Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

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  1. Ashraf MA, Khan AM, Ahmad M, Sarfraz M
    Front Chem, 2015;3:42.
    PMID: 26322304 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2015.00042
    Microencapsulation has become a hot topic in chemical research. Technology mainly used for control release and protection purposes. The sol-gel micro encapsulation approach for fragrance and aroma in porous silica-based materials leads to sustainable odorant and flavored materials with novel and unique beneficial properties. Sol-gel encapsulation of silica based micro particles considered economically cheap as capital investment in manufacturing is very low and environmentally friendly. Amorphous sol-gel SiO2 is non-toxic and safe, whereas the sol-gel entrapment of delicate chemicals in its inner pores results in pronounced chemical and physical stabilization of the entrapped active agents, thereby broadening the practical utilization of chemically unstable essential oils (EOs). Reviewing progress in the fabrication of diverse odorant and flavored sol-gels, shows us how different synthetic strategies are appropriate for practical application with important health and environmental benefits.
  2. Muhammad SA, Frew RD, Hayman AR
    Front Chem, 2015;3:12.
    PMID: 25774366 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2015.00012
    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the δ(13)C and δ(2)H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin, i.e., the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples.
  3. Ahmed N, Anwar S, Thet Htar T
    Front Chem, 2017;5:36.
    PMID: 28664157 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2017.00036
    The Plasmodium falciparum Lactate Dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH) catalyzes inter-conversion of pyruvate to lactate during glycolysis producing the energy required for parasitic growth. The PfLDH has been studied as a potential molecular target for development of anti-malarial agents. In an attempt to find the potent inhibitor of PfLDH, we have used Discovery studio to perform molecular docking in the active binding pocket of PfLDH by CDOCKER, followed by three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of tricyclic guanidine batzelladine compounds, which were previously synthesized in our laboratory. Docking studies showed that there is a very strong correlation between in silico and in vitro results. Based on docking results, a highly predictive 3D-QSAR model was developed with q(2) of 0.516. The model has predicted r(2) of 0.91 showing that predicted IC50 values are in good agreement with experimental IC50 values. The results obtained from this study revealed the developed model can be used to design new anti-malarial compounds based on tricyclic guanidine derivatives and to predict activities of new inhibitors.
  4. Ali Y, Muhamad Bunnori N, Susanti D, Muhammad Alhassan A, Abd Hamid S
    Front Chem, 2018;6:210.
    PMID: 29946538 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00210
    Calixarene derivatives are reported as potential therapeutic agents. Azo derivatives of calixarenes have not been given much consideration to explore their biomedical applications. In the present study, some azo-based derivatives of calix[4]arene were synthesized and characterized and their antibacterial and antiviral potentials were studied. The mono azo products of sulphanilamide, sulfaguanidine and 2-methyl-4-aminobenzoic acid showed good activity against bacterial strains with minimum inhibition concentration values ranging from 0.97 to 62.5 μg/mL. For mono azo products, the diazotized salt was applied as a limiting reagent. The use of calix[4]arene and sodium acetate trihydrate in 1:3 (molar ratio) helped in partial substitution. Molecular docking was performed to see the interaction of the designed compounds with two bacterial and one viral (neuraminidase) receptor. Some of the derivatives showed good interaction with the active site of bacterial and neuraminidase enzymes through hydrogen, hydrophobic and pi-pi interactions, and could inhibit the activity of the selected enzymes.
  5. Lin YK, Show PL, Yap YJ, Ariff A, Annuar MSBM, Lai OM, et al.
    Front Chem, 2018;6:448.
    PMID: 30345267 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00448
    An extractive bioconversion conducted on soluble starch with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) enzyme in ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO)/potassium phosphates liquid biphasic system (LBS) to extract gamma-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) was examined. A range of EOPO (with potassium phosphates) molecular weights was screen to investigate the effect of the latter on the partioning efficency of CGTase and γ-CD. The results show that the optimal top phase γ-CD yield (74.4%) was reached in 35.0% (w/w) EOPO 970 and 10.0% (w/w) potassium phosphate with 2.0% (w/w) sodium chloride. A theoretical explanation for the effect of NaCl on γ-CD was also presented. After a 2 h bioconversion process, a total of 0.87 mg/mL concentration of γ-CD was produced in the EOPO/ phosphates LBS top phase. After the extraction of top phase from LBS, four continuous repetitive batches were successfully conducted with relative CGTase activity of 1.00, 0.86, 0.45, and 0.40 respectively.
  6. Lim SS, Kim BH, Li D, Feng Y, Daud WRW, Scott K, et al.
    Front Chem, 2018;6:318.
    PMID: 30159306 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00318
    Understanding the mechanism of electron transfer between the cathode and microorganisms in cathode biofilms in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) for hydrogen production is important. In this study, biocathodes of MECs were successfully re-enriched and subjected to different operating parameters: applied potential, sulfate use and inorganic carbon consumption. It was hypothesized that biocathode catalytic activity would be affected by the applied potentials that initiate electron transfer. While inorganic carbon, in the form of bicarbonate, could be a main carbon source for biocathode growth, sulfate could be a terminal electron acceptor and thus reduced to elemental sulfurs. It was found that potentials more negative than -0.8 V (vs. standard hydrogen electrode) were required for hydrogen production by the biocathode. In additional, a maximum hydrogen production was observed at sulfate and bicarbonate concentrations of 288 and 610 mg/L respectively. Organic carbons were found in the cathode effluents, suggesting that microbial interactions probably happen between acetogens and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The hydrogen-producing biocathode was sulfate-dependent and hydrogen production could be inhibited by excessive sulfate because more energy was directed to reduce sulfate (E°


    SO


    4


    2
    -


    /H2S = -0.35 V) than proton (E° H+/H2 = -0.41 V). This resulted in a restriction to the hydrogen production when sulfate concentration was high. Domestic wastewaters contain low amounts of organic compounds and sulfate would be a better medium to enrich and maintain a hydrogen-producing biocathode dominated by SRB. Besides the risks of limited mass transport and precipitation caused by low potential, methane contamination in the hydrogen-rich environment was inevitable in the biocathode after long term operation due to methanogenic activities.
  7. Abu Bakar NI, Chandren S, Attan N, Leaw WL, Nur H
    Front Chem, 2018;6:370.
    PMID: 30255010 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00370
    The demonstration of the structure-properties relationship of shape-dependent photocatalysts remains a challenge today. Herein, one-dimensional (1-D)-like titania (TiO2), as a model photocatalyst, has been synthesized under a strong magnetic field in the presence of a magnetically responsive liquid crystal as the structure-aligning agent to demonstrate the relationship between a well-aligned structure and its photocatalytic properties. The importance of the 1-D-like TiO2 and its relationship with the electronic structures that affect the electron-hole recombination and the photocatalytic activity need to be clarified. The synthesis of 1-D-like TiO2 with liquid crystal as the structure-aligning agent was carried out using the sol-gel method under a magnetic field (0.3 T). The mixture of liquid crystal, 4'-pentyl-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (5CB), tetra-n-butyl orthotitanate (TBOT), 2-propanol, and water, was subjected to slow hydrolysis under a magnetic field. The TiO2-5CB took a well-aligned whiskerlike shape when the reaction mixture was placed under the magnetic field, while irregularly shaped TiO2-5CB particles were formed when no magnetic field was applied. It shows that the strong interaction between 5CB and TBOT during the hydrolysis process under a magnetic field controls the shape of titania. The intensity of the emission peaks in the photoluminescence spectrum of 1-D-like TiO2-5CB was lowered compared with the TiO2-5CB synthesized without the magnetic field, suggesting the occurrence of electron transfer from 5CB to the 1-D-like TiO2-5CB during ultraviolet irradiation. Apart from that, direct current electrical conductivity and Hall effect studies showed that the 1-D-like TiO2 composite enhanced electron mobility. Thus, the recombination of electrons and holes was delayed due to the increase in electron mobility; hence, the photocatalytic activity of the 1-D-like TiO2 composite in the oxidation of styrene in the presence of aqueous hydrogen peroxide under UV irradiation was enhanced. This suggests that the 1-D-like shape of TiO2 composite plays an important role in its photocatalytic activity.
  8. Song CP, Liew PE, Teh Z, Lim SP, Show PL, Ooi CW
    Front Chem, 2018;6:529.
    PMID: 30430106 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00529
    The formation of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) with the environmentally friendly and recyclable ionic liquid has been gaining popularity in the field of protein separation. In this study, the ATPSs comprising N,N-dimethylammonium N',N'-dimethylcarbamate (DIMCARB) and thermo-responsive poly(propylene) glycol (PPG) were applied for the recovery of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) derived from Escherichia coli. The partition behavior of GFP in the PPG + DIMCARB + water system was investigated systematically by varying the molecular weight of PPG and the total composition of ATPS. Overall, GFP was found to be preferentially partitioned to the hydrophilic DIMCARB-rich phase. An ATPS composed of 42% (w/w) PPG 1000 and 4.4% (w/w) DIMCARB gave the optimum performance in terms of GFP selectivity (1,237) and yield (98.8%). The optimal system was also successfully scaled up by 50 times without compromising the purification performance. The bottom phase containing GFP was subjected to rotary evaporation of DIMCARB. The stability of GFP was not affected by the distillation of DIMCARB, and the DIMCARB was successfully recycled in three successive rounds of GFP purification. The potential of PPG + DIMCARB + water system as a sustainable protein purification tool is promising.
  9. Gan RY, Kong KW, Li HB, Wu K, Ge YY, Chan CL, et al.
    Front Chem, 2018;6:39.
    PMID: 29541634 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00039
    The red sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) is an underutilized edible bean cultivated in China. It was previously found to have the highest content of antioxidant polyphenols among 42 edible beans, mainly gallic acid, and gallotannins in its red bean coat, an apparently unique characteristic among edible beans. In this study, the main phenolic compounds in red sword bean coats were further separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and identified by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore, the FRAP and ABTS antioxidant activities and antibacterial activity (diameter of inhibition zone, DIZ) of main gallotannin-rich fractions were tested. Our results showed that gallotannins of red sword bean coats were mainly comprised of monogalloyl to hexagalloyl hexosides. Interestingly, tetragalloyl, pentagalloyl, and hexagalloyl hexosides were identified as the possible candidates responsible for the red color of the coats. On the other hand, gallotannin-rich fractions exhibited diverse antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and tetragalloyl hexoside overall had the highest free radical scavenging and antibacterial activities. The degree of galloylation did not completely explain the structure-function relationship of gallotannins isolated from red sword bean coats, as there should exist other factors affecting their bioactivities. In conclusion, red sword bean coats are excellent natural sources of gallotannins, and their gallotannin-rich extracts can be utilized as natural antioxidant and antibacterial agents with potential health benefits as well as application in food industry.
  10. Wan Mat Khalir WKA, Shameli K, Jazayeri SD, Othman NA, Che Jusoh NW, Hassan NM
    Front Chem, 2020;8:620.
    PMID: 32974269 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2020.00620
    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have been established as antibacterial nanoparticles and have been innovatively developed to overcome the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in the environment. In this study, an environmentally friendly and easy method of the biosynthesis of Ag-NPs plants, mediated by aqueous extract stem extract of Entada spiralis (E. spiralis), was successfully developed. The E. spiralis/Ag-NPs samples were characterized using spectroscopy and the microscopic technique of UV-visible (UV-vis), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Transmission Electron Microscope (FETEM), zeta potential, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyses. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) absorption at 400-450 nm in the UV-vis spectra established the formation of E. spiralis/Ag-NPs. The crystalline structure of E. spiralis/Ag-NPs was displayed in the XRD analysis. The small size, around 18.49 ± 4.23 nm, and spherical shape of Ag-NPs with good distribution was observed in the FETEM image. The best physicochemical parameters on Ag-NPs biosynthesis using E. spiralis extract occurred at a moderate temperature (~52.0°C), 0.100 M of silver nitrate, 2.50 g of E. spiralis dosage and 600 min of stirring reaction time. The antibacterial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris using an antibacterial disk diffusion assay. Based on the results, it is evident that E. spiralis/Ag-NPs are susceptible to all the bacteria and has promising potential to be applied in both the industry and medical fields.
  11. Fujiki M, Wang L, Ogata N, Asanoma F, Okubo A, Okazaki S, et al.
    Front Chem, 2020;8:685.
    PMID: 32903703 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2020.00685
    We report emerging circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) at 4f-4f transitions when lanthanide (EuIII and TbIII) tris(β-diketonate) embedded to cellulose triacetate (CTA), cellulose acetate butyrate (CABu), D-/L-glucose pentamethyl esters ( D-/ L-Glu), and D-/L-arabinose tetramethyl esters ( D-/ L-Ara) are in film states. Herein, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octanedionate (fod) and 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione (dpm) were chosen as the β-diketonates. The glum value of Eu(fod)3 in CABu are +0.0671 at 593 nm (5


    D


    0







    7


    F1) and -0.0059 at 613 nm (5


    D


    0







    7


    F2), respectively, while those in CTA are +0.0463 and -0.0040 at these transitions, respectively. The glum value of Tb(fod)3 in CABu are -0.0029 at 490 nm (5


    D


    4







    7


    F6), +0.0078 at 540 nm (5


    D


    4







    7


    F5), and -0.0018 at 552 nm (5


    D


    4







    7


    F5), respectively, while those in CTA are -0.0053, +0.0037, and -0.0059 at these transitions, respectively. D-/ L-Glu and D-/ L-Ara induced weaker glum values at 4f-4f transitions of Eu(fod)3, Tb(fod)3, and Tb(dpm)3. For comparison, Tb(dpm)3 in α-pinene showed clear CPL characteristics, though Eu(dpm)3 did not. A surplus charge neutralization hypothesis was applied to the origin of attractive intermolecular interactions between the ligands and saccharides. This idea was supported from the concomitant opposite tendency in upfield 19F-NMR and downfield 1H-NMR chemical shifts of Eu(fod)3 and the opposite Mulliken charges between F-C bonds (fod) and H-C bonds (CTA and D-/ L-Glu). An analysis of CPL excitation (CPLE) and CPL spectra suggests that (+)- and (-)-sign CPL signals of EuIII and TbIII at different 4f-4f transitions in the visible region are the same with the (+)-and (-)-sign exhibited by CPLE bands at high energy levels of EuIII and TbIII in the near-UV region.
  12. Talebian-Kiakalaieh A, Amin NAS, Najaafi N, Tarighi S
    Front Chem, 2018;6:573.
    PMID: 30534550 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00573
    The last 20 years have seen an unprecedented breakthrough in the biodiesel industry worldwide leads to abundance of glycerol. Therefore, the economic utilization of glycerol to various value-added chemicals is vital for the sustainability of the biodiesel industry. One of the promising processes is acetalization of glycerol to acetals and ketals for applications as fuel additives. These products could be obtained by acid-catalyzed reaction of glycerol with aldehydes and ketones. Application of different supported heterogeneous catalysts such as zeolites, heteropoly acids, metal-based and acid-exchange resins have been evaluated comprehensively in this field. In this review, the glycerol acetalization has been reported, focusing on innovative and potential technologies for sustainable production of solketal. In addition, the impacts of various parameters such as application of different reactants, reaction temperature, water removal, utilization of crude-glycerol on catalytic activity in both batch and continuous processes are discussed. The outcomes of this research will therefore significantly improve the technology required in tomorrow's bio-refineries. This review provides spectacular opportunities for us to use such renewables and will consequently benefit the industry, environment and economy.
  13. Joseph CG, Taufiq-Yap YH, Musta B, Sarjadi MS, Elilarasi L
    Front Chem, 2020;8:568063.
    PMID: 33628762 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2020.568063
    Over the last decade, interest in the utilization of solar energy for photocatalysis treatment processes has taken centre-stage. Researchers had focused on doping TiO2 with SiO2 to obtain an efficient degradation rate of various types of target pollutants both under UV and visible-light irradiation. In order to further improve this degradation effect, some researchers resorted to incorporate plasmonic metal nanoparticles such as silver and gold into the combined TiO2-SiO2 to fully optimize the TiO2-SiO2's potential in the visible-light region. This article focuses on the challenges in utilizing TiO2 in the visible-light region, the contribution of SiO2 in enhancing photocatalytic activities of the TiO2-SiO2 photocatalyst, and the ability of plasmonic metal nanoparticles (Ag and Au) to edge the TiO2-SiO2 photocatalyst toward an efficient solar photocatalyst.
  14. Lu S, Zhang Y, Zhang ZH, Tsai PC, Zhang X, Tan ST, et al.
    Front Chem, 2021;9:639023.
    PMID: 33816438 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2021.639023
    Strain-reduced micro-LEDs in 50 μm × 50 μm, 100 μm × 100 μm, 200 μm × 200 μm, 500 μm × 500 μm, and 1,000 μm × 1,000 μm sizes were grown on a patterned c-plane sapphire substrate using partitioned growth with the metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The size effect on the optical properties and the indium concentration for the quantum wells were studied experimentally. Here, we revealed that the optical properties can be improved by decreasing the chip size (from 1,000 to 100 µm), which can correspondingly reduce the in-plane compressive stress. However, when the chip size is further reduced to 50 μm × 50 μm, the benefit of strain release is overridden by additional defects induced by the higher indium incorporation in the quantum wells and the efficiency of the device decreases. The underlying mechanisms of the changing output power are uncovered based on different methods of characterization. This work shows the rules of thumb to achieve optimal power performance for strain-reduced micro-LEDs through the proposed partitioned growth process.
  15. Rufai Y, Chandren S, Basar N
    Front Chem, 2020;8:597980.
    PMID: 33344417 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2020.597980
    Nanotechnology is one of the most interesting areas of research due to its flexibility to improve or form new products from nanoparticles (NPs), and as a fast, greener, more eco-friendly and sustainable solution to technological and environmental challenges. Among metal oxides of photocatalytic performance, the use of titania (TiO2) as photocatalyst is most popular due to its unique optical and electronic properties. Despite the wide utilization, the synthesis of TiO2 NPs bears many disadvantages: it utilizes various less environmental-friendly chemicals, high cost, requires high pressure and energy, and potentially hazardous physical and chemical methods. Hence, the development of green synthesis approach with eco-friendly natural products can be used to overcome these adverse effects. In this work, TiO2 NPs have been prepared by using Deinbollia pinnata leaves extracts, obtained by different solvents (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol) with different polarities. The extracts acted as the reducing agent, while titanium isopropoxide as the precursor and water as the solvent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed the synthesized TiO2 consist of anatase phase in high purity, with average crystallite size in the range of 19-21 nm. Characterization by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed the TiO2 NPs possess a uniform semi-spherical shape in the size range of 33-48 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of green TiO2 NPs showed two peaks for the main elements of Ti (61 Wt.%) and O (35 Wt.%). The band-gap energy of 3.2 eV was determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. From the nitrogen sorption analysis, type V isotherm of the material was obtained, with BET surface area of 31.77 m2/g. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized TiO2 was evaluated for photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under UV light irradiation. Based on the results, it is shown that TiO2 NPs synthesized with D. pinnata leaves extracted using ethyl acetate showed the most effective photodegradation performance, achieving 98.7% of MO conversion within 150 min. It can be concluded that the use of plant extracts in synthesis with TiO2 managed to produce highly crystalline anatase TiO2 with superior photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of organic dye.
  16. Leong HY, Chang YK, Ooi CW, Law CL, Julkifle AL, Show PL
    Front Chem, 2019;7:201.
    PMID: 31001522 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2019.00201
    Nowadays, downstream bioprocessing industries inclines towards the development of a green and high efficient bioseparation technology. Betacyanins are presently gaining higher interest in the food science as driven by their high tinctorial strength and health promoting functional properties. In this study, a novel green integration process of liquid biphasic electric partitioning system (LBEPS) was proposed for betacyanins extraction from peel and flesh of red-purple pitaya. Initially, the betacyanins extraction using LBEPS with initial settings was compared with that of liquid biphasic partitioning system (LBPS), and the results revealed that both systems demonstrated a comparable betacyanins extraction. This was followed by further optimizing the LBEPS for better betacyanins extraction. Several operating parameters including operation time, voltage applied, and position of graphitic electrodes in the system were investigated. Moreover, comparison between optimized LBEPS and LBPS with optimized conditions of electric system (as post-treatment) as well as color characterization and antioxidant properties assessment were conducted. Overall, the betacyanins extraction employing the optimized LBEPS showed the significant highest values of betacyanins concentration in alcohol-rich top phase (C
    t
    ) and partition coefficient (K) of betacyanins from peel (99.256 ± 0.014% and 133.433 ± 2.566) and flesh (97.189 ± 0.172% and 34.665 ± 2.253) of red-purple pitaya. These results inferred that an optimal betacyanins extraction was successfully achieved by this approach. Also, the LBEPS with the peel and flesh showed phase volume ratio (V
    r
    ) values of 1.667 and 2.167, respectively, and this indicated that they have a clear biphasic separation. In addition, the peel and flesh extract obtained from the optimized LBEPS demonstrated different variations of red color as well as their antioxidant properties were well-retained. This article introduces a new, reliable, and effective bioseparation approach for the extraction of biomolecules, which is definitely worth to explore further as a bioseparation tool in the downstream bioprocessing.
  17. Tajuddin MH, Yusof N, Wan Azelee I, Wan Salleh WN, Ismail AF, Jaafar J, et al.
    Front Chem, 2019;7:3.
    PMID: 30800647 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2019.00003
    This study aims to fabricate a thin film composite (TFC) membrane, modified with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanofillers via interfacial polymerization technique for nanofiltration (NF) processes. It was found that Cu-Al LDH nanofillers possessed layered structured materials with typical hexagonal plate-like shape and positive surface charge. The study revealed that TFN membrane exhibits a relatively smooth surface and a less nodular structure compared to pristine TFC membrane. The contact angle of TFN progressively decreased from 54.1° to 37.25°, indicating enhancement in surface hydrophilicity. Moreover, the incorporation of LDH nanofillers resulted in a less negative membrane as compared to the pristine TFC membrane. The best NF performance was achieved by TFN2 membrane with 0.1° of Cu-Al LDH loading and a water flux of 7.01 Lm-2h-1.bar. The addition of Cu-Al LDH resulted in excellent single salt rejections of Na2SO4 (96.8%), MgCl2 (95.6%), MgSO4 (95.4%), and NaCl (60.8%). The improvement in anti-fouling properties of resultant TFN membranes can be observed from the increments of pure water flux recovery and normalized water flux by 14% and 25% respectively. The findings indicated that Cu-Al LDH is a promising material in tailoring membrane surface properties and fouling resistance. The modification of the LDH-filled TFN membrane shows another alternative to fabricating a high-performance composite membrane, especially for water softening and partial desalination process.
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