Pumpkin products confer natural sweetness, desirable flavours and β-carotene, a vitamin A precursor when added as ingredients to extruded snacks. Therefore, a potential use for dried pumpkin flour is as an ingredient in ready-to-eat (RTE) snack foods. Growth in this market has driven food manufacturers to produce a variety of new high value snack foods incorporating diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties of these foods. Ready-to-eat snacks were made by extruding corn grits with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of pumpkin flour. Snacks made from 100% corn grits were used as control products for this work. The effect of formulation and screw speeds of 250 rpm and 350 rpm on torque and specific mechanical energy (SME, kWh/kg), physical characteristics (expansion ratio, bulk density, true density and hardness) and the microstructure of the snacks were studied. Increasing the screw speed resulted in a decrease of torque for all formulations. When pumpkin flour was added the specific mechanical energy (SME) decreased by approximately 45%. Increasing the percentage of pumpkin flour at the higher screw speed resulted in a harder texture for the extruded products. X-ray tomography of pumpkin flour-corn grit snacks showed that increased levels of pumpkin flour decreased both the bubble area and bubble size. However, no significant differences (p > 0.05) in bubble wall thickness were measured. By understanding the conditions during extrusion, desirable nutritional characteristics can be incorporated while maximizing expansion to make a product with low bulk density, a fine bubble structure and acceptable organoleptic properties.
The objectives of this study were to develop composite films using various gelatin sources with corn oil (CO) incorporation (55.18%) and to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of these films as potential packaging films. There were increases (p < 0.05) in the tensile strength (TS) and puncture strength (PS) of films when the concentration of gelatin increased. The mechanical properties of these films were also improved when compared with films produced without CO. Conversely, the water barrier properties of composite films decreased (p < 0.05) when the concentration of gelatin in composite films increased. Comparing with pure gelatin films, water and oxygen barrier properties of gelatin films decreased when manufactured with the inclusion of CO.
The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products.
This work aims to review and showcase the unique properties of rebaudioside M as a natural non-caloric potential sweetener in food and beverage products. To determine the potential of rebaudioside M, isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, as a high potency sweetener, we examined it with the Beidler Model. This model estimated that rebaudioside M is 200-350 times more potent than sucrose. Numerous sensory evaluations of rebaudioside M's taste attributes illustrated that this steviol glycoside possesses a clean, sweet taste with a slightly bitter or licorice aftertaste. The major reaction pathways in aqueous solutions (pH 2-8) for rebaudioside M are similar to rebaudioside A. Herein we demonstrate that rebaudioside M could be of great interest to the global food industry because it is well-suited for blending and is functional in a wide variety of food and beverage products.
As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.
The present study investigates the detection of lard in cocoa butter through changes in fatty acids composition, triacylglycerols profile, and thermal characteristics. Cocoa butter was mixed with 1% to 30% (v/v) of lard and analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector, high performance liquid chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The results revealed that the mixing of lard in cocoa butter showed an increased amount of oleic acid in the cocoa butter while there was a decrease in the amount of palmitic acid and stearic acids. The amount of POS, SOS, and POP also decreased with the addition of lard. A heating thermogram from the DSC analysis showed that as the concentration of lard increased from 3% to 30%, two minor peaks at -26 °C and 34.5 °C started to appear and a minor peak at 34.5 °C gradually overlapped with the neighbouring major peak. A cooling thermogram of the above adulterated cocoa butter showed a minor peak shift to a lower temperature of -36 °C to -41.5 °C. Values from this study could be used as a basis for the identification of lard from other fats in the food authentication process.
Inadequate food security contributes to poor health outcome for all, including adolescent girls. The study aims at determining the level of food security and hygiene among adolescent girls. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out among adolescent girls aged 10 to 19 years old from six schools in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council, Borno State. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire using KoBoCollect Toolbox between June and July 2019. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of food security and hygiene among respondents. A majority of the respondents (73.5%) were in a very low food security level. Three factors were significantly associated with food security level, these included schools (p = 0.007), age of mother (p = 0.004), and occupation of mother (p < 0.001). School (p = 0.003), age (father p = 0.017; mother; p = 0.012), hygiene (p = 0.005), and occupation of mother (p = 0.002) were predictors of food security. About (46.6%) of respondents had poor hygiene practice, school (p = 0.016) was significantly associated with hygiene practice. School (p = 0.019; and p = 0.005) and food security (p = 0.009) were predictors of hygiene practice. This study reveals a high prevalence of low food security among adolescent girls.
Process-based contaminants in food-particularly in vegetable oils-have been a topic of interest due to their potential health risk on humans. Oral consumption above the tolerable daily intake might result in health risks. Therefore, it is critical to correctly address the food contaminant issues with a proper mitigation plan, in order to reduce and subsequently remove the occurrence of the contaminant. 3-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (3-MCPD), an organic chemical compound, is one of the heat- and process-induced food contaminants, belonging to a group called chloropropanols. This review paper discusses the occurrence of the 3-MCPD food contaminant in different types of vegetable oils, possible 3-MCPD formation routes, and also methods of reduction or removal of 3-MCPD in its free and bound esterified forms in vegetable oils, mostly in palm oil due to its highest 3-MCPD content.
The effects of different drying methods, including sun-, oven-, and freeze-drying on the changes in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) rhizome were studied. Sun-, oven-, and freeze-dried ginger showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in phenolic content by 1.79, 1.53, and 1.91-fold; flavonoid content increased by 6.06, 5.27, and 4.90-fold; FRAP increased by 3.95, 3.51, and 3.15-fold; ABTS•+ scavenging activity increased by 2.07, 1.72, and 1.61-fold; and DPPH• inhibition increased by 78%, 58%, and 56%, respectively. Dried ginger also exhibited better inhibitory effects on the lipopolysaccharides-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7. The drying process demonstrated a positive effect on the bioactivities of ginger. The sun-dried ginger exhibited the most potent antioxidant properties with the best enhanced anti-inflammatory activity followed by the oven-dried ginger and lastly, the freeze-dried ginger.
This study aims to investigate the effect of different vegetable oils and frying cycles on acrylamide formation during the intermittent frying of beef nuggets. Different vegetable oils, palm olein (PO), red palm olein (RPO), sunflower oil (SFO), and soybean oil (SBO), were used for a total of 80 frying cycles. Oil was collected at every 16th frying cycle and analyzed for peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), free fatty acid (FFA), total polar compound (TPC), polar compound fractions, and fatty acid composition (FAC). Total oxidation (TOTOX) value was calculated, and acrylamide content was quantified in the nuggets. Regardless of the oil type, PV, p-AV, and TOTOX initially increased but gradually decreased. However, FFA and TPC continued to develop across the 80 frying cycles. The C18:2/C16:0 remained almost unchanged in PO and RPO but dropped progressively in SFO and SBO. The lowest acrylamide content in fried products was observed in the PO, while the highest content was observed in RPO. Bivariate correlation analysis showed no significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlation between oil quality attributes and acrylamide concentration. The oil type but not the frying cycle significantly affected the acrylamide concentration in beef nuggets.
High amylose wheat (HAW) contains more resistant starch than standard amylose wheat (SAW) and may have beneficial effects on gastrointestinal health. However, it is currently unclear whether these effects differ according to the level of HAW included in the diet or between males and females. Male and female C57BL/6 mice (n = 8/group/sex) were fed SAW65 (65% SAW; control), HAW35 (35% HAW), HAW50 (50% HAW) or HAW65 (65% HAW) diet for eight weeks. Female but not male, mice consuming any amount of HAW exhibited accelerated gastric emptying compared to SAW65 group. In both sexes, relative colon weights were higher in the HAW65 group compared to SAW65 group and in females, relative weights of the small intestine and cecum were also higher in the HAW65 group. In females only, colonic expression of Pyy and Ocln mRNAs were higher in the HAW65 group compared to HAW35 and HAW50 groups. In both sexes, mice consuming higher amounts of HAW (HAW50 or HAW65) had increased fecal bacterial load and relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and reduced relative abundance of Firmicutes compared to SAW65 group. These data are consistent with a beneficial impact of HAW on gastrointestinal health and indicate dose-dependent and sex-specific effects of HAW consumption.
Dabai pulp oil (DPO) is new oil extracted from the pulp of Canarium odontophyllum. The quality and efficacy of DPO are needed to promote its potential as a new alternative fat. Therefore, we investigate the quality of DPO, which includes moisture and volatile content (MVC), free fatty acid content (FFA), iodine value (IV), and peroxide value (PV). Furthermore, we evaluate the efficacy of DPO against hypercholesterolemia elicited by a high-cholesterol diet in rats. The MVC of DPO was <0.001 ± 0.00%. Next, the FFA in DPO was 2.57 ± 0.03%, and the IV of DPO was 53.74 ± 0.08 g iodine/100 g oil. Meanwhile, the PV of DPO was 4.97 ± 0.00 mEq/kg. Supplementation of DPO in hypercholesterolemic rats for 30 days revealed the hypocholesterolemic effect (significant reduction of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) accompanied by a significant reduction of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α), and lipid peroxidation (MDA). We also observed a significant improvement of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and antioxidant capacities (total antioxidant status, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) of the rats. The results on the quality and efficacy of locally made DPO suggest its potential use as a healthy alternative fat in the future.
This study's objective was to evaluate the effects of distance and stocking density on physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of meat and acute-phase proteins in Brahman crossbred cattle transported by road under hot and humid tropical conditions. Sixty Brahman crossbred heifers were subjected to road transport from a cattle feedlot farm located in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, to a commercial ruminant abattoir in Shah Alam, Selangor. Animals were assigned to long and short distances and high, medium, and low stocking densities. The results revealed that the intensity of response significantly increased in meat samples from animals subjected to long-distance transportation and higher stocking density. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and serum amyloid-A values increased considerably and were different from the baseline values recorded at preload. In conclusion, the current results revealed that the color, pH, shear force values, water holding capacity (WHC), glycogen level, and malondilaldehyde assay (MDA) concentrations in meat and acute-phase proteins (APP) were affected by both distances and stocking densities, as evidenced by the significant changes recorded from the parameters above.
While the consumption of seaweed and seaweed-based products is very common amongst East Asian nations, forming a notable component of the daily diet, relatively very few studies have concerned the concentrations of heavy metals in these together with potential effects on human health. The present study analyses the concentrations of 17 elements in locally resourced seaweed, also assessing potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks. The samples were ground, homogenized, and quantified using the ICP-OES technique. It has been found that the essential elements K, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Na typically show concentrations somewhat greater than a number of potentially toxic metals, in particular, Cd, Pb, Ag, and As, with exceptions being Ni, Cr-VI, and Si. Statistical analysis indicates all of the latter to have similar origin, with increased concentration of these metals within the marine ecosystem. While the daily estimated intake of most metals is seen to be within the daily dietary allowance level recommended by various international organizations, the noncarcinogenic risk shows a value greater than unity, estimated via the hazard quotient. This indicates a potential for adverse effects to health arising from consumption of the sampled seaweed. The carcinogenic risk resulting from nonessential elements shows values greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) reference limit of 10-4. Considering the nonbiodegradability of heavy metals and metalloids and their potential accumulation in seaweed, there is need for critical examination of metal levels in the seaweeds obtained from the present study locations, together with the introduction of practices of removal of heavy metals via bio-adsorbent techniques.
Obesity is a disease growing at an alarming rate and numerous preclinical studies have proven the role of polyphenols in managing this disease. This systematic review explores the prebiotic effect of polyphenols in the management of obesity among animals fed on a high-fat diet. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Embase databases following the PRISMA guidelines. Forty-four studies reported a significant reduction in obesity-related parameters. Most notably, 83% of the studies showed a decrease in either body weight/visceral adiposity/plasma triacylglyceride. Furthermore, 42 studies reported a significant improvement in gut microbiota (GM), significantly affecting the genera Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Blautia, Roseburia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Alistipes, and Desulfovibrio. Polyphenols' anti-obesity, anti-hyperglycaemic, and anti-inflammatory properties were associated with their ability to modulate GM. This review supports the notion of polyphenols as effective prebiotics in ameliorating HFD-induced metabolic derangements in animal models.
This study aims to evaluate the bioactive components, in vitro bioactivities, and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of P. frutescens leaf, which is a traditional medicine-food homology plant. P. frutescens methanol crude extract and its fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions, and aqueous phase residue) were prepared by ultrasound-enzyme assisted extraction and liquid-liquid extraction. Among the samples, the ethyl acetate fraction possessed the high total phenolic (440.48 μg GAE/mg DE) and flavonoid content (455.22 μg RE/mg DE), the best antioxidant activity (the DPPH radical, ABTS radical, and superoxide anion scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power were 1.71, 1.14, 2.40, 1.29, and 2.4 times higher than that of control Vc, respectively), the most powerful α-glucosidase inhibitory ability with the IC50 value of 190.03 μg/mL which was 2.2-folds higher than control acarbose, the strongest proliferative inhibitory ability against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell with the IC50 values of 37.92 and 13.43 μg/mL, which were considerable with control cisplatin, as well as certain inhibition abilities on acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase. HPLC analysis showed that the luteolin, rosmarinic acid, rutin, and catechin were the dominant components of the ethyl acetate fraction. Animal experiments further demonstrated that the ethyl acetate fraction could significantly decrease the serum glucose level, food, and water intake of streptozotocin-induced diabetic SD rats, increase the body weight, modulate their serum levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C, improve the histopathology and glycogen accumulation in liver and intestinal tissue. Taken together, P. frutescens leaf exhibits excellent hypoglycemic activity in vitro and in vivo, and could be exploited as a source of natural antidiabetic agent.
In order to meet the rising global demand for food and to ensure food security in line with the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goal 2, technological advances have been introduced in the food production industry. The organic food industry has benefitted from advances in food technology and innovation. However, there remains skepticism regarding organic foods on the part of consumers, specifically on consumers' acceptance of food innovation technologies used in the production of organic foods. This study measured factors that influence consumers' food innovation adoption and subsequently their intention to purchase organic foods. We compared the organic foods purchase behavior of Malaysian and Hungarian consumers to examine differences between Asian and European consumers. The findings show food innovation adoption as the most crucial predictor for the intention to purchase organic foods in Hungary, while social lifestyle factor was the most influential in Malaysia. Other factors such as environmental concerns and health consciousness were also examined in relation to food innovation adoption and organic food consumerism. This paper discusses differences between European and Asian organic foods consumers and provides recommendations for stakeholders.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been utilized as a pH-responsive component in various products. In this present work, palm tocotrienols-rich fraction (TRF) was successfully entrapped in a self-assembled oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion system by using CaCO3 as the stabilizer. The emulsion droplet size, viscosity and tocotrienols entrapment efficiency (EE) were strongly affected by varying the processing (homogenization speed and time) and formulation (CaCO3 and TRF concentrations) parameters. Our findings indicated that the combination of 5000 rpm homogenization speed, 15 min homogenization time, 0.75% CaCO3 concentration and 2% TRF concentration resulted in a high EE of tocotrienols (92.59-99.16%) and small droplet size (18.83 ± 1.36 µm). The resulting emulsion system readily released the entrapped tocotrienols across the pH range tested (pH 1-9); with relatively the highest release observed at pH 3. The current study presents a potential pH-sensitive emulsion system for the entrapment and delivery of palm tocotrienols.
Nature-derived tyrosinase inhibitors are of great industrial interest. Three monophenolase inhibitor peptides (MIPs) and three diphenolase inhibitor peptides (DIPs) from a previous study were investigated for their in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects, mode of inhibition, copper-chelating activity, sun protection factor (SPF) and antioxidant activities. DIP1 was found to be the most potent tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 = 3.04 ± 0.39 mM), which could be due to the binding interactions between its aromatic amino acid residues (Y2 and D7) with tyrosinase hotspots (H85, V248, H258, H263, F264, R268, V283 and E322) and its ability to chelate copper ion within the substrate-binding pocket. The conjugated planar rings of tyrosine and tryptophan may interact with histidine within the active site to provide stability upon enzyme-peptide binding. This postulation was later confirmed as the Lineweaver-Burk analysis had identified DIP1 as a competitive inhibitor and DIP1 also showed 36.27 ± 1.17% of copper chelating activity. In addition, DIP1 provided the highest SPF value (11.9 ± 0.04) as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (5.09 ± 0.13 mM FeSO4), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) (11.34 ± 0.90%) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (29.14 ± 1.36%) free radical scavenging activities compared to other peptides. These results demonstrated that DIP1 could be a multifunctional anti-tyrosinase agent with pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications.
Morus alba L. (M. alba) is a highly adaptable plant that is extensively incorporated in many traditional and Ayurveda medications. Various parts of the plant, such as leaves, fruits, and seeds, possess nutritional and medicinal value. M. alba has abundant phytochemicals, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, flavonols, anthocyanins, macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, and volatile aromatic compounds, indicating its excellent pharmacological abilities. M. alba also contains high nutraceutical values for protein, carbohydrates, fiber, organic acids, vitamins, and minerals, as well as a low lipid value. However, despite its excellent biological properties and nutritional value, M. alba has not been fully considered as a potential functional food ingredient. Therefore, this review reports on the nutrients and bioactive compounds available in M. alba leaves, fruit, and seeds; its nutraceutical properties, functional properties as an ingredient in foodstuffs, and a microencapsulation technique to enhance polyphenol stability. Finally, as scaling up to a bigger production plant is needed to accommodate industrial demand, the study and limitation on an M. alba upscaling process is reviewed.