Inadequate food security contributes to poor health outcome for all, including adolescent girls. The study aims at determining the level of food security and hygiene among adolescent girls. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out among adolescent girls aged 10 to 19 years old from six schools in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council, Borno State. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire using KoBoCollect Toolbox between June and July 2019. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of food security and hygiene among respondents. A majority of the respondents (73.5%) were in a very low food security level. Three factors were significantly associated with food security level, these included schools (p = 0.007), age of mother (p = 0.004), and occupation of mother (p < 0.001). School (p = 0.003), age (father p = 0.017; mother; p = 0.012), hygiene (p = 0.005), and occupation of mother (p = 0.002) were predictors of food security. About (46.6%) of respondents had poor hygiene practice, school (p = 0.016) was significantly associated with hygiene practice. School (p = 0.019; and p = 0.005) and food security (p = 0.009) were predictors of hygiene practice. This study reveals a high prevalence of low food security among adolescent girls.
Process-based contaminants in food-particularly in vegetable oils-have been a topic of interest due to their potential health risk on humans. Oral consumption above the tolerable daily intake might result in health risks. Therefore, it is critical to correctly address the food contaminant issues with a proper mitigation plan, in order to reduce and subsequently remove the occurrence of the contaminant. 3-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (3-MCPD), an organic chemical compound, is one of the heat- and process-induced food contaminants, belonging to a group called chloropropanols. This review paper discusses the occurrence of the 3-MCPD food contaminant in different types of vegetable oils, possible 3-MCPD formation routes, and also methods of reduction or removal of 3-MCPD in its free and bound esterified forms in vegetable oils, mostly in palm oil due to its highest 3-MCPD content.
The effects of different drying methods, including sun-, oven-, and freeze-drying on the changes in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) rhizome were studied. Sun-, oven-, and freeze-dried ginger showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in phenolic content by 1.79, 1.53, and 1.91-fold; flavonoid content increased by 6.06, 5.27, and 4.90-fold; FRAP increased by 3.95, 3.51, and 3.15-fold; ABTS•+ scavenging activity increased by 2.07, 1.72, and 1.61-fold; and DPPH• inhibition increased by 78%, 58%, and 56%, respectively. Dried ginger also exhibited better inhibitory effects on the lipopolysaccharides-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7. The drying process demonstrated a positive effect on the bioactivities of ginger. The sun-dried ginger exhibited the most potent antioxidant properties with the best enhanced anti-inflammatory activity followed by the oven-dried ginger and lastly, the freeze-dried ginger.
This study aims to investigate the effect of different vegetable oils and frying cycles on acrylamide formation during the intermittent frying of beef nuggets. Different vegetable oils, palm olein (PO), red palm olein (RPO), sunflower oil (SFO), and soybean oil (SBO), were used for a total of 80 frying cycles. Oil was collected at every 16th frying cycle and analyzed for peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), free fatty acid (FFA), total polar compound (TPC), polar compound fractions, and fatty acid composition (FAC). Total oxidation (TOTOX) value was calculated, and acrylamide content was quantified in the nuggets. Regardless of the oil type, PV, p-AV, and TOTOX initially increased but gradually decreased. However, FFA and TPC continued to develop across the 80 frying cycles. The C18:2/C16:0 remained almost unchanged in PO and RPO but dropped progressively in SFO and SBO. The lowest acrylamide content in fried products was observed in the PO, while the highest content was observed in RPO. Bivariate correlation analysis showed no significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlation between oil quality attributes and acrylamide concentration. The oil type but not the frying cycle significantly affected the acrylamide concentration in beef nuggets.
High amylose wheat (HAW) contains more resistant starch than standard amylose wheat (SAW) and may have beneficial effects on gastrointestinal health. However, it is currently unclear whether these effects differ according to the level of HAW included in the diet or between males and females. Male and female C57BL/6 mice (n = 8/group/sex) were fed SAW65 (65% SAW; control), HAW35 (35% HAW), HAW50 (50% HAW) or HAW65 (65% HAW) diet for eight weeks. Female but not male, mice consuming any amount of HAW exhibited accelerated gastric emptying compared to SAW65 group. In both sexes, relative colon weights were higher in the HAW65 group compared to SAW65 group and in females, relative weights of the small intestine and cecum were also higher in the HAW65 group. In females only, colonic expression of Pyy and Ocln mRNAs were higher in the HAW65 group compared to HAW35 and HAW50 groups. In both sexes, mice consuming higher amounts of HAW (HAW50 or HAW65) had increased fecal bacterial load and relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and reduced relative abundance of Firmicutes compared to SAW65 group. These data are consistent with a beneficial impact of HAW on gastrointestinal health and indicate dose-dependent and sex-specific effects of HAW consumption.
Dabai pulp oil (DPO) is new oil extracted from the pulp of Canarium odontophyllum. The quality and efficacy of DPO are needed to promote its potential as a new alternative fat. Therefore, we investigate the quality of DPO, which includes moisture and volatile content (MVC), free fatty acid content (FFA), iodine value (IV), and peroxide value (PV). Furthermore, we evaluate the efficacy of DPO against hypercholesterolemia elicited by a high-cholesterol diet in rats. The MVC of DPO was <0.001 ± 0.00%. Next, the FFA in DPO was 2.57 ± 0.03%, and the IV of DPO was 53.74 ± 0.08 g iodine/100 g oil. Meanwhile, the PV of DPO was 4.97 ± 0.00 mEq/kg. Supplementation of DPO in hypercholesterolemic rats for 30 days revealed the hypocholesterolemic effect (significant reduction of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) accompanied by a significant reduction of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α), and lipid peroxidation (MDA). We also observed a significant improvement of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and antioxidant capacities (total antioxidant status, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) of the rats. The results on the quality and efficacy of locally made DPO suggest its potential use as a healthy alternative fat in the future.
This study's objective was to evaluate the effects of distance and stocking density on physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of meat and acute-phase proteins in Brahman crossbred cattle transported by road under hot and humid tropical conditions. Sixty Brahman crossbred heifers were subjected to road transport from a cattle feedlot farm located in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, to a commercial ruminant abattoir in Shah Alam, Selangor. Animals were assigned to long and short distances and high, medium, and low stocking densities. The results revealed that the intensity of response significantly increased in meat samples from animals subjected to long-distance transportation and higher stocking density. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and serum amyloid-A values increased considerably and were different from the baseline values recorded at preload. In conclusion, the current results revealed that the color, pH, shear force values, water holding capacity (WHC), glycogen level, and malondilaldehyde assay (MDA) concentrations in meat and acute-phase proteins (APP) were affected by both distances and stocking densities, as evidenced by the significant changes recorded from the parameters above.
While the consumption of seaweed and seaweed-based products is very common amongst East Asian nations, forming a notable component of the daily diet, relatively very few studies have concerned the concentrations of heavy metals in these together with potential effects on human health. The present study analyses the concentrations of 17 elements in locally resourced seaweed, also assessing potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks. The samples were ground, homogenized, and quantified using the ICP-OES technique. It has been found that the essential elements K, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Na typically show concentrations somewhat greater than a number of potentially toxic metals, in particular, Cd, Pb, Ag, and As, with exceptions being Ni, Cr-VI, and Si. Statistical analysis indicates all of the latter to have similar origin, with increased concentration of these metals within the marine ecosystem. While the daily estimated intake of most metals is seen to be within the daily dietary allowance level recommended by various international organizations, the noncarcinogenic risk shows a value greater than unity, estimated via the hazard quotient. This indicates a potential for adverse effects to health arising from consumption of the sampled seaweed. The carcinogenic risk resulting from nonessential elements shows values greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) reference limit of 10-4. Considering the nonbiodegradability of heavy metals and metalloids and their potential accumulation in seaweed, there is need for critical examination of metal levels in the seaweeds obtained from the present study locations, together with the introduction of practices of removal of heavy metals via bio-adsorbent techniques.
Obesity is a disease growing at an alarming rate and numerous preclinical studies have proven the role of polyphenols in managing this disease. This systematic review explores the prebiotic effect of polyphenols in the management of obesity among animals fed on a high-fat diet. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Embase databases following the PRISMA guidelines. Forty-four studies reported a significant reduction in obesity-related parameters. Most notably, 83% of the studies showed a decrease in either body weight/visceral adiposity/plasma triacylglyceride. Furthermore, 42 studies reported a significant improvement in gut microbiota (GM), significantly affecting the genera Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Blautia, Roseburia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Alistipes, and Desulfovibrio. Polyphenols' anti-obesity, anti-hyperglycaemic, and anti-inflammatory properties were associated with their ability to modulate GM. This review supports the notion of polyphenols as effective prebiotics in ameliorating HFD-induced metabolic derangements in animal models.
This study aims to evaluate the bioactive components, in vitro bioactivities, and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of P. frutescens leaf, which is a traditional medicine-food homology plant. P. frutescens methanol crude extract and its fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions, and aqueous phase residue) were prepared by ultrasound-enzyme assisted extraction and liquid-liquid extraction. Among the samples, the ethyl acetate fraction possessed the high total phenolic (440.48 μg GAE/mg DE) and flavonoid content (455.22 μg RE/mg DE), the best antioxidant activity (the DPPH radical, ABTS radical, and superoxide anion scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power were 1.71, 1.14, 2.40, 1.29, and 2.4 times higher than that of control Vc, respectively), the most powerful α-glucosidase inhibitory ability with the IC50 value of 190.03 μg/mL which was 2.2-folds higher than control acarbose, the strongest proliferative inhibitory ability against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell with the IC50 values of 37.92 and 13.43 μg/mL, which were considerable with control cisplatin, as well as certain inhibition abilities on acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase. HPLC analysis showed that the luteolin, rosmarinic acid, rutin, and catechin were the dominant components of the ethyl acetate fraction. Animal experiments further demonstrated that the ethyl acetate fraction could significantly decrease the serum glucose level, food, and water intake of streptozotocin-induced diabetic SD rats, increase the body weight, modulate their serum levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C, improve the histopathology and glycogen accumulation in liver and intestinal tissue. Taken together, P. frutescens leaf exhibits excellent hypoglycemic activity in vitro and in vivo, and could be exploited as a source of natural antidiabetic agent.
In order to meet the rising global demand for food and to ensure food security in line with the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goal 2, technological advances have been introduced in the food production industry. The organic food industry has benefitted from advances in food technology and innovation. However, there remains skepticism regarding organic foods on the part of consumers, specifically on consumers' acceptance of food innovation technologies used in the production of organic foods. This study measured factors that influence consumers' food innovation adoption and subsequently their intention to purchase organic foods. We compared the organic foods purchase behavior of Malaysian and Hungarian consumers to examine differences between Asian and European consumers. The findings show food innovation adoption as the most crucial predictor for the intention to purchase organic foods in Hungary, while social lifestyle factor was the most influential in Malaysia. Other factors such as environmental concerns and health consciousness were also examined in relation to food innovation adoption and organic food consumerism. This paper discusses differences between European and Asian organic foods consumers and provides recommendations for stakeholders.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been utilized as a pH-responsive component in various products. In this present work, palm tocotrienols-rich fraction (TRF) was successfully entrapped in a self-assembled oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion system by using CaCO3 as the stabilizer. The emulsion droplet size, viscosity and tocotrienols entrapment efficiency (EE) were strongly affected by varying the processing (homogenization speed and time) and formulation (CaCO3 and TRF concentrations) parameters. Our findings indicated that the combination of 5000 rpm homogenization speed, 15 min homogenization time, 0.75% CaCO3 concentration and 2% TRF concentration resulted in a high EE of tocotrienols (92.59-99.16%) and small droplet size (18.83 ± 1.36 µm). The resulting emulsion system readily released the entrapped tocotrienols across the pH range tested (pH 1-9); with relatively the highest release observed at pH 3. The current study presents a potential pH-sensitive emulsion system for the entrapment and delivery of palm tocotrienols.
Nature-derived tyrosinase inhibitors are of great industrial interest. Three monophenolase inhibitor peptides (MIPs) and three diphenolase inhibitor peptides (DIPs) from a previous study were investigated for their in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects, mode of inhibition, copper-chelating activity, sun protection factor (SPF) and antioxidant activities. DIP1 was found to be the most potent tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 = 3.04 ± 0.39 mM), which could be due to the binding interactions between its aromatic amino acid residues (Y2 and D7) with tyrosinase hotspots (H85, V248, H258, H263, F264, R268, V283 and E322) and its ability to chelate copper ion within the substrate-binding pocket. The conjugated planar rings of tyrosine and tryptophan may interact with histidine within the active site to provide stability upon enzyme-peptide binding. This postulation was later confirmed as the Lineweaver-Burk analysis had identified DIP1 as a competitive inhibitor and DIP1 also showed 36.27 ± 1.17% of copper chelating activity. In addition, DIP1 provided the highest SPF value (11.9 ± 0.04) as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (5.09 ± 0.13 mM FeSO4), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) (11.34 ± 0.90%) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (29.14 ± 1.36%) free radical scavenging activities compared to other peptides. These results demonstrated that DIP1 could be a multifunctional anti-tyrosinase agent with pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications.
Morus alba L. (M. alba) is a highly adaptable plant that is extensively incorporated in many traditional and Ayurveda medications. Various parts of the plant, such as leaves, fruits, and seeds, possess nutritional and medicinal value. M. alba has abundant phytochemicals, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, flavonols, anthocyanins, macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, and volatile aromatic compounds, indicating its excellent pharmacological abilities. M. alba also contains high nutraceutical values for protein, carbohydrates, fiber, organic acids, vitamins, and minerals, as well as a low lipid value. However, despite its excellent biological properties and nutritional value, M. alba has not been fully considered as a potential functional food ingredient. Therefore, this review reports on the nutrients and bioactive compounds available in M. alba leaves, fruit, and seeds; its nutraceutical properties, functional properties as an ingredient in foodstuffs, and a microencapsulation technique to enhance polyphenol stability. Finally, as scaling up to a bigger production plant is needed to accommodate industrial demand, the study and limitation on an M. alba upscaling process is reviewed.
Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. Agardh is a green seaweed used as food and folk medicine since ancient times in the Indo-Pacific region, particularly in southeast Asia. In this study, the proximate nutrient composition, phytochemical, anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic properties of sea grape C. racemosa collected from culture fishponds in Johor, Malaysia were analysed. The contents (dry weight basis) of carbohydrate, crude protein, crude lipids, ash and caloric value obtained were 33.42 ± 1.34%, 20.27 ± 0.14%, 4.20 ± 0.32%, 28.25 ± 0.27% and 2544.67 ± 7.04 cal g-1, respectively. The amino acid score (AAs) and biological protein value (213.43 mg g-1) indicated that C. racemosa presented a better protein quality. The most abundant fatty acids were C16:0 (palmitic acid: 63.27%), followed by C18:1 (oleic acid: 5.80%), and C18:2 ῳ6 (linoleic acid: 5.33%). The analysis of the ash content indicated that essential minerals and trace elements, such as Ca, Fe, and Mn, were present in the seaweed. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) observed in the ethyl acetate extract were 17.88 ± 0.78 mg GAE g-1 and 59.43 ± 2.45 mg QE g-1, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of C. racemosa demonstrated notable anti-diabetic activity in diabetic induced rats. The low (100 mg kg-1) and high (200 mg kg-1) doses of cultivated C. racemosa extract exhibited a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in blood glucose levels while preventing weight loss, reducing plasma AST, ALT levels as a sign of hepatoprotective effect and recording albumin levels similar to positive control in diabetic induced rats. The results support the usefulness of cultivated C. racemosa as a potential functional food.
The current study evaluated the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producing ability from three novel strains of lactic acid bacteria (L. plantarum Taj-Apis362, assigned as UPMC90, UPMC91, and UPMC1065) co-cultured with starter culture in a yogurt. A combination of UPMC90 + UPMC91 with starter culture symbiotically revealed the most prominent GABA-producing effect. Response surface methodology revealed the optimized fermentation conditions at 39.0 °C, 7.25 h, and 11.5 mM glutamate substrate concentration to produce GABA-rich yogurt (29.96 mg/100 g) with desirable pH (3.93) and water-holding capacity (63.06%). At 2% glucose to replace pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP), a cofactor typically needed during GABA production, GABA content was further enhanced to 59.00 mg/100 g. In vivo study using this sample revealed a blood pressure-lowering efficacy at 0.1 mg/kg GABA dosage (equivalent to 30 mg/kg GABA-rich yogurt) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. An improved method to produce GABA-rich yogurt has been established, involving shorter fermentation time and lower glutamate concentration than previous work, along with glucose induction that omits the use of costly PLP, fostering the potential of developing a GABA-rich functional dairy product through natural fermentation with desirable product quality and antihypertensive property.
Developing a bioactive brew is a novel track for revalorization of palm date byproducts. The effect of roasting temperature (160, 180 and 200 °C ) and roasting time (10, 20 and 30 min) on the hardness of the roasted date seeds, moisture content of the defatted roasted date seed powder (DRDSP), bulk density of the DRDSP, color parameters of DRDSP, quality attributes (extraction yield, pH and browning index), the chemical properties (antioxidants and total phenolic content) and the sensory attributes (color, aroma, taste and overall preference) of the brew prepared from DRDSP was studied. The physicochemical, quality, and sensory attributes were found to be significantly influenced by the roasting temperature and time. Additionally, the models proposed could satisfactorily describe the changes in the different properties during the roasting process. The optimum conditions of the roasting process obtained using the superimposed contour plot were 199.9 °C and 21.5 min. In the longer term, the results of this study would be beneficial for the manufacturers of the date seeds powder and brew.
Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) is an energy-dense seasonal tropical fruit grown in Southeast Asia. It is one of the most expensive fruits in the region. It has a creamy texture and a sweet-bitter taste. The unique durian flavour is attributable to the presence of fat, sugar, and volatile compounds such as esters and sulphur-containing compounds such as thioacetals, thioesters, and thiolanes, as well as alcohols. This review shows that durian is also rich in flavonoids (i.e., flavanols, anthocyanins), ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. However, limited studies exist regarding the variation in bioactive and volatile components of different durian varieties from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Experimental animal models have shown that durian beneficially reduces blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Durian extract possesses anti-proliferative and probiotics effects in in vitro models. These effects warrant further investigation in human interventional studies for the development of functional food.
Dietary fiber (DF) has wide applications, especially in the food and pharmaceutical industries due to its health-promoting effects and potential techno-functional properties in developing functional food products. There is a growing interest in studies related to DF; nevertheless, there is less focus on the fractionation and characterization of DF. The characteristics of DF fractions explain their functionality in food products and provide clues to their physiological effects in food and pharmaceutical industrial applications. The review focuses on a brief introduction to DF and methods for its fractionation. It discusses the characterization of DF in terms of structural, physicochemical and rheological properties. The potential sources of DF from selected defatted oilseeds for future studies are highlighted.
This study aimed to examine the effect of health consciousness, knowledge about healthy food, attitudes toward healthy food, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control on the intention to consume healthy food, which subsequently affects the consumption of healthy food among Malaysian young adults. The current study also examined the moderating effect of perceived barriers on the association between intention to consume healthy food and the consumption of healthy food. This study adopted a cross-sectional design and collected quantitative data from 1651 Malaysian young adults (between the age of 18 and 40 years) by sharing a Google form link through social media. The findings reveal that health consciousness, knowledge about healthy food, attitude toward healthy food, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control had a significant positive effect on the intention to consume healthy food. Findings also show that the intention to consume healthy food has a significant positive effect on the consumption of healthy food among Malaysian young adults. Furthermore, the findings reveal the positive and significant mediating effect of the intention to consume healthy food and the significant moderating effect of perceived barriers on the association between the intention to consume healthy food and the consumption of healthy food. The multi-group analysis revealed that the effect of perceived barriers on the consumption of healthy food and the moderating effect of perceived barriers were significantly higher among urban respondents. Health and agriculture policymakers should focus on the attributes of healthy eating practices and their health benefits to promote the mass adoption of healthy food among Malaysian young adults.