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  1. Masir N, Ghoddoosi M, Mansor S, Abdul-Rahman F, Florence CS, Mohamed-Ismail NA, et al.
    Histopathology, 2012 Apr;60(5):804-15.
    PMID: 22320393 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2011.04127.x
    To investigate RCL2 as a fixative for tissue fixation in routine histopathological examination and to assess tissue suitability for ancillary investigations.
  2. Masir N, Jones M, Lee AM, Goff LK, Clear AJ, Lister A, et al.
    Histopathology, 2010 Apr;56(5):617-26.
    PMID: 20459572 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2010.03524.x
    To investigate the relationship between Bcl-2 protein expression and cell proliferation at single-cell level in B-cell lymphomas using double-labelling techniques.
  3. Kim LH, Nadarajah VS, Peh SC, Poppema S
    Histopathology, 2004 Mar;44(3):257-67.
    PMID: 14987230 DOI: 10.1111/j.0309-0167.2004.01829.x
    AIMS: To examine the expression of the Bcl-2 family of proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bcl-xL and Bax) in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) and to correlate the expression of these proteins with proliferation, apoptosis and the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression of the Bcl-2 family of proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry, proliferation was determined by Ki67 labelling and apoptosis by TUNEL in-situ hybridization. EBV was detected by Epstein-Barr virus early RNA (EBER) in-situ hybridization. Expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bcl-xL and Bax was detected in the Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (H/RS) cells in 43.7% (27/62), 87.5% (56/64), 67.2% (41/61) and 74.6% (47/63) of the cHL cases, respectively. EBER was detected in 53% (35/66) of the cases, whereas Ki67 was observed in 86.7% (52/60) of the cases. Apoptotic H/RS cells were observed infrequently, and only 43.2% (11/26) of the cases showed an apoptotic index of > or = 10% in the H/RS cells. A statistically significant inverse relationship was observed between the expression of Bcl-2 and the presence of EBV (P = 0.003). Bcl-xL showed an inverse correlation with apoptosis in the H/RS cells (P = 0.004).

    CONCLUSIONS: The higher Bcl-xL expression (67.2%) compared with Bcl-2 expression (43.5%) observed in cHL as well as the statistically significant inverse relationship between Bcl-xL and apoptosis suggests that Bcl-xL plays an important role in the survival of H/RS cells. Expression of Bax may be neutralized by other anti-apoptotic members of the family such as Bcl-2 and/or Bcl-xL.
  4. Peh SC, Shaminie J, Tai YC, Tan J, Gan SS
    Histopathology, 2004 Nov;45(5):501-10.
    PMID: 15500654
    Follicular lymphoma is frequently associated with t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation. This study was undertaken to determine the pattern of Bcl-2, CD10 and Bcl-6 expression in relation to t(14;18) translocation in follicular lymphoma from a cohort of a multi-ethnic Asian population.
  5. Peh SC
    Histopathology, 2001 May;38(5):458-65.
    PMID: 11422484
    AIMS: The pattern of malignant lymphoma is known to vary in different populations. This study aims to elucidate the effect of ethnicity on subtype frequency of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and EBV association rate.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 232 reconfirmed lymphoma cases in Malaysian patients were retrieved from the archives in the Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. There were 24 (10%) Hodgkin's and 208 (90%) non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 173 of the latter were in adult group (aged > or = 15 years). The ethnic composition were 41 Malays, 107 Chinese, 21 Indians and four none of the above. A male : female ratio of 2.4 : 1 was observed. Complete immunohistochemical studies in 158 cases revealed 36 (23%) T-cell, 121 (76%) B-cell and one (1%) null-cell phenotype. Seventy-five percent of the T-cell lymphomas were peripheral T/NK-cell types. Among the classifiable lesions, low-grade/indolent lymphomas constituted 17%: 2% were the lymphocytic subtype and 10% were follicular lymphomas. Approximately one-third of the follicular lymphomas occurred in Indian patients. The largest group of high-grade lymphoma was diffuse large B-cell type (46%), followed by peripheral T/NK-cell (18%). A predominance of NK/T-cell lymphomas occurred in Chinese (5/7), and all were EBV associated. Burkitt's lymphoma accounted for 5% (eight cases), all were Chinese males, with a 38% EBV-association rate. The frequency of EBV-associated B-cell lymphoma is three times more common in Chinese than Malays. The EBV positivity rate among lymphomas in ethnic Malay, Chinese and Indian patients was 5%, 15% and 22%, respectively, and in T- and B-cell lymphomas was 36% and 7%, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: This Malaysian series reveals differences in the subtype frequencies of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and EBV association rate amongst patients of various ethnic groups residing in the same environment.

  6. Peh SC, Looi LM, Pallesen G
    Histopathology, 1997 Mar;30(3):227-33.
    PMID: 9088951
    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated as a contributing factor in the development of Hodgkin's disease. Western cases of Hodgkin's disease have shown the presence of EBV in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in approximately 50%. We studied a total of 100 consecutive cases of Hodgkin's disease from Malaysia, with the aim to elucidate its association with EBV in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Of 34 patients (34%) less than 15 years of age (childhood), 25 had classical Hodgkin's disease (eight nodular sclerosis, 16 mixed cellularity, one lymphocyte depleted) and nine had lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease. Of the 66 from patients aged 15 years and above, 33 had nodular sclerosis, 24 mixed cellularity, two lymphocyte depleted, one unclassifiable and six lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease. The ethnic distribution of classical Hodgkin's disease was: Malay 23, Chinese 32 and Indian 30 (Malay:Chinese:Indian = 1:1.4:1.3), and the ethnic distribution in the 15 cases of lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease was: Malay four, Chinese 10 and Indian one. Taking into account the ethnic distribution of the general population and of hospital admissions, there appears to be a significant predilection of classical Hodgkin's disease cases in ethnic Indian compared to non-Indian patients (chi-squared test, 0.025 > P > 0.01). Eighty-one cases were tested for the presence of EBV by in situ hybridization for EBV encoded RNA, and 57 cases by immunostaining for EBV latent membrane protein 1. In the younger age group, all except one of the 15 cases (nine mixed cellularity, six nodular sclerosis) showed the presence of EBV (93%). In the older age group, EBV was detected (52%) in the following proportion: 6/27 nodular sclerosis, 19/22 mixed cellularity, 1/2 lymphocyte depleted, 1/1 unclassifiable. None of the 14 cases of lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease showed the presence of EBV in the Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. The findings suggest a strong association of EBV with Hodgkin's disease in Malaysians (41/67, 61%), in particular childhood cases (93%). In adults, the association with EBV is significantly higher in the mixed cellularity subtype (86%) compared with the nodular sclerosis subtype (22%).
  7. Wong KT, Puthucheary SD, Vadivelu J
    Histopathology, 1995 Jan;26(1):51-5.
    PMID: 7713483
    We examined human tissues infected by Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) pseudomallei which is endemic in Malaysia to study the types of inflammation invoked, and to look for histopathological clues to its diagnosis. The lesions which varied from acute to chronic granulomatous inflammation were not tissue-specific. In five autopsy cases, the inflammation was usually a focal or diffuse, acute necrotising inflammation with varying numbers of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and 'giant cells'. The 'giant cells' probably represent giant macrophages with phagocytosed leukocytes. There were numerous gram-negative, non-acid-fast, intra- and extracellular bacilli, occurring either singly or in chains. Intracellular bacteria within macrophages and 'giant cells' were so numerous as to resemble globi. This feature has not been previously reported and may be a useful diagnostic clue in melioidosis. In 14 surgical cases biopsies showed acute inflammatory lesions that appeared no different from acute inflammation due to other causes. In many biopsies, however, the inflammation was either an acute-on-chronic inflammation with a focal granulomatous component, or was purely granulomatous in character. Bacilli were difficult to demonstrate in surgical biopsies even with the gram strain.
  8. Malik AK, Hanum N, Yip CH
    Histopathology, 1994 Jan;24(1):87-8.
    PMID: 8144148
  9. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Chan LL
    Histopathology, 1996 Jan;28(1):49-54.
    PMID: 8838120
    Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma) has been associated with chromosomal abnormalities at the 11p13, 11p15 and 16q regions. A study into the possibility of mutations occurring within p53, the ubiquitous adult tumour suppressor gene, in Wilms' tumour was carried out. Thirty-eight cases were studied. Of these 36 were categorised into the favourable histology group and two into the unfavourable histology group based on the National Wilms' Tumour Study criteria. Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from each case were stained with a polyclonal (AB565:Chemicon) and a monoclonal (DO7:Dako) antibody raised against p53 protein using a peroxidase-labelled streptavidin biotin kit (Dako). 'Cure' (disease-free survival of 60 months or longer) was documented in 39% of cases with favourable histology tumours. Eleven percent in this group succumbed to the disease. Both cases with unfavourable histology died. Four out of 36 (11%) tumours with favourable histology demonstrated weak to moderate staining with both AB565 and DO7 in more than 75% of tumour cells. In contrast, p53 protein expression in unfavourable histology tumours was significantly increased compared with the favourable histology group (P = 0.021) with both cases demonstrating immunopositivity in > 75% of tumour cells when stained with AB565 and DO7. The intensity of staining ranged from moderate to strong in both cases. It appears from this preliminary study that the immunohistochemical expression of p53 protein in Wilms' tumour, presumably a result of mutation in the p53 tumour suppressor gene, correlates with histological classification, histological categorisation being one of the useful features in the prognostic assessment of Wilms' tumours.
  10. Zainol H, Sumithran E
    Histopathology, 1993 Jun;22(6):581-6.
    PMID: 7689070
    This study evaluates the usefulness of a combined cytological and histological approach to the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) when applied to fine needle biopsy specimens obtained under ultrasonic guidance. The material, aspirated from 51 focal liver lesions, was handled in such a way that there was sufficient material for both cytological and histological (cell block) assessment. Of the 29 cases of HCC studied, a confident cytological diagnosis was made in 23 (79%). In the remaining six cases, the cytological features were considered to be suspicious but not diagnostic of HCC. Examination of cell blocks in the six cases enabled a confident diagnosis of HCC to be made in all cases. This was due to the supplementary visual information provided by the histological features, particularly the pattern of arrangement of the tumour cells.
  11. Looi LM
    Histopathology, 1991 Feb;18(2):133-41.
    PMID: 1901294
    Congo red screening of 27,052 routine biopsy specimens from 22,827 patients over a 5 1/2-year period in the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya detected 186 cases of amyloidosis. The categories of amyloidosis encountered and their prevalences in relation to each other were: systemic AL (5.9%); systemic AA (3.2%); isolated atrial (14%); primary localized cutaneous (7.5%); other primary localized deposits (3.2%); localized intratumour (58%); and dystrophic (8.6%). A third of patients with systemic AL amyloidosis had coexistent immunocyte abnormality. The commonest underlying pathology for systemic AA amyloidosis was leprosy. Notable among the types of localized amyloidosis revealed by this study were isolated atrial amyloidosis, which appeared to complicate chronic rheumatic heart disease, and intratumour amyloidosis complicating nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Other tumours in which amyloid deposits were observed included basal cell carcinoma, islet cell tumour and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Dystrophic amyloidosis was observed in fibrotic tissues, such as damaged cardiac valves and osteoarthritic joints. Heredofamilial amyloidosis, senile systemic amyloidosis and degenerative cerebral amyloidosis were notably absent from this study.
  12. Looi LM
    Histopathology, 1989 Feb;14(2):111-20.
    PMID: 2707747
    The histological location of amyloid within various organs in 25 cases of systemic AA amyloidosis was studied with a view to determine whether different morphological patterns exist in this category of amyloidosis. Although morphological variations due to progressive severity of disease were observed, there were appreciable variations in the patterns of amyloid deposition in the kidney and spleen that could not be simply explained on those grounds. Eleven (61%) of 18 kidneys examined showed severe glomerular involvement with mild degrees of vascular deposition while the remaining seven showed predominantly vascular involvement. The glomerular pattern appeared to be more ominous, being significantly associated with severe proteinuria or chronic renal failure. In nine (69%) of 13 spleens examined, amyloid was confined to the walls of small and medium-sized arteries while in the remaining four, vascular involvement was less severe and amyloid was deposited mainly along the reticulin of the white pulp. Possible explanations for these different patterns included resorption and redistribution of amyloid within the body during the course of the disease, and variation in tissue deposition as a manifestation of polymorphism of amyloid proteins. The latter appeared more feasible in view of the recent demonstration of SAA polymorphism and AA heterogeneity in man.
  13. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Lin HP
    Histopathology, 1992 Oct;21(4):365-9.
    PMID: 1328018
    Eight cases of clear cell sarcoma of kidney were seen in the Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia over the 16-year period from 1973 to 1989. Five of the patients were males. Six patients were Malay, one Chinese and one Indian. The patients' ages ranged from 8 months to 3 years. Clear cell sarcoma was the original diagnosis in two patients while six were diagnosed as blastemal-predominant Wilms' tumours at presentation. Metastases developed in five patients. Metastatic sites included the thoracic vertebra, skull, orbit, humerus, radius, ulna, shoulder, lung and liver. The prolonged survival, of 9 years and 9 months, seen in one patient despite omission of Adriamycin (doxorubicin) from the chemotherapeutic protocol is highlighted. We also emphasise the histological factors which are of help in differentiating clear cell sarcoma from Wilms' tumour.
  14. Looi LM
    Histopathology, 1991 Aug;19(2):169-72.
    PMID: 1757071
    Seventeen consecutive patients with dystrophic amyloidosis are reported here (eight Chinese, three Indian, three Iban, two Malay and one Caucasian). Ten were females and seven males, with ages ranging from 12 to 80 years (mean of 48 years). Five instances of dystrophic amyloidosis occurred in areas of tissue damage in the cardiovascular system, including fibrotic cardiac valves and an atheromatous plaque. Three occurred in osteoarthritic joint tissue. Of note were three occurrences in endometriotic cyst walls, four in the fibrotic walls of epidermal cysts, one in a hernial sac and one at the edge of a skin ulcer. All deposits were congophilic and exhibited green-birefringence and permanganate-resistance. Immunohistochemistry did not reveal reactivity for AA protein or immunoglobulin lambda or kappa light-chains. AP protein was detected in 35% of cases. Our results show that, besides the usual sites of osteoarthritic joints and damaged heart valves, dystrophic amyloidosis can complicate other areas of chronic tissue damage and fibrosis such as walls of cysts and ulcers. While the pathogenesis and biochemical nature remain unresolved, immunohistochemistry indicates that neither AA nor AL proteins are present in the deposits, and suggests that a different amyloid protein is involved.
  15. Jayalakshmi P, Ting HC
    Histopathology, 1990 Jul;17(1):89-91.
    PMID: 2146206
  16. Looi LM
    Histopathology, 1981 Nov;5(6):615-22.
    PMID: 7319480
    Nineteen out of 121 consecutive cardiac biopsies from 107 patients were found to contain amyloid deposits on routine Congo red screening. Seventeen were left atrial appendages removed during mitral valvotomy for chronic rheumatic mitral valve disease while the remaining two were right atrial appendages excised during surgical repair of atrial septal defects. The distribution of amyloid deposits within the atria and their tinctorial characteristics are described. The high prevalence of atrial amyloidosis observed could not be attributed to generalized or senile amyloidosis. The possibility that this is a distinctive localized form of amyloidosis secondary to chronic heart disease is discussed.
  17. Loo SK, Ch'ng ES, Md Salleh MS, Banham AH, Pedersen LM, Møller MB, et al.
    Histopathology, 2017 Jul;71(1):98-111.
    PMID: 28248435 DOI: 10.1111/his.13204
    AIMS: Transient receptor potential channel melastatin 4 (TRPM4) is an ion channel that regulates influx of calcium cations (Ca2+ ). Recent studies suggest that TRPM4 is an oncoprotein, and its up-regulated transcript level has been reported in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We aimed to investigate TRPM4 protein expression pattern in non-malignant tissues and DLBCL cases, and its association with clinico-demographic parameters and survival in DLBCL.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Analysis of publicly available DLBCL microarray data sets showed that TRPM4 transcripts were up-regulated in DLBCL compared to normal germinal centre B (GCB) cells, were expressed more highly in the activated B cell-like DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL) subtype and higher TRPM4 transcripts conferred worse overall survival (OS) in R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-treated DLBCL cases (P < 0.05). Our immunohistochemical analysis showed that TRPM4 was expressed in various human tissues but not in normal B cells within lymphoid tissues (reactive tonsil, lymph node and appendix). TRPM4 protein was present in 26% (n = 49 of 189) of our cohort of R-CHOP-treated DLBCL cases and this was associated significantly with more aggressive clinical parameters, including higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scores or stage (P < 0.01 for each of the parameters) and the ABC-DLBCL subtype (P = 0.016). TRPM4 positivity conferred significantly worse OS (P = 0.004) and progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.005). Worse OS remained associated significantly with TRPM4 positivity in multivariate analysis, including higher International Prognostic Index (IPI) or the non-GCB DLBCL phenotype (P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is up-regulated in DLBCL cases compared to non-malignant B cells with preferential expression in ABC-DLBCL cases, and it confers significantly poorer DLBCL patient outcomes.

  18. Looi LM, Prathap K
    Histopathology, 1982 Mar;6(2):141-7.
    PMID: 7042512
    In view of a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in the Malaysian population, indirect immunofluorescence examination for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was routinely performed on renal biopsy specimen at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, over a 3-year period. Examination of renal tissue from 259 patients, including 47 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), revealed 43 cases with HBsAg in glomerular immune complexes. A significantly high proportion (30/43) of these were SLE patients. The deposits were granular in nature, situated in both the capillary walls and mesangium and associated with immunoglobulin deposition. Morphological patterns of lupus nephritis involved were focal proliferative (one case), diffuse proliferative (23 cases) and membranous (six cases). None of these patients showed clinical evidence of liver disease. The significance of these findings remains uncertain, but the possibility exists that the hepatitis B virus may have a role in the pathogenesis of SLE in the tropics where both SLE and HBs antigenaemia are common.
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