Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

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  1. Fock KM, Talley N, Goh KL, Sugano K, Katelaris P, Holtmann G, et al.
    Gut, 2016 Sep;65(9):1402-15.
    PMID: 27261337 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2016-311715
    OBJECTIVE: Since the publication of the Asia-Pacific consensus on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in 2008, there has been further scientific advancement in this field. This updated consensus focuses on proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus.

    METHODS: A steering committee identified three areas to address: (1) burden of disease and diagnosis of reflux disease; (2) proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease; (3) Barrett's oesophagus. Three working groups formulated draft statements with supporting evidence. Discussions were done via email before a final face-to-face discussion. We used a Delphi consensus process, with a 70% agreement threshold, using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria to categorise the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.

    RESULTS: A total of 32 statements were proposed and 31 were accepted by consensus. A rise in the prevalence rates of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Asia was noted, with the majority being non-erosive reflux disease. Overweight and obesity contributed to the rise. Proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease was recognised to be common. A distinction was made between refractory symptoms and refractory reflux disease, with clarification of the roles of endoscopy and functional testing summarised in two algorithms. The definition of Barrett's oesophagus was revised such that a minimum length of 1 cm was required and the presence of intestinal metaplasia no longer necessary. We recommended the use of standardised endoscopic reporting and advocated endoscopic therapy for confirmed dysplasia and early cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: These guidelines standardise the management of patients with refractory gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  2. Derakhshan MH, Robertson EV, Yeh Lee Y, Harvey T, Ferrier RK, Wirz AA, et al.
    Gut, 2015 Nov;64(11):1705-14.
    PMID: 25753030 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2014-308914
    INTRODUCTION: Recently, we showed that the length of cardiac mucosa in healthy volunteers correlated with age and obesity. We have now examined the immunohistological characteristics of this expanded cardia to determine whether it may be due to columnar metaplasia of the distal oesophagus.

    METHODS: We used the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ), antral and body biopsies from the 52 Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy volunteers who had participated in our earlier physiological study and did not have hiatus hernia, transsphincteric acid reflux, Barrett's oesophagus or intestinal metaplasia (IM) at cardia. The densities of inflammatory cells and reactive atypia were scored at squamous, cardiac and oxyntocardiac mucosa of SCJ, antrum and body. Slides were stained for caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX-2), villin, trefoil factor family 3 (TFF-3) and liver-intestine (LI)-cadherin, mucin MUC1, Muc-2 and Muc-5ac. In addition, biopsies from 15 Barrett's patients with/without IM were stained and scored as comparison. Immunohistological characteristics were correlated with parameters of obesity and high-resolution pH metry recording.

    RESULTS: Cardiac mucosa had a similar intensity of inflammatory infiltrate to non-IM Barrett's and greater than any of the other upper GI mucosae. The immunostaining pattern of cardiac mucosa most closely resembled non-IM Barrett's showing only slightly weaker CDX-2 immunostaining. In distal oesophageal squamous mucosa, expression of markers of columnar differentiation (TFF-3 and LI-cadherin) was apparent and these correlated with central obesity (correlation coefficient (CC)=0.604, p=0.001 and CC=0.462, p=0.002, respectively). In addition, expression of TFF-3 in distal oesophageal squamous mucosa correlated with proximal extension of gastric acidity within the region of the lower oesophageal sphincter (CC=-0.538, p=0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with expansion of cardia in healthy volunteers occurring by squamo columnar metaplasia of distal oesophagus and aggravated by central obesity. This metaplastic origin of expanded cardia may be relevant to the substantial proportion of cardia adenocarcinomas unattributable to H. pylori or transsphincteric acid reflux.

  3. Ng SC, Tang W, Leong RW, Chen M, Ko Y, Studd C, et al.
    Gut, 2015 Jul;64(7):1063-71.
    PMID: 25217388 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307410
    The rising incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia supports the importance of environmental risk factors in disease aetiology. This prospective population-based case-control study in Asia-Pacific examined risk factors prior to patients developing IBD.
  4. Sung JJ, Ng SC, Chan FK, Chiu HM, Kim HS, Matsuda T, et al.
    Gut, 2015 Jan;64(1):121-32.
    PMID: 24647008 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306503
    OBJECTIVE: Since the publication of the first Asia Pacific Consensus on Colorectal Cancer (CRC) in 2008, there are substantial advancements in the science and experience of implementing CRC screening. The Asia Pacific Working Group aimed to provide an updated set of consensus recommendations.
    DESIGN: Members from 14 Asian regions gathered to seek consensus using other national and international guidelines, and recent relevant literature published from 2008 to 2013. A modified Delphi process was adopted to develop the statements.
    RESULTS: Age range for CRC screening is defined as 50-75 years. Advancing age, male, family history of CRC, smoking and obesity are confirmed risk factors for CRC and advanced neoplasia. A risk-stratified scoring system is recommended for selecting high-risk patients for colonoscopy. Quantitative faecal immunochemical test (FIT) instead of guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) is preferred for average-risk subjects. Ancillary methods in colonoscopy, with the exception of chromoendoscopy, have not proven to be superior to high-definition white light endoscopy in identifying adenoma. Quality of colonoscopy should be upheld and quality assurance programme should be in place to audit every aspects of CRC screening. Serrated adenoma is recognised as a risk for interval cancer. There is no consensus on the recruitment of trained endoscopy nurses for CRC screening.
    CONCLUSIONS: Based on recent data on CRC screening, an updated list of recommendations on CRC screening is prepared. These consensus statements will further enhance the implementation of CRC screening in the Asia Pacific region.
  5. Lee YY, Wirz AA, Whiting JG, Robertson EV, Smith D, Weir A, et al.
    Gut, 2014 Jul;63(7):1053-60.
    PMID: 24064007 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-305803
    OBJECTIVE: There is a high incidence of inflammation and metaplasia at the gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) in asymptomatic volunteers. Additionally, the majority of patients with GOJ adenocarcinomas have no history of reflux symptoms. We report the effects of waist belt and increased waist circumference (WC) on the physiology of the GOJ in asymptomatic volunteers.

    DESIGN: 12 subjects with normal and 12 with increased WC, matched for age and gender were examined fasted and following a meal and with waist belts on and off. A magnet was clipped to the squamo-columnar junction (SCJ). Combined assembly of magnet-locator probe, 12-channel pH catheter and 36-channel manometer was passed.

    RESULTS: The waist belt and increased WC were each associated with proximal displacement of SCJ within the diaphragmatic hiatus (relative to upper border of lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS), peak LOS pressure point and pressure inversion point, and PIP (all p<0.05). The magnitude of proximal migration of SCJ during transient LOS relaxations was reduced by 1.6-2.6 cm with belt on versus off (p=0.01) and in obese versus non-obese (p=0.04), consistent with its resting position being already proximally displaced. The waist belt, but not increased WC, was associated with increased LOS pressure (vs intragastric pressure) and movement of pH transition point closer to SCJ. At 5 cm above upper border LOS, the mean % time pH <4 was <4% in all studied groups. Acid exposure 0.5-1.5 cm above SCJ was increased, with versus without, belt (p=0.02) and was most marked in obese subjects with belt.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that in asymptomatic volunteers, waist belt and central obesity cause partial hiatus herniation and short-segment acid reflux. This provides a plausible explanation for the high incidence of inflammation and metaplasia and occurrence of neoplasia at the GOJ in subjects without a history of reflux symptoms.

  6. Candotti D, Lin CK, Belkhiri D, Sakuldamrongpanich T, Biswas S, Lin S, et al.
    Gut, 2012 Dec;61(12):1744-53.
    PMID: 22267593 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301281
    To investigate the molecular basis of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) in Asian blood donors.
  7. Mahadeva S, Chia YC, Vinothini A, Mohazmi M, Goh KL
    Gut, 2008 Sep;57(9):1214-20.
    PMID: 18441005 DOI: 10.1136/gut.2007.147728
    To compare a Helicobacter pylori "test and treat" strategy with prompt endoscopy in young Asians with dyspepsia.
  8. Rajendra S, Kutty K
    Gut, 2005 Feb;54(2):178, 200.
    PMID: 15647173
  9. Castaño-Rodríguez N, Kaakoush NO, Lee WS, Mitchell HM
    Gut, 2017 02;66(2):235-249.
    PMID: 26508508 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-310545
    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive global systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and IBD. As bacterial antigen cross-reactivity has been postulated to be involved in this association, published data on enterohepatic Helicobacter spp (EHS) and Campylobacter spp and IBD was also analysed.

    DESIGN: Electronic databases were searched up to July 2015 for all case-control studies on H. pylori infection/EHS/Campylobacter spp and IBD. Pooled ORs (P-OR) and 95% CIs were obtained using the random effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity and stratified analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: Analyses comprising patients with Crohn's disease (CD), UC and IBD unclassified (IBDU), showed a consistent negative association between gastric H. pylori infection and IBD (P-OR: 0.43, p value <1e-10). This association appears to be stronger in patients with CD (P-OR: 0.38, p value <1e-10) and IBDU (P-OR: 0.43, p value=0.008) than UC (P-OR: 0.53, p value <1e-10). Stratification by age, ethnicity and medications showed significant results. In contrast to gastric H. pylori, non H. pylori-EHS (P-OR: 2.62, p value=0.001) and Campylobacter spp, in particular C. concisus (P-OR: 3.76, p value=0.006) and C. showae (P-OR: 2.39, p value=0.027), increase IBD risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori infection is negatively associated with IBD regardless of ethnicity, age, H. pylori detection methods and previous use of aminosalicylates and corticosteroids. Antibiotics influenced the magnitude of this association. Closely related bacteria including EHS and Campylobacter spp increase the risk of IBD. These results infer that H. pylori might exert an immunomodulatory effect in IBD.

  10. Kang JY
    Gut, 1990 Aug;31(8):854-7.
    PMID: 2387504
    The influence of the age of onset of symptoms on various clinical features of peptic ulcer was studied in a personal series of 492 patients (duodenal ulcer 363, gastric ulcer 98, combined gastric and duodenal ulcer 31). Duodenal ulcer patients whose age of onset of symptoms was within the first three decades (n = 166) were more likely to be men (77%) and to have a positive family history of dyspepsia (45%) and a history of haemorrhage (46%) when compared with late onset patients (n = 197, men 57%, positive family history 23%, history of haemorrhage 36%). Early onset duodenal ulcer patients also secreted more gastric acid than late onset patients. In contrast, while early onset gastric ulcer patients were more likely to be men, when compared to late onset patients, the two groups were similar in their family history of dyspepsia, their history of haemorrhage, and their gastric acid output. The age of onset of Malay duodenal ulcer patients (mean (SD) 43.6 (16.0] was higher than those for Chinese patients (33.7 (16.1].
  11. Kang JY, Wee A, Math MV, Guan R, Tay HH, Yap I, et al.
    Gut, 1990 Aug;31(8):850-3.
    PMID: 2387503
    Peptic ulcer occurs with different frequencies in the three main racial groups in Singapore. This study aimed firstly to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia patients of the different races and secondly, to assess the relation between H pylori, histological gastritis, patient diagnosis, and race. Gastric antral biopsy specimens from 1502 patients undergoing gastroduodenoscopy were studied and 892 (59%) were positive for H pylori. H pylori was strongly associated with gastritis: 873 of 1197 (73%) patients with gastritis were positive compared with 19 of 305 (6%) without gastritis (p less than 0.0001). The prevalences of H pylori and gastritis were similar in peptic ulcer patients of different races. Malay patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, however, were less likely to be positive for H pylori (10 of 46 (22%] or to have antral gastritis (17 of 46 (37%] than Chinese (292 of 605 (48%) were positive for H pylori and 421 of 605 (70%) had gastritis) and Indians (35 of 61 (57%) were H pylori positive and 42 of 61 (69%) had gastritis). Patients with duodenal ulcer were more likely to be positive for H pylori than those with non-ulcer dyspepsia, even when subjects with gastritis were considered separately. While our results do not help to explain the observed racial differences in peptic ulcer frequency it may be that the pathophysiology of non-ulcer dyspepsia is different in the different races in Singapore.
  12. Sung JJ, Chiu PW, Chan FKL, Lau JY, Goh KL, Ho LH, et al.
    Gut, 2018 10;67(10):1757-1768.
    PMID: 29691276 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-316276
    Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding remains an important emergency condition, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. As endoscopic therapy is the 'gold standard' of management, treatment of these patients can be considered in three stages: pre-endoscopic treatment, endoscopic haemostasis and post-endoscopic management. Since publication of the Asia-Pacific consensus on non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) 7 years ago, there have been significant advancements in the clinical management of patients in all three stages. These include pre-endoscopy risk stratification scores, blood and platelet transfusion, use of proton pump inhibitors; during endoscopy new haemostasis techniques (haemostatic powder spray and over-the-scope clips); and post-endoscopy management by second-look endoscopy and medication strategies. Emerging techniques, including capsule endoscopy and Doppler endoscopic probe in assessing adequacy of endoscopic therapy, and the pre-emptive use of angiographic embolisation, are attracting new attention. An emerging problem is the increasing use of dual antiplatelet agents and direct oral anticoagulants in patients with cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases. Guidelines on the discontinuation and then resumption of these agents in patients presenting with NVUGIB are very much needed. The Asia-Pacific Working Group examined recent evidence and recommends practical management guidelines in this updated consensus statement.
  13. Siah KTH, Gong X, Yang XJ, Whitehead WE, Chen M, Hou X, et al.
    Gut, 2018 Jun;67(6):1071-1077.
    PMID: 28592440 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2016-312852
    OBJECTIVE: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed by the presence of a characteristic set of symptoms. However, the current criteria-based diagnostic approach is to some extent subjective and largely derived from observations in English-speaking Western patients. We aimed to identify latent symptom clusters in Asian patients with FGID.

    DESIGN: 1805 consecutive unselected patients with FGID who presented for primary or secondary care to 11 centres across Asia completed a cultural and linguistic adaptation of the Rome III Diagnostic Questionnaire that was translated to the local languages. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to identify symptom clusters.

    RESULTS: Nine symptom clusters were identified, consisting of two oesophageal factors (F6: globus, odynophagia and dysphagia; F9: chest pain and heartburn), two gastroduodenal factors (F5: bloating, fullness, belching and flatulence; F8 regurgitation, nausea and vomiting), three bowel factors (F2: abdominal pain and diarrhoea; F3: meal-related bowel symptoms; F7: upper abdominal pain and constipation) and two anorectal factors (F1: anorectal pain and constipation; F4: diarrhoea, urgency and incontinence).

    CONCLUSION: We found that the broad categorisation used both in clinical practice and in the Rome system, that is, broad anatomical divisions, and certain diagnoses with long historical records, that is, IBS with diarrhoea, and chronic constipation, are still valid in our Asian societies. In addition, we found a bowel symptom cluster with meal trigger and a gas cluster that suggests a different emphasis in our populations. Future studies to compare a non-Asian cohort and to match to putative pathophysiology will help to verify our findings.

  14. Chiu PWY, Uedo N, Singh R, Gotoda T, Ng EKW, Yao K, et al.
    Gut, 2019 02;68(2):186-197.
    PMID: 30420400 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-317111
    BACKGROUND: This is a consensus developed by a group of expert endoscopists aiming to standardise the preparation, process and endoscopic procedural steps for diagnosis of early upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers.

    METHOD: The Delphi method was used to develop consensus statements through identification of clinical questions on diagnostic endoscopy. Three consensus meetings were conducted to consolidate the statements and voting. We conducted a systematic literature search on evidence for each statement. The statements were presented in the second consensus meeting and revised according to comments. The final voting was conducted at the third consensus meeting on the level of evidence and agreement.

    RESULTS: Risk stratification should be conducted before endoscopy and high risk endoscopic findings should raise an index of suspicion. The presence of premalignant mucosal changes should be documented and use of sedation is recommended to enhance detection of superficial upper GI neoplasms. The use of antispasmodics and mucolytics enhanced visualisation of the upper GI tract, and systematic endoscopic mapping should be conducted to improve detection. Sufficient examination time and structured training on diagnosis improves detection. Image enhanced endoscopy in addition to white light imaging improves detection of superficial upper GI cancer. Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging is recommended for characterisation of upper GI superficial neoplasms. Endoscopic characterisation can avoid unnecessary biopsy.

    CONCLUSION: This consensus provides guidance for the performance of endoscopic diagnosis and characterisation for early gastric and oesophageal neoplasia based on the evidence. This will enhance the quality of endoscopic diagnosis and improve detection of early upper GI cancers.

  15. Teoh AYB, Dhir V, Kida M, Yasuda I, Jin ZD, Seo DW, et al.
    Gut, 2018 Jul;67(7):1209-1228.
    PMID: 29463614 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-314341
    OBJECTIVES: Interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) procedures are gaining popularity and the most commonly performed procedures include EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst, EUS-guided biliary drainage, EUS-guided pancreatic duct drainage and EUS-guided celiac plexus ablation. The aim of this paper is to formulate a set of practice guidelines addressing various aspects of the above procedures.

    METHODS: Formulation of the guidelines was based on the best scientific evidence available. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness methodology (RAM) was used. Panellists recruited comprised experts in surgery, interventional EUS, interventional radiology and oncology from 11 countries. Between June 2014 and October 2016, the panellists met in meetings to discuss and vote on the clinical scenarios for each of the interventional EUS procedures in question.

    RESULTS: A total of 15 statements on EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst, 15 statements on EUS-guided biliary drainage, 12 statements on EUS-guided pancreatic duct drainage and 14 statements on EUS-guided celiac plexus ablation were formulated. The statements addressed the indications for the procedures, technical aspects, pre- and post-procedural management, management of complications, and competency and training in the procedures. All statements except one were found to be appropriate. Randomised studies to address clinical questions in a number of aspects of the procedures are urgently required.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current guidelines on interventional EUS procedures are the first published by an endoscopic society. These guidelines provide an in-depth review of the current evidence and standardise the management of the procedures.

  16. Chan FKL, Goh KL, Reddy N, Fujimoto K, Ho KY, Hokimoto S, et al.
    Gut, 2018 03;67(3):405-417.
    PMID: 29331946 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-315131
    This Guideline is a joint official statement of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology (APAGE) and the Asian Pacific Society for Digestive Endoscopy (APSDE). It was developed in response to the increasing use of antithrombotic agents (antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants) in patients undergoing gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in Asia. After reviewing current practice guidelines in Europe and the USA, the joint committee identified unmet needs, noticed inconsistencies, raised doubts about certain recommendations and recognised significant discrepancies in clinical practice between different regions. We developed this joint official statement based on a systematic review of the literature, critical appraisal of existing guidelines and expert consensus using a two-stage modified Delphi process. This joint APAGE-APSDE Practice Guideline is intended to be an educational tool that assists clinicians in improving care for patients on antithrombotics who require emergency or elective GI endoscopy in the Asian Pacific region.
  17. Xiao Y, Zhang S, Dai N, Fei G, Goh KL, Chun HJ, et al.
    Gut, 2020 02;69(2):224-230.
    PMID: 31409606 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-318365
    OBJECTIVE: To establish the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in the treatment of Asian patients with erosive oesophagitis (EO).

    DESIGN: In this phase III, double-blind, multicentre study, patients with endoscopically confirmed EO were randomised 1:1 to receive vonoprazan 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg, once daily for up to 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was EO healing rate at 8 weeks. The secondary endpoints were EO healing rates at 2 and 4 weeks. Safety endpoints included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs).

    RESULTS: In the vonoprazan (n=238) and lansoprazole (n=230) arms, 8-week EO healing rates were 92.4% and 91.3%, respectively (difference 1.1% (95% CI -3.822% to 6.087%)). The respective 2-week EO healing rates were 75.0% and 67.8% (difference 7.2% (95% CI -1.054% to 15.371%)), and the respective 4-week EO healing rates were 85.3% and 83.5% (difference 1.8% (95% CI -4.763% to 8.395%)). In patients with baseline Los Angeles classification grade C/D, 2-week, 4-week and 8-week EO healing rates were higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole (2 weeks: 62.2% vs 51.5%, difference 10.6% (95% CI -5.708% to 27.002%); 4 weeks: 73.3% vs 67.2%, difference 6.2% (95% CI -8.884 to 21.223); and 8 weeks: 84.0% vs 80.6%, difference 3.4% (95% CI -9.187% to 15.993%)). Overall, EO healing rates appeared higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole. TEAE rates were 38.1% and 36.6% in the vonoprazan and lansoprazole group, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in terms of EO healing rate at 8 weeks in this population. Safety outcomes were similar in the two treatment arms.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02388724.

  18. Wong VW, Irles M, Wong GL, Shili S, Chan AW, Merrouche W, et al.
    Gut, 2019 11;68(11):2057-2064.
    PMID: 30658997 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-317334
    OBJECTIVE: The latest model of vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE) automatically selects M or XL probe according to patients' body built. We aim to test the application of a unified interpretation of VCTE results with probes appropriate for the body mass index (BMI) and hypothesise that this approach is not affected by hepatic steatosis.

    DESIGN: We prospectively recruited 496 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease who underwent VCTE by both M and XL probes within 1 week before liver biopsy.

    RESULTS: 391 (78.8%) and 433 (87.3%) patients had reliable liver stiffness measurement (LSM) (10 successful acquisitions and IQR:median ratio ≤0.30) by M and XL probes, respectively (p<0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was similar between the two probes (0.75-0.88 for F2-4, 0.83-0.91 for F4). When used in the same patient, LSM by XL probe was lower than that by M probe (mean difference 2.3 kPa). In contrast, patients with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 had higher LSM regardless of the probe used. When M and XL probes were used in patients with BMI <30 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively, they yielded nearly identical median LSM at each fibrosis stage and similar diagnostic performance. Severe steatosis did not increase LSM or the rate of false-positive diagnosis by XL probe.

    CONCLUSION: High BMI but not severe steatosis increases LSM. The same LSM cut-offs can be used without further adjustment for steatosis when M and XL probes are used according to the appropriate BMI.

  19. Chiu PWY, Ng SC, Inoue H, Reddy DN, Ling Hu E, Cho JY, et al.
    Gut, 2020 06;69(6):991-996.
    PMID: 32241897 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321185
    Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic. Risk of transmission may occur during endoscopy and the goal is to prevent infection among healthcare professionals while providing essential services to patients. Asia was the first continent to have a COVID-19 outbreak, and this position statement of the Asian Pacific Society for Digestive Endoscopy shares our successful experience in maintaining safe and high-quality endoscopy practice at a time when resources are limited. Sixteen experts from key societies of digestive endoscopy in Asia were invited to develop position statements, including patient triage and risk assessment before endoscopy, resource prioritisation and allocation, regular monitoring of personal protective equipment, infection control measures, protective device training and implementation of a strategy for stepwise resumption of endoscopy services after control of the COVID-19 outbreak.
  20. Bhandari P, Subramaniam S, Bourke MJ, Alkandari A, Chiu PWY, Brown JF, et al.
    Gut, 2020 11;69(11):1915-1924.
    PMID: 32816921 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-322329
    The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on provision of endoscopy services globally as staff and real estate were repurposed. As we begin to recover from the pandemic, a cohesive international approach is needed, and guidance on how to resume endoscopy services safely to avoid unintended harm from diagnostic delays. The aim of these guidelines is to provide consensus recommendations that clinicians can use to facilitate the swift and safe resumption of endoscopy services. An evidence-based literature review was carried out on the various strategies used globally to manage endoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic and control infection. A modified Delphi process involving international endoscopy experts was used to agree on the consensus statements. A threshold of 80% agreement was used to establish consensus for each statement. 27 of 30 statements achieved consensus after two rounds of voting by 34 experts. The statements were categorised as pre-endoscopy, during endoscopy and postendoscopy addressing relevant areas of practice, such as screening, personal protective equipment, appropriate environments for endoscopy and infection control precautions, particularly in areas of high disease prevalence. Recommendations for testing of patients and for healthcare workers, appropriate locations of donning and doffing areas and social distancing measures before endoscopy are unique and not dealt with by any other guidelines. This international consensus using a modified Delphi method to produce a series of best practice recommendations to aid the safe resumption of endoscopy services globally in the era of COVID-19.
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