecific competition between these species as a result of: (i) size-dependent dispersion of H. picta (together with reduction of intraspecific competition); and (ii) habitat specialisation of H. subagilis. Moreover, we provide new observations on their foraging behaviour.
Seven new species of chewing lice in the genus Resartor Gustafsson et Bush, 2017 are described and illustrated. They are: Resartor albofulvus sp. n. ex Heterophasia desgodinsi desgodinsi (Oustalet); Resartor apimimus sp. n. ex Heterophasia picaoides wrayi (Ogilvie-Grant); Resartor aterrimus sp. n. ex Minla ignotincta mariae La Touche; Resartor extraneus sp. n. ex Lioparus chrysotis swinhoii (Verreaux); Resartor guangxiensis sp. n. ex Trochalopteron milnei sinianum Stresemann; Resartor longisuturalis sp. n. ex Actinodura cyanouroptera wingatei (Ogilvie-Grant); Resartor seminudus sp. n. ex Leiothrix argentauris tahanensis (Yen). All species differ in the shape of the head, shape of the male genitalia and abdominal chaetotaxy. A checklist and a key to the species of Resartor are provided.