METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 232 reconfirmed lymphoma cases in Malaysian patients were retrieved from the archives in the Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. There were 24 (10%) Hodgkin's and 208 (90%) non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 173 of the latter were in adult group (aged > or = 15 years). The ethnic composition were 41 Malays, 107 Chinese, 21 Indians and four none of the above. A male : female ratio of 2.4 : 1 was observed. Complete immunohistochemical studies in 158 cases revealed 36 (23%) T-cell, 121 (76%) B-cell and one (1%) null-cell phenotype. Seventy-five percent of the T-cell lymphomas were peripheral T/NK-cell types. Among the classifiable lesions, low-grade/indolent lymphomas constituted 17%: 2% were the lymphocytic subtype and 10% were follicular lymphomas. Approximately one-third of the follicular lymphomas occurred in Indian patients. The largest group of high-grade lymphoma was diffuse large B-cell type (46%), followed by peripheral T/NK-cell (18%). A predominance of NK/T-cell lymphomas occurred in Chinese (5/7), and all were EBV associated. Burkitt's lymphoma accounted for 5% (eight cases), all were Chinese males, with a 38% EBV-association rate. The frequency of EBV-associated B-cell lymphoma is three times more common in Chinese than Malays. The EBV positivity rate among lymphomas in ethnic Malay, Chinese and Indian patients was 5%, 15% and 22%, respectively, and in T- and B-cell lymphomas was 36% and 7%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: This Malaysian series reveals differences in the subtype frequencies of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and EBV association rate amongst patients of various ethnic groups residing in the same environment.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Analysis of publicly available DLBCL microarray data sets showed that TRPM4 transcripts were up-regulated in DLBCL compared to normal germinal centre B (GCB) cells, were expressed more highly in the activated B cell-like DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL) subtype and higher TRPM4 transcripts conferred worse overall survival (OS) in R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-treated DLBCL cases (P < 0.05). Our immunohistochemical analysis showed that TRPM4 was expressed in various human tissues but not in normal B cells within lymphoid tissues (reactive tonsil, lymph node and appendix). TRPM4 protein was present in 26% (n = 49 of 189) of our cohort of R-CHOP-treated DLBCL cases and this was associated significantly with more aggressive clinical parameters, including higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scores or stage (P < 0.01 for each of the parameters) and the ABC-DLBCL subtype (P = 0.016). TRPM4 positivity conferred significantly worse OS (P = 0.004) and progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.005). Worse OS remained associated significantly with TRPM4 positivity in multivariate analysis, including higher International Prognostic Index (IPI) or the non-GCB DLBCL phenotype (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is up-regulated in DLBCL cases compared to non-malignant B cells with preferential expression in ABC-DLBCL cases, and it confers significantly poorer DLBCL patient outcomes.