Mitochondrial malic enzyme (EC 18.104.22.168; MEM) was examined by starch-gel electrophoresis on post-mortem brain samples from 453 unrelated subjects of either sex comprising 161 Chinese, 150 Indians and 113 Malays and 29 from other racial groups. The estimated gene frequencies of MEM1 were found to be 0.7111, 0.6100 and 0.6769 in Chinese, Indians and Malays, respectively. No significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in Chinese and Malays. However, there was a significant deviation with a deficiency of heterozygotes among Indians. MES did not show any polymorphism.
The Land and Sea Dayaks of Sarawak were surveyed for several erythrocyte enzymes. The gene frequency of 6PGDC in 132 Land Dayaks and 127 Sea Dayaks were 0.045 and 0.047, respectively. The gene frequency of PGM1-1 IN 285 Land Dayks and 240 Sea Dayaks were 0.716 and 0.779, respectively. The ADA2 gene frequency in 283 Land Dayaks and 188 Sea Dayaks were 0.154 and 0.090. ADA 5-1 was found once in the Land Dayaks and once in the Sea Dayaks. AK 2-1 was found once in 221 Sea Dayaks but not in any of 270 Land Dayaks. No PHI, LDH or CA variants were found among the Land or Sea Dayaks.
In a study of Malaysians of different racial groups, 1,510 sera (908 from Malays, 371 from Chinese and 231 from Indians) were identified for their protease inhibitor (Pi) types. The gene frequencies for the alleles PiM, PiS and PiX in Malays were, respectively, 0.979, 0.015, and 0.007. In Chinese, the frequencies were 0.981, 0.019 and 0.000, and in Indians they were 0.976, 0.24, and 0.000. It is interesting that the usually rare PiX type is found in appreciable frequency in the Malays. Two different types with unusual behavior and obscure origin were also found.
812 West Malaysian Orang Asli belonging to four ethnic groups were surveyed for adenosine deaminase (ADA; EC 22.214.171.124) using starch gel electrophoresis. Only the common ADA1 and ADA2 alleles were found, with the frequencies of the latter being 0.025, 0.103, 0.115 and 0.028 in the Semai, Semelai, Temuan, and Jakun groups, respectively. A new 'breeding genetic distance' was applied to these gene frequencies and the Semelai and Temuan were found to be more closely related to each other, and to have considerably more evolutionary flexibility on this scale of 'micro-evolution' than the other two groups. The Semai and Jakun were more similar to each other on the basis of these ADA gene frequencies.
Acid alpha-glucosidase from the placenta was electrophoretically surveyed in a total of 633 Malaysians, 236 of Malay, 261 of Chinese and 136 of Indian ancestries. A new variant, alpha-glucosidase 3-1 was observed in 1 Malay and 3 Indians. A polymorphism for this enzyme was observed among Indians, but in Chinese and Malays variants are rare. Phenotype 2-1 was observed once in a Chinese and once in a Malay.
A survey of abnormal hemoglobins, G6PD deficiency and hereditary ovalocytosis was carried out among the Dayaks of Sarawak. The only abnormal hemoglobin found was Hb Co Sp, which occurred in 0.35% of the Land Dayaks and 0.83% of the Sea Dayaks. G6PD deficiency occurred in 5.3% of the male Land Dayaks and 5.0% of the male Sea Dayaks; no electrophoretic variant of G6PD was found in any of the 285 Land Dayaks and 240 Sea Dayaks examined. Hereditary ovalocytosis was found in 12.7% of the Land Dayaks and 9.0% of the Sea Dayaks.
944 adenosine deaminase phenotypings of Malay, Chinese, and Indian blood donors and newborns at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, yielded ADA1 gene frequency estimates of 0.885 for the Malays, 0.939 for the Chinese, and 0.853 for the Indians.
Serum samples from Sinhalese subjects, from Punjab and from Singapore have been studied. The Gm phenotypes found are very numerous and we can observe some similarities concerning the Gm gene frequencies between the Singapore Indians with the Indians of North India, and with the Sinhalese. In contrast, Gm gene frequencies found among Chinese and Malays from Singapore are quite different from those found among Indians of Singapore. Our results here are very similar to those obtained in Malaya studies.
Four red cell enzyme systems were studied in Malaysian mothers and their newborn belonging to three racial groups, the Malays, Indians and Chinese. No significant heterogeneity was observed in the distribution of phosphoglucomutase (PGM1), adenosine deaminase (ADA), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) and acid phosphatase (AP) phenotypes between mothers and their newborn of the three groups. Pooled mother and child acid phosphatase data show a significant heterogeneity between the Malays and Chinese, and between the Malays and Indians. This is comparable to previous studies conducted. For the placental phosphoglucomutase (PGM3) system, a significant heterogeneity was observed between the Chinese and Malays only. No significant heterogeneity was detected in the distribution of PGM1, ADA and 6PGD phenotypes among Malays, Chinese and Indians.
A total of 640 Malaysians, 355 of Malay, 155 of Chinese, and 130 of Indian ancestries have been examined for saliva acid phosphatases. The three ethnic groups were polymorphic for saliva acid phosphatase A (Sap-A) and saliva acid phosphatase (B (Sap-B). The gene frequencies were: Sap-A, Malays: A = 0.469, A' = 0.001, A degrees = 0.530; Chinese: A = 0.436, A' = 0.010, A degrees = 0.555; Indians: A = 0.533, A' = 0.012, A degrees = 0.456. For Sap-B, Malays: B = 0.925, B degrees = 0.075; Chinese: B = 0.797, B1 = 0.016, B degrees = 0.187; Indians: B 0.752, B degrees = 0.248. Phenotype ABB1 is described.