Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 141 in total

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  1. Sonaimuthu P, Ching XT, Fong MY, Kalyanasundaram R, Lau YL
    Front Microbiol, 2016;7:808.
    PMID: 27303390 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00808
    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent for toxoplasmosis. The rhoptry protein 1 (ROP1) is secreted by rhoptry, an apical secretory organelle of the parasite. ROP1 plays an important role in host cell invasion. In this study, the efficacy of ROP1 as a vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis was evaluated through intramuscular or subcutaneous injection of BALB/c mice followed by immunological characterization (humoral- and cellular-mediated) and lethal challenge against virulent T. gondii RH strain in BALB/c mice. Briefly, a recombinant DNA plasmid (pVAX1-GFP-ROP1) was expressed in CHO cells while expression of recombinant ROP1 protein (rROP1) was carried out in Escherichia coli expression system. Immunization study involved injection of the recombinant pVAX1-ROP1 and purified rROP1 into different group of mice. Empty vector and PBS served as two different types of negative controls. Results obtained demonstrated that ROP1 is an immunogenic antigen that induced humoral immune response whereby detection of a protein band with expected size of 43 kDa was observed against vaccinated mice sera through western blot analysis. ROP1 antigen was shown to elicit cellular-mediated immunity as well whereby stimulated splenocytes with total lysate antigen (TLA) and rROP1 from pVAX1-ROP1 and rROP1-immunized mice, respectively, readily proliferated and secreted large amount of IFN-γ (712 ± 28.1 pg/ml and 1457 ± 31.19 pg/ml, respectively) and relatively low IL-4 level (94 ± 14.5 pg/ml and 186 ± 14.17 pg/ml, respectively). These phenomena suggested that Th1-favored immunity was being induced. Vaccination with ROP1 antigen was able to provide partial protection in the vaccinated mice against lethal challenge with virulent RH strain of tachyzoites. These findings proposed that the ROP1 antigen is a potential candidate for the development of vaccine against toxoplasmosis.
  2. Rovina K, Siddiquee S, Shaarani SM
    Front Microbiol, 2016;7:798.
    PMID: 27303385 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00798
    Allura Red AC (E129) is an azo dye that widely used in drinks, juices, bakery, meat, and sweets products. High consumption of Allura Red has claimed an adverse effects of human health including allergies, food intolerance, cancer, multiple sclerosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, brain damage, nausea, cardiac disease and asthma due to the reaction of aromatic azo compounds (R = R' = aromatic). Several countries have banned and strictly controlled the uses of Allura Red in food and beverage products. This review paper is critically summarized on the available analytical and advanced methods for determination of Allura Red and also concisely discussed on the acceptable daily intake, toxicology and extraction methods.
  3. Ser HL, Ab Mutalib NS, Yin WF, Chan KG, Goh BH, Lee LH
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:1398.
    PMID: 26733951 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01398
    Streptomyces pluripotens MUSC 137 was isolated from mangrove soil obtained from Tanjung Lumpur, Pahang, Malaysia. We investigated the phylogenetic, genomic, biochemical, and phenotypic characteristics of this strain. Uniquely adapted microorganisms from mangrove habitats have previously yielded compounds of biopharmaceutical interest. In order to examine the bioactivities possessed by the strain, fermentation extract was prepared through solvent extraction method prior to bioactivities screenings. Antioxidant activity was examined via DPPH assay while the cytotoxic effect was assessed by means of examining the activity of the extract against selected human cancer cell lines, namely colon cancer cells (HCT-116, Caco-2, SW480, and HT-29), breast cancer cell (MCF-7), lung cancer cell (A549), prostate cancer cell (DU145), and cervical cancer cell (Ca Ski). The results revealed MUSC 137 possesses significant antioxidant activity and demonstrates cytotoxic effect against several cancer cell lines tested. The results indicated MCF-7 cells were most susceptible to the extract with the lowest IC50 (61.33 ± 17.10 μg/mL), followed by HCT-116 and A549. Additionally, selective index (SI) showed that MUSC 137 extract was less toxic against normal cell lines when compared to MCF-7 and HCT-116 cells. The extract was further subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS and revealed the presence of deferoxamine and pyrrolizidines related compounds which may account for the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties observed.
  4. Letchumanan V, Pusparajah P, Tan LT, Yin WF, Lee LH, Chan KG
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:1417.
    PMID: 26697003 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01417
    High consumer demand for shellfish has led to the need for large-scale, reliable shellfish supply through aquaculture or shellfish farming. However, bacterial infections which can spread rapidly among shellfish poses a major threat to this industry. Shellfish farmers therefore often resort to extensive use of antibiotics, both prophylactically and therapeutically, in order to protect their stocks. The extensive use of antibiotics in aquaculture has been postulated to represent a major contributing factor in the rising incidence of antimicrobial resistant pathogenic bacteria in shellfish. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and determine the antibiotic resistance profile as well as to perform plasmid curing in order to determine the antibiotic resistance mediation. Based on colony morphology, all 450 samples tested were positive for Vibrio sp; however, tox-R assay showed that only 44.4% (200/450) of these were V. parahaemolyticus. Out of these 200 samples, 6.5% (13/200) were trh-positive while none were tdh-positive. Antibiotic resistance was determined for all V. parahaemolyticus identified against 14 commonly used antibiotics and the multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR) was calculated. The isolates demonstrated high resistance to several antibiotics tested- including second and third-line antibiotics- with 88% resistant to ampicillin, 81% to amikacin,70.5% to kanamycin, 73% to cefotaxime, and 51.5% to ceftazidime. The MAR index ranged from 0.00 to 0.79 with the majority of samples having an index of 0.36 (resistant to five antibiotics). Among the 13 trh-positive strains, almost 70% (9/13) demonstrated resistance to 4 or more antibiotics. Plasmid profiling for all V. parahaemolyticus isolates revealed that 86.5% (173/200) contained plasmids - ranging from 1 to 7 plasmids with DNA band sizes ranging from 1.2 kb to greater than 10 kb. 6/13 of the pathogenic V. pathogenic strains contained plasmid. After plasmid curing, the plasmid containing pathogenic strains isolated in our study have chromosomally mediated ampicillin resistance while the remaining resistance phenotypes are plasmid mediated. Overall, our results indicate that while the incidence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish in Selangor still appears to be at relatively reassuring levels, antibiotic resistance is a real concern and warrants ongoing surveillance.
  5. Nami Y, Haghshenas B, Haghshenas M, Abdullah N, Yari Khosroushahi A
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:1317.
    PMID: 26635778 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01317
    Enterococcus lactis IW5 was obtained from human gut and the potential probiotic characteristics of this organism were then evaluated. Results showed that this strain was highly resistant to low pH and high bile salt and adhered strongly to Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal cell lines. The supernatant of E. lactis IW5 strongly inhibited the growth of several pathogenic bacteria and decreased the viability of different cancer cells, such as HeLa, MCF-7, AGS, HT-29, and Caco-2. Conversely, E. lactis IW5 did not inhibit the viability of normal FHs-74 cells. This strain did not generate toxic enzymes, including β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and was highly susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, penicillin, vancomycin, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazol, and chloramphenicol but resistant to erythromycin and tetracyclin. This study provided evidence for the effect of E. lactis IW5 on cancer cells. Therefore, E. lactis IW5, as a bioactive therapeutics, should be subjected to other relevant tests to verify the therapeutic suitability of this strain for clinical applications.
  6. Tan LT, Ser HL, Yin WF, Chan KG, Lee LH, Goh BH
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:1316.
    PMID: 26635777 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01316
    A Streptomyces strain, MUM256 was isolated from Tanjung Lumpur mangrove soil in Malaysia. Characterization of the strain showed that it has properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. In order to explore the potential bioactivities, extract of the fermented broth culture of MUM256 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method. DPPH and SOD activity were utilized to examine the antioxidant capacity and the results have revealed the potency of MUM256 in superoxide anion scavenging activity in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of MUM256 extract was determined using cell viability assay against 8 different panels of human cancer cell lines. Among all the tested cancer cells, HCT116 was the most sensitive toward the extract treatment. At the highest concentration of tested extract, the result showed 2.3-, 2.0-, and 1.8-folds higher inhibitory effect against HCT116, HT29, and Caco-2 respectively when compared to normal cell line. This result has demonstrated that MUM256 extract was selectively cytotoxic toward colon cancer cell lines. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its bioactivities, the extract was then subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS. The analysis resulted in the identification of chemical constituents including phenolic and pyrrolopyrazine compounds which may responsible for antioxidant and anticancer activities observed. Based on the findings of this study, the presence of bioactive constituents in MUM256 extract could be a potential source for the development of antioxidative and chemopreventive agents.
  7. Chemoh W, Sawangjaroen N, Siripaitoon P, Andiappan H, Hortiwakul T, Sermwittayawong N, et al.
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:1304.
    PMID: 26635769 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01304
    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common opportunistic parasitic diseases in patients living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection in HIV-infected patients and to identify associated risk factors in Toxoplasma seropositive patients. This study was conducted at a regional public hospital in Hat Yai, southern Thailand during October 2009 to June 2010. Blood samples were collected from 300 HIV-infected patients. Each subject also answered a socio-demographic and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma infection. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies in HIV-infected patients was 109 (36.3%), of which 83 (76.2%) had past infection and 26 (23.9%) had recently acquired Toxoplasma infection as indicated by their IgG avidity. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that gender difference (adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.05-2.72) was the only factor associated with Toxoplasma infection. From the results obtained, these HIV-infected patients could be at high risk of developing clinical evidence of severe toxoplasmosis. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce primary behavioral practices to prevent Toxoplasma infection among HIV-infected patients.
  8. Liu YC, Chan KG, Chang CY
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:1226.
    PMID: 26617576 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01226
    Bacterial cells sense their population density and respond accordingly by producing various signal molecules to the surrounding environments thereby trigger a plethora of gene expression. This regulatory pathway is termed quorum sensing (QS). Plenty of bacterial virulence factors are controlled by QS or QS-mediated regulatory systems and QS signal molecules (QSSMs) play crucial roles in bacterial signaling transduction. Moreover, bacterial QSSMs were shown to interfere with host cell signaling and modulate host immune responses. QSSMs not only regulate the expression of bacterial virulence factors but themselves act in the modulation of host biology that can be potential therapeutic targets.
  9. Ng TS, Chew SY, Rangasamy P, Mohd Desa MN, Sandai D, Chong PP, et al.
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:1334.
    PMID: 26648919 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01334
    Candida glabrata is an emerging human fungal pathogen that has efficacious nutrient sensing and responsiveness ability. It can be seen through its ability to thrive in diverse range of nutrient limited-human anatomical sites. Therefore, nutrient sensing particularly glucose sensing is thought to be crucial in contributing to the development and fitness of the pathogen. This study aimed to elucidate the role of SNF3 (Sucrose Non Fermenting 3) as a glucose sensor and its possible role in contributing to the fitness and survivability of C. glabrata in glucose-limited environment. The SNF3 knockout strain was constructed and subjected to different glucose concentrations to evaluate its growth, biofilm formation, amphotericin B susceptibility, ex vivo survivability and effects on the transcriptional profiling of the sugar receptor repressor (SRR) pathway-related genes. The CgSNF3Δ strain showed a retarded growth in low glucose environments (0.01 and 0.1%) in both fermentation and respiration-preferred conditions but grew well in high glucose concentration environments (1 and 2%). It was also found to be more susceptible to amphotericin B in low glucose environment (0.1%) and macrophage engulfment but showed no difference in the biofilm formation capability. The deletion of SNF3 also resulted in the down-regulation of about half of hexose transporters genes (four out of nine). Overall, the deletion of SNF3 causes significant reduction in the ability of C. glabrata to sense limited surrounding glucose and consequently disrupts its competency to transport and perform the uptake of this critical nutrient. This study highlighted the role of SNF3 as a high affinity glucose sensor and its role in aiding the survivability of C. glabrata particularly in glucose limited environment.
  10. Chan WT, Yeo CC, Sadowy E, Espinosa M
    Front Microbiol, 2014;5:677.
    PMID: 25538695 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00677
    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TAs) loci usually consist of two genes organized as an operon, where their products are bound together and inert under normal conditions. However, under stressful circumstances the antitoxin, which is more labile, will be degraded more rapidly, thereby unleashing its cognate toxin to act on the cell. This, in turn, causes cell stasis or cell death, depending on the type of TAs and/or time of toxin exposure. Previously based on in silico analyses, we proposed that Streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, may harbor between 4 and 10 putative TA loci depending on the strains. Here we have chosen the pneumococcal strain Hungary(19A)-6 which contains all possible 10 TA loci. In addition to the three well-characterized operons, namely relBE2, yefM-yoeB, and pezAT, we show here the functionality of a fourth operon that encodes the pneumococcal equivalent of the phd-doc TA. Transcriptional fusions with gene encoding Green Fluorescent Protein showed that the promoter was slightly repressed by the Phd antitoxin, and exhibited almost background values when both Phd-Doc were expressed together. These findings demonstrate that phd-doc shows the negative self-regulatory features typical for an authentic TA. Further, we also show that the previously proposed TAs XreA-Ant and Bro-XreB, although they exhibit a genetic organization resembling those of typical TAs, did not appear to confer a functional behavior corresponding to bona fide TAs. In addition, we have also discovered new interesting bioinformatics results for the known pneumococcal TAs RelBE2 and PezAT. A global analysis of the four identified toxins-antitoxins in the pneumococcal genomes (PezAT, RelBE2, YefM-YoeB, and Phd-Doc) showed that RelBE2 and Phd-Doc are the most conserved ones. Further, there was good correlation among TA types, clonal complexes and sequence types in the 48 pneumococcal strains analyzed.
  11. Letchumanan V, Yin WF, Lee LH, Chan KG
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:33.
    PMID: 25688239 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00033
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine and estuarine bacterium that has been the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks which leads to a significant threat to human health worldwide. Consumption of seafood contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus causes acute gastroenteritis in individuals. The bacterium poses two main virulence factor including the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) which is a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans and TDH-related hemolysin (trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance V. parahaemolyticus strains in shrimps purchased from wetmarkets and supermarkets. The toxR-based PCR assay indicated that a total of 57.8% (185/320) isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus. Only 10% (19/185) toxR-positive isolate exhibit the trh gene and none of the isolates were tested positive for tdh. The MAR index was measured for 14 common antimicrobial agents. The results indicated 98% of the isolates were highly susceptible to imipenem, ampicillin sulbactam (96%), chloramphenicol (95%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (93%), gentamicin (85%), levofloxacin (83%), and tetracycline (82%). The chloramphenicol (catA2) and kanamycin (aphA-3) resistance genes were detected in the resistant V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Our results demonstrate that shrimps are contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus, some of which carry the trh-gene thus being potential to cause food borne illness. The occurrence of multidrug resistance strains in the environment could be an indication of excessive usage of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture fields.
  12. Law JW, Ab Mutalib NS, Chan KG, Lee LH
    Front Microbiol, 2014;5:770.
    PMID: 25628612 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00770
    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases.
  13. Letchumanan V, Chan KG, Lee LH
    Front Microbiol, 2014;5:705.
    PMID: 25566219 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00705
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked, or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, V. parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. V. parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh)-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin (trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2) to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the V. parahaemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques.
  14. Sulaiman J, Gan HM, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Front Microbiol, 2014;5:556.
    PMID: 25400624 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00556
    The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the 6 months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of 6 months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.
  15. Andiappan H, Nissapatorn V, Sawangjaroen N, Khaing SL, Salibay CC, Cheung MM, et al.
    Front Microbiol, 2014;5:291.
    PMID: 24966855 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00291
    Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents' general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge, and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20-29 years (50.9%), completed secondary level of education (51.7%), in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%), non-parous (36.6%), and had no history of abortion (90.4%). Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard, or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4%) and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%). There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term, and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses toward prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P < 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy.
  16. Triassi AJ, Wheatley MS, Savka MA, Gan HM, Dobson RC, Hudson AO
    Front Microbiol, 2014;5:509.
    PMID: 25309529 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00509
    Despite the urgent need for sustained development of novel antibacterial compounds to combat the drastic rise in antibiotic resistant and emerging bacterial infections, only a few clinically relevant antibacterial drugs have been recently developed. One of the bottlenecks impeding the development of novel antibacterial compounds is the identification of new enzymatic targets. The nutritionally essential amino acid anabolic pathways, for example lysine biosynthesis, provide an opportunity to explore the development of antibacterial compounds, since human genomes do not possess the genes necessary to synthesize these amino acids de novo. The diaminopimelate (DAP)/lysine (lys) anabolic pathways are attractive targets for antibacterial development since the penultimate lys precursor meso-DAP (m-DAP) is a cross-linking amino acid in the peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall of most Gram-negative bacteria and lys plays a similar role in the PG of most Gram-positive bacteria, in addition to its role as one of the 20 proteogenic amino acids. The L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) pathway was recently identified as a novel variant of the DAP/lys anabolic pathways. The DapL pathway has been identified in the pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus; Chlamydia, Leptospira, and Treponema. The dapL gene has been identified in the genomes of 381 or approximately 13% of the 2771 bacteria that have been sequenced, annotated and reposited in the NCBI database, as of May 23, 2014. The narrow distribution of the DapL pathway in the bacterial domain provides an opportunity for the development and or discovery of narrow spectrum antibacterial compounds.
  17. Mohd-Redzwan S, Jamaluddin R, Abd-Mutalib MS, Ahmad Z
    Front Microbiol, 2013;4:334.
    PMID: 24312084 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00334
    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices, and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary, and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global scientific community.
  18. Yong SF, Tan SH, Wee J, Tee JJ, Sansom FM, Newton HJ, et al.
    Front Microbiol, 2010;1:123.
    PMID: 21687766 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2010.00123
    The detection of Legionella pneumophila in environmental and clinical samples is frequently performed by PCR amplification of the mip and/or 16S rRNA genes. Combined with DNA sequencing, these two genetic loci can be used to distinguish different species of Legionella and identify L. pneumophila. However, the recent Legionella genome sequences have opened up hundreds of possibilities for the development of new molecular targets for detection and diagnosis. Ongoing comparative genomics has the potential to fine tune the identification of Legionella species and serogroups by combining specific and general genetic targets. For example, the coincident detection of LPS biosynthesis genes and virulence genes may allow the differentiation of both pathogen and serogroup without the need for nucleotide sequencing. We tested this idea using data derived from a previous genomic subtractive hybridization we performed between L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and L. micdadei. Although not yet formally tested, these targets serve as an example of how comparative genomics has the potential to improve the scope and accuracy of Legionella molecular detection if embraced by laboratories undertaking Legionella surveillance.
  19. Azman AS, Othman I, Velu SS, Chan KG, Lee LH
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:856.
    PMID: 26347734 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00856
    Actinobacteria are one of the most important and efficient groups of natural metabolite producers. The genus Streptomyces have been recognized as prolific producers of useful natural compounds as they produced more than half of the naturally-occurring antibiotics isolated to-date and continue as the primary source of new bioactive compounds. Lately, Streptomyces groups isolated from different environments produced the same types of compound, possibly due to frequent genetic exchanges between species. As a result, there is a dramatic increase in demand to look for new compounds which have pharmacological properties from another group of Actinobacteria, known as rare actinobacteria; which is isolated from special environments such as mangrove. Recently, mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for studies of bioactivities and the discovery of natural products. Many novel compounds discovered from the novel rare actinobacteria have been proven as potential new drugs in medical and pharmaceutical industries such as antibiotics, antimicrobials, antibacterials, anticancer, and antifungals. This review article highlights the latest studies on the discovery of natural compounds from the novel mangrove rare actinobacteria and provides insight on the impact of these findings.
  20. Ser HL, Palanisamy UD, Yin WF, Abd Malek SN, Chan KG, Goh BH, et al.
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:854.
    PMID: 26347733 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00854
    A novel Streptomyces, strain MUSC 149(T) was isolated from mangrove soil. A polyphasic approach was used to study the taxonomy of MUSC 149(T), which shows a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. The diamino acid of the cell wall peptidoglycan was LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK9(H8) and MK9(H6). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that closely related strains include Streptomyces rhizophilus NBRC 108885(T) (99.2% sequence similarity), S. gramineus NBRC 107863(T) (98.7%) and S. graminisoli NBRC 108883(T) (98.5%). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between MUSC 149(T) and closely related type strains ranged from 12.4 ± 3.3% to 27.3 ± 1.9%. The DNA G + C content was determined to be 72.7 mol%. The extract of MUSC 149(T) exhibited strong antioxidant activity and chemical analysis reported identification of an antioxidant agent, Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-. These data showed that metabolites of MUSC 149(T) shall be useful as preventive agent against free-radical associated diseases. Based on the polyphasic study of MUSC 149(T), the strain merits assignment to a novel species, for which the name S. mangrovisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 149(T) (=MCCC 1K00699(T)=DSM 100438(T)).
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