There is an established link between food promotions and children's food purchase and consumption. Children in developing countries may be more vulnerable to food promotions given the relative novelty of advertising in these markets. This study aimed to determine the scope of television food advertising to children across the Asia-Pacific to inform policies to restrict this marketing. Six sites were sampled, including from China, Indonesia, Malaysia and South Korea. At each site, 192 h of television were recorded (4 days, 16 h/day, three channels) from May to October 2012. Advertised foods were categorized as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous, and by product type. Twenty-seven percent of advertisements were for food/beverages, and the most frequently advertised product was sugar-sweetened drinks. Rates of non-core food advertising were highest during viewing times most popular with children, when between 3 (South Korea) and 15 (Indonesia) non-core food advertisements were broadcast each hour. Children in the Asia-Pacific are exposed to high volumes of unhealthy food/beverage television advertising. Different policy arrangements for food advertising are likely to contribute to regional variations in advertising patterns. Cities with the lowest advertising rates can be identified as exemplars of good policy practice.
Community-based health promotion requires effective participation and partnership of diverse and numerous stakeholders from community as well as external professional organizations. Although effective partnership of stakeholders is often the key for success of health promotion practice and research, but this has proved to be a complex and challenging task. This study is an exploratory study to identify professional stakeholder's perspectives and experiences toward the partner's engagement challenges in community-based participatory research conducted in Population Research Centers in Iran. A qualitative study design with in-depth semi-structured interviews as data collection method was chosen. Using purposeful sampling technique, policy-makers and managers (mainly academics) involved in community-based participatory research in these centers were invited to be interviewed. Data were collected to the point where no new information was forthcoming. All interviews were taped and transcribed. To provide answers for research questions, qualitative content analysis was employed to extract emerging main themes from numerous cods. Findings were categorized in three main themes as Partnership's relationship and trust issues, Partnership's individual issues and Partnership's system issues. Although community-based participatory research in Iran benefits from more than a decade history and some physical infrastructures, but it seems that public health experts and researchers and other partner organizations are lagging behind in terms of capacities and competencies required to effectively utilize the available structure and opportunities. Hence, capacity development, both among professional partners and community may be the main way forward to tackling the future challenges for strengthening community actions but should include both levels of individuals and systems.
Interventions to counter the influence of television food advertising amongst children are important. Thus, reliable and valid instrument to assess its effect is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of such a questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered twice on 32 primary schoolchildren aged 10-11 years in Selangor, Malaysia. The interval between the first and second administration was 2 weeks. Test-retest method was used to examine the reliability of the questionnaire. Intra-rater reliability was determined by kappa coefficient and internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Construct validity was evaluated using factor analysis. The test-retest correlation showed moderate-to-high reliability for all scores (r = 0.40*, p = 0.02 to r = 0.95**, p = 0.00), with one exception, consumption of fast foods (r = 0.24, p = 0.20). Kappa coefficient showed acceptable-to-strong intra-rater reliability (K = 0.40-0.92), except for two items under knowledge on television food advertising (K = 0.26 and K = 0.21) and one item under preference for healthier foods (K = 0.33). Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicated acceptable internal consistency for all scores (0.45-0.60). After deleting two items under Consumption of Commonly Advertised Food, the items showed moderate-to-high loading (0.52, 0.84, 0.42 and 0.42) with the Scree plot showing that there was only one factor. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was 0.60, showing that the sample was adequate for factor analysis. The questionnaire on television food advertising is reliable and valid to assess the effect of media literacy education on television food advertising on schoolchildren.
Summary: Alcohol is the number three contributor to the burden of disease worldwide so must remain a priority health promotion issue internationally. Malaysia is a Muslim country and alcohol-related harm was not seen as a priority until recently, because it only affects a minority of the population. Sabah has more than 30 different ethnic groups, and alcohol has a traditional role in the cultural practices of many of these groups. In 2009, the Intervention Group for Alcohol Misuse (IGAM) was formed, under the umbrella of Mercy Malaysia by a group of healthcare workers, academics, members of the Clergy and people who were previously alcohol-dependent concerned about the harmful effects of excessive alcohol consumption. IGAM in collaboration with other bodies have organized public seminars, visited villages and schools, encouraged the formation of a support group and trained healthcare professionals in health promotion intervention. The focus later changed to empowering communities to find solutions to alcohol-related harm in their community in a way which is sensitive to their culture. A standard tool-kit was developed using WHO materials as a guide. Village committees were formed and adapted the toolkit according to their needs. This strategy has been shown to be effective, in that 90% of the 20 committees formed are actively and successfully involved in health promotion to reduce alcohol-related harm in their communities.
In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad, gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study presented the rationale, methodology and design of the study, discussed issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analysed developments in Malaysia and the Philippines (see the previous issue of this journal). Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made.
In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study discusses issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analyses developments in Malaysia and the Philippines. Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries, gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking, and in Malaysia and the Philippines was highly significant in cigarette promotion. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made in Part II.
Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2006)
The worksite is one of the key channels for the delivery of interventions to reduce chronic diseases among adult populations. It provides easy and regular access to a relatively stable population and it encourages sustained peer support. This paper reports a 2-year follow-up of the impact of a worksite health promotion programme on serum cholesterol and dietary changes among employees in a city in Malaysia. A quasi-experimental study was conducted among Malay-Muslim male security guards, with those working in a public university in Kuala Lumpur comprising the intervention group, and those working in the teaching hospital of the same university as the comparison group. They were comparable in socio-demographic characteristics. The intervention group received intensive individual and group counselling on diet, physical activity and quitting smoking. The comparison group was given minimal education on the same lifestyle changes through mail and group counselling. The intervention group showed a statistically significant reduction in their mean total cholesterol levels as compared with the comparison group, with an intervention effect of -0.38 (95% CI = -0.63, -0.14) mmol/l. The intervention group also reported a reduction in the amount of cigarettes smoked. The worksite was shown to be an effective channel for health promotion. The adoption of the new lifestyle behaviours should be supported and sustained through modification of work policies.
The National Breastfeeding Survey 2001 was the first comprehensive study on breastfeeding conducted on a national level in Singapore. It aimed to establish the prevalence of breastfeeding among Chinese, Malay and Indian mothers and to identify factors influencing breastfeeding. A total of 2098 mothers were interviewed in this two-phase study, with the first interview conducted 2 months after delivery and the second interview 6 months after birth among mothers who were still breastfeeding at 2 months. Frequency distributions of breastfeeding prevalence and types of breastfeeding practices at different time intervals (from birth to 6 months) were produced. Multivariate logistic regression was carried out to construct a model with predictive information on factors which influence continued breastfeeding till 2 months and 6 months after delivery respectively. The study found that about 94.5% of the mothers attempted breastfeeding. At 1 month, 71.6% were still breastfeeding, 49.6% continued to do so at 2 months, and 29.8% persisted till 4 months. By 6 months, the breastfeeding prevalence rate fell to 21.1%. The results of this study show higher breastfeeding prevalence rates compared to past studies in Singapore. Despite this, exclusive breastfeeding is still not a common practice. Various factors were found to be significant in influencing mothers' decision to breastfeed. Factors such as ethnicity, age, educational attainment, religion and baby's sex are non-modifiable in the short term or at an individual level. However, factors such as awareness of breastfeeding benefits, advice from health professionals and previous breastfeeding experience are potentially modifiable. Efforts aimed at promoting breastfeeding in Singapore need to take these modifiable factors into consideration so as to better tailor health promotion efforts on breastfeeding to women.
This statement was commissioned by the UNU International Institute for Global Health in the run up to Habitat III-the third United Nations conference on housing and sustainable urban development. The statement draws on insights from the World Urban Campaign thinkers campus held during 24-27 January 2016 in Kuching, a WHO-designated healthy city.
Sarawak, Malaysia has a large population of ethnic minorities who live in longhouses in remote rural areas where poverty, non-communicable diseases, accidents and injuries, environmental hazards and communicable diseases all contribute to a lower quality of life than is possible to achieve in these regions. To address these issues and improve the quality of life for longhouse people, the Kapit Divisional Health Office implemented the World Health Organization's Healthy Village programme in 2000. An evaluation was undertaken in 2003 to determine physical and behavioural changes resulting from the programme. The main changes evaluated were those involving smoking habits, exercise habits, health screening, fire safety, environmental improvements and food preparation and hygiene. A qualitative evaluation was conducted using participant observation and key-informant interviews, focus groups and observation. Results indicate that the programme is inspiring changes in various behavioural and physical characteristics of the study population. It is clear that the Healthy Village programme is a widely accepted way of improving health outcomes in longhouses, and that it is succeeding in making beneficial health changes.
The majority of research on factors associated with women participation in physical activity (PA) has been in developed countries with limited research in developing countries. Few women in Malaysia are active at the recommended levels for health, and activity rates are less than developed countries. Little research has focused specially on physically active Malaysian women and the factors that contribute to them becoming and staying active in PA programs. This lack of knowledge hinders the tailored development and implementation of PA programs to meet their needs. The aim of this study was to identify the factors of participation in PA programs for Malaysian women. The social-ecological model was used to investigate and theme the factors. Focus group discussion was conducted with participants in six PA programs targeted specifically to women. Thirty-seven women were involved in the focus group discussion, with ages ranging from 19 to 82 years. Inductive and deductive content analysis was conducted from verbatim transcripts using NVivo. Inductive content analysis allowed raw data and second-order themes to emerge. Findings revealed social support structures, tailored programs for women, and location were key contributors that encouraged women to participate in these programs. The similarity in contributors between women in non-western and western countries signifies a prime opportunity for bi-lateral relationships to be formed to enable the enhancement of program development relevant to different ethnicities and cultures within or across countries.
The needs for health promotion is increasingly important for Malaysian. Government invests in the development to improve health education. Malaysia lacks the development of online solutions to help to maintain the health of the nation through prevention and mass education. This paper addresses important questions about the development of those health promotion websites by considering the motivation of web elements. It seeks to provide information on the barriers to the use and success as a method of health promotion. The empirical work is a perceptions study that aims to identify the barriers of web-based health promotion in the different user characteristics for health promotion purposes. This work is a qualitative research project directed at ascertaining the perceptions of Malaysians concerning the use of health promotion websites. It pertains to those factors which stop the uptake of website use and seeks to discern the views of users on how the health promotion websites may be more engaging. The principal finding is that the ethnicity of the user is mainly relevant in terms of the socio-economic status of the user. Users across all ethnicities respond to the same qualities of websites. The same web elements are motivating to users regardless of the characteristics of the users because the uptake of the Internet and the use of websites for health promotion has been more a phenomenon of the young. The study concludes with some recommendations for the Ministry of Health and the developers of health promotion websites in Malaysia.
The Internet has opened pathways for youth to find sexual health information which was not easily available to them in the past. Studies have shown that seeking sexual health information online may potentially influence an individuals' decision-making to change their sexual health behaviours. However, there is a gap in research on the associations of seeking online sexually transmitted infection (STI) information with STI prevention among young people, particularly in Malaysia. This study investigated the associations of seeking STI information online with the intentions of condom use among young adult online users in Malaysia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among Malaysian youth aged 18-25 years old who were recruited through Facebook. In total, 1530 respondents completed the survey, identifying 874 respondents who had sought STI information online. The majority of respondents had intentions to use condoms as protection against STI. Respondents who sought online STI information were significantly more likely to have the intention to use condoms compared to respondents who did not seek online STI information (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.01-1.76, p = 0.040). Online STI information has the potential to increase access to STI information among young online users in Malaysia amid the stigma surrounding sex-related issues. Providing accurate STI information online from reliable sources may equip young people who have Internet access with awareness of sexual health protective behaviours such as condom use. It is recommended to facilitate Internet access to reach sectors of the population that currently do not have access, as the Internet is useful in STI prevention.