Lime juice is in high demand due to a sour taste. Commercial thermal pasteurization extends juice shelf-life; however, fruit juice subjected to thermal pasteurization tends to change color and lose vitamin content. Lime juice was irradiated with ultraviolet-C (UVC) at dosages of 22.76, 30.19, and 44.24 mJ/cm2 to investigate effects on the physicochemical properties of lime juice. pH values of lime juice did not change while total soluble solids, turbidity, titratable acidity, sweetness, and color values of lime juice did change after UV treatments. Changes in quality index indicators were prominent at the highest UV dosage of 44.24 mJ/cm2. A low UVC dosage was effective for treatment of lime juice with minimal changes in juice properties.
The present study is aimed to prepare κ-carrageenan microparticles for the encapsulation of model drug, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). A face-centered central composite design was employed to study the effects of three different formulation variables (κ-carrageenan, emulsifier, and oil). The powder yield was found inversely affected by the κ-carrageenan and oil concentration. The encapsulation efficiency was maximized in the region of the middle level κ-carrageenan concentration, the high level emulsifier concentration, and the low level oil concentration. The emulsifier concentration was the most influential variable on the particle size of powder. The optimal formulation was reported as 0.91% (w/v) κ-carrageenan concentration, 0.64% (w/v) emulsifier, and 1.0% (w/w) oil. Both differential scanning colorimeter and X-ray diffraction analyses proved that incorporation of CoQ10 into κ- carrageenan microcapsules resulted in amorphous powder with significantly (p<0.05) higher water solubility compared to pure CoQ10 and physical mixture in the crystalline form.
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide that consists mainly of fucose and is found in brown seaweeds. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Sargassum binderi (Fsar) from Malaysia and subsequently characterized in terms of composition, structure and toxicology. It was found that the molecular weight, polydispersity index, monosaccharide profile and degree of sulfation of Fsar differed from those of commercial food-grade fucoidan (Fysk). NMR analysis suggested that the main structure of Fsar was →3)fuc-2-OSO3-(1→3)fuc-2-OSO3-(1→. A cytotoxicity study employing up to 200 mg/mL Sargassum binderi extract showed that cell inhibition was less than 50% (IC50), while acute toxicity results classified S. binderi as category 5 (unclassified) according to the OECD Guideline 423, as no mortality was observed at the highest dosage (2,000 mg/kg). Both toxicity results showed that this material is safe to be consumed. The chemical characteristics and non-toxicity of Fsar demonstrate its potential in biological and food product applications.
β-Lactoglobulin (β-lg) can produce fibrils that have multi-functional properties. Impacts of different stirring speeds on characteristics of β-lg fibrils as a stable form in β-lg fibril solutions were investigated. Fibril concentration, fibril morphology, turbidity, particle size distribution, zeta potential, and rheological behavior of solutions were studied. Stirring enhanced fibril formation and stability of a fibril solution, in comparison with unstirred solutions. Increasing the stirring speed produced more turbidity and a greater distribution of particle sizes, higher viscosity values, but no differences in zeta potential values of β-lg fibril solutions. However, a high stirring speed is not feasible due to reduction of the fibril yield and changes in fibril morphology.
The optimization of pink guava was executed using central composite face-centred design to optimize the spray drying parameters of inlet temperature, maltodextrin concentration (MDC) and feed flow (FF). The experimental results were significantly (p<0.01) fitted into second-order polynomial models to describe and predict the response quality in terms of the final moisture, particle size and lycopene with R2 of 0.9749, 0.9616, and 0.9505, respectively. The final moisture content significantly (p<0.01) decreased with increasing inlet temperature and MDC, whereas the particle size increased. In contrast, the lycopene content significantly (p<0.01) decreased with the higher temperature and increased with increasing MDC. However, according to multiple response optimization, the optimum conditions of 150°C inlet temperature, 17.12% (w/v) MDC and 350 mL/h FF-predicted 3.10% moisture content, 11.23 μm particle size and 58.71 mg/100 g lycopene content. The experimental observation satisfied the predicted model within the acceptable range of the responses.
A total of eight strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from water kefir grains and assessed for their in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Lactobacillus mali K8 demonstrated significantly higher inhibition as compared to the other strains, thus was selected for in vitro probiotic potential characterization, antibiotic resistance, hemolytic activity and adaptation to pumpkin fruit puree. L. mali K8 demonstrated tolerance to pH 2.5 and resisted the damaging effects of bile salts, pepsin and pancreatin, comparable to that of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (reference strain). Lack of hemolytic activity and susceptibility to the five standard antibiotics indicated the safety of the K8 strain. This strain showed singular properties to be used as starters in the pumpkin fruit puree fermentation. These preliminary in vitro tests indicated the safety and functionality of the K8 strain and its potential as a probiotic candidate.
Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions (KSON) and kenaf seed oil-in-water macroemulsions were produced to access their gastroprotective effect against indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcers in comparison with non-emulsified kenaf seed oil (KSO). Emulsifier mixture (EM) that used to emulsify KSO was also included in the study. Ulcer index, stomach tissue oxidative status, and histopathological changes in indomethacin-induced and ethanol-induced ulcer models were both evaluated. KSON had demonstrated good gastroprotective effect against both ulcer models than non-emulsified KSO and KSOM. In addition, the gastroprotective effect of KSON was comparable to the standard drug, Omeprazole. EM also exhibited gastroprotective effect, especially in indomethacin-induced ulcers. This may be attributed to its high antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect of sodium caseinate contained in the EM. Results supported that KSON enhanced the bioavailability of native KSO; therefore it offers gastroprotective effect for the prevention of gastric ulceration as a natural alternative to the synthetic drug.
Actinopyga lecanora, as a rich protein source was hydrolysed to generate antibacterial bioactive peptides using different proteolytic enzymes. Bromelain hydrolysate, after 1 h hydrolysis, exhibited the highestantibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Two dimensional fractionation strategies, using a semi-preparative RP-HPLC and an isoelectric-focusing electrophoresis, were applied for peptide profiling. Furthermore, UPLC-QTOF-MS was used for peptides identification; 12 peptide sequences were successfully identified. The antibacterial activity of purified peptides from A. lecanora on P. aeruginosa, Pseudomonas sp., E. coli and S. aureus was investigated. These identified peptides exhibited growth inhibition against P. aeruginosa, Pseudomonas sp., E. coli and S. aureus with values ranging from 18.80 to 75.30%. These results revealed that the A. lecanora would be used as an economical protein source for the production of high value antibacterial bioactive peptides.
In this study, a selected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-rich Malaysian strain Aspergillus oryzae NSK was collected from soy sauce koji. The strain was used to explore the effect of using renewable native sugar syrup, sugarcane, nipa, and molasses as fermentable substrates for developing a novel functional GABA soy sauce. We evaluated the strain using the chosen native sugars for 7 days using shake flask fermentation at 30 °C. The results showed optimum GABA concentration was achieved using cane molasses as the fermentable substrate (354.08 mg/L), followed by sugarcane syrup (320.7 mg/L) and nipa syrup (232.07 mg/L). Cane molasses was subsequently utilized as a substrate to determine the most suitable concentration for A. oryzae NSK to enhance GABA production and was determined as 50% g/L of glucose standard cane molasses. Our findings indicate that cane molasses can be used as a GABA-rich ingredient to develop a new starter culture for A. oryzae NSK soy sauce production.
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important source of protein and lipid globally. The effect of superheated-steam roasting on quality of peanut oil was evaluated based on physicochemical quality parameters. Three roasting temperatures (150, 200, and 250 °C) were used for different periods of roasting time and the obtained results were compared with those of conventional roasting. At 250 °C, superheated-steam roasted peanuts yielded more oil (26.84%) than conventionally roasted peanuts (24.85%). Compared with conventional roasting, superheated-steam roasting resulted in lower oil color, peroxide, p-anisidine, free fatty acid, conjugated diene and triene, and acid values and higher viscosity and iodine values in the roasted peanut oil. These values were significantly different from each other (p
Underutilized mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum BCCM 31549 has been a significant source of a glucan sulfate (GS) possessing therapeutic activities. GS have been evaluated for their antifungaldemelanizing properties and nitrite oxide production from stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. GS exhibited antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger A60 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 60 mg/mL and a minimum fungicidal concentration of 100 mg/mL. At 60mg/mL (sublethal) and 30mg/mL (subinhibitory) doses of GS, the mycelium of A. niger A60 was successfully demelanized with a conidiophore head and black pigment reduction. Additionally, GS successfully stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells at a concentration of 500 μg/mL to produce 0.45 μM of nitric oxide. The GS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were morphologically similar to those treated with lipopolysaccharide. The results highlight a novel bifunctional property of mycelial GS from G. lucidum.
Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from Chinese parsley (Coriandrum sativum) were achieved. Crude PPO exhibited an enzyme activity of 1,952.24 EU/mL. PPO was partially purified up to 6.52x with a 10.89% yield using gel filtration chromatography. Maximal PPO activity was found at 35°C, pH 8.0 for 4-methylcatechol and at 40°C, pH 7.0 for catechol. PPO showed a higher affinity towards 4-methylcatechol, but a higher thermal stability when reacting with catechol. LCysteine was a better inhibitor than citric acid for reducing PPO activity at concentrations of 1 and 3mM in the presence of either substrate. Two 46 kDa isoenzymes were identified using SDS-PAGE. Isolation and characterization of Chinese parsley serves as a guideline for prediction of enzyme behavior leading to effective prevention of enzymatic browning during processing and storage, including inhibition and inactivation of PPO.
Changes in physicochemical properties of moisture, ash, and fat contents, and color, due to freeze and oven post-drying treatments on flavedo, albedo, and lamella pomelo fruit peels were investigated. Physicochemical properties influence consumer acceptability and only a few studies are known. Pomelo peels were subjected to freeze drying and conventional drying at 60°C. Fresh pomelo peel was used as a control. Post-drying treatment changes in moisture, ash, and fat contents were observed, compared to controls. Minimal color changes were observed for freeze drying, compared with oven drying for flavedo, albedo, and lamella. Useful information for evaluation of drying treatments that can be used on pomelo peels is provided.
In submerged-liquid fermentation, seven key parameters were assessed using one-factor-at-a-time to obtain the highest GABA yield using an industrial soy sauce koji Aspergillus oryzae strain NSK (AOSNSK). AOSNSK generated maximum GABA at 30 °C (194 mg/L) and initial pH 5 (231 mg/L), thus was able to utilize sucrose (327 mg/L of GABA) for carbon source. Sucrose at 100 g/L, improved GABA production at 646 mg/L. Single nitrogen sources failed to improve GABA production, however a combination of yeast extract (YE) and glutamic acid (GA) improved GABA at 646.78 mg/L. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C8:N3) produced the highest cell (24.01 g/L) and GABA at a minimal time of 216 h. The key parameters of 30 °C, initial pH 5, 100 g/L of sucrose, combination YE and GA, and C8:N3 generated the highest GABA (3278.31 mg/L) in a koji fermentation. AOSNSK promisingly showed for the development of a new GABA-rich soy sauce.
GC-MS metabolomics was used to discriminate the phytochemicals profile of Indonesian white, red, and black rice brans, and Japanese white rice brans. This technique was used for the first time to identify compounds in rice brans having cytotoxic activity against WiDr colon cancer cells. Orthogonal Projection to the Latent Structure (OPLS) analysis showed that protocatechuic acid (PA) was a discriminating factor found in black rice brans which strongly correlated with its cytotoxicity (IC50 8.53 ± 0.26 µM). Real time-PCR data demonstrated that PA cytotoxicity at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 µg/mL) was mediated through different pathways. Bcl-2 expression was downregulated at all tested concentrations indicating apoptosis stimulation. At 1-10 ppm concentration, PA activated both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways since the expression of p53, Bax, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were upregulated. At a higher dose (25 and 50 µg/mL), PA possibly involved in pyroptosis-mediated pro-inflammatory cell death by upregulating the expression of caspase-1 and caspase-7.
The effectiveness of two different rapid methods involving the 3M™ molecular detection assay Listeria and the 3M™ Petrifilm environmental Listeria Plate were evaluated for the rapid detection of Listeria from naturally contaminated vegetables and chicken-processing environments against the standard culture-based method. A total of 178 samples were examined for the presence of Listeria. A total of 47/178 (26.4%) by standard ISO culture-based method (EN ISO 11290-1), 42/178 (23.6%) by 3M™ MDA Listeria and 40/178 (22.5%) by 3M™ Petrifilm EL Plate showed positive results, respectively. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for 3M™ MDA Listeria and 3M™ Petrifilm EL Plate were 97.2, 89.4, 99.3, 97.7, 96.4% and 96.1, 85.1, 100.0, 100.0, 94.9%, respectively. Based on the Cohen's Kappa value, there was a complete and robust concordance between 3M™ MDA Listeria (0.911) and 3M™ Petrifilm EL Plates (0.894) as compared to the standard culture-based method.
Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is the product of the Maillard reaction and its accumulation may lead to adverse health effects. Hence, this paper aims to study the effect of l-asparaginase treatment (E100 U/kg and E500 U/kg), frying temperatures (180 °C, 190 °C, 200 °C) and times (2 min, 3 min, 5 min, 7 min) on acrylamide and HMF content after the frying process of curry puff skin. Colour development, moisture content, water activity analysis and sensory evaluation were also carried out. Frying condition at 190 °C for 5 min produced desirable attributes through sensory evaluation. Furthermore, the enzyme reduced the acrylamide and HMF level to 2500 μg/kg and 230 μg/kg respectively. Frying temperature plays a crucial role in acrylamide decomposition leading to the reduction of acrylamide content. Therefore, the use of this enzyme is plausible for the reduction of acrylamide and HMF in puff skin without altering the original quality.
The 70% ethanolic extracts from eight neglected fruits; Muntingia calabura, Leucaena leucocephala, Spondias dulcis, Syzygium jambos, Mangifera caesia, Ardisia elliptica, Cynometra cauliflora and Ficus auriculata were evaluated for their 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, α-glucosidase inhibitory activities as well as total phenolic content. The results of this study revealed that M. caesia fruit extract demonstrated the most potent radical scavenging activity. Among the fruits examined for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, M. calabura and F. auriculata exhibited strong activity with no significant difference. The Pearson correlation indicated that the activities of M. caesia and F. auriculata contributed by phenolic compounds. A total of 65 metabolites were tentatively identified by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHLPC-MS/MS). These findings suggested that the possible application of M. caesia and F. auriculata as a functional food with antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties.
Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) is rich in bioactive compounds with high antioxidant activity. High pressure processing (HPP) is an efficient alternative to preserve these bioactive compounds in terms of microbial inactivation and shelf-life stability. This review compares the effects of pasteurization methods using high pressure or thermal pasteurization (TP) on the quality parameters of various strawberry-based products. To summarize, most of the high pressure-treated products are microbiologically stable and showed minimum degradation of thermolabile compounds than TP-treated ones. However, some studies reported that high pressure did not have an advantage over TP especially in the preservation of phenolic phytochemicals during storage. The insufficient enzyme inactivation and high residual activity of enzymes after high pressure treatment could cause anthocyanins degradation thus affecting the product quality. Overall, this review could be valuable to potential processors in evaluating the effective commercialization of high pressure-treated strawberry products.
Betacyanins are bioactive dietary phytochemicals which can be found in red dragon fruit (RDF). Therefore, the bioaccessibility of betacyanins that present in fermented red dragon fruit drink (RDFD) and pressed red dragon fruit juice (RDFJ) was accessed in simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. Results disclosed that betacyanins from RDFD and RDFJ suffered minor loss (