Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the gene encoding the beta chain of the human T cell receptor (TcR) was studied in three ethnic groups in Singapore by Southern blotting. Polymorphism in the beta chain gene was identified in BglII-digested DNA samples using a 770-bp TcR beta cDNA clone containing the joining and constant region segments. The TcR beta/BglII polymorphism was studied in 136 Chinese, 93 Indian and 88 Malay samples. The frequency of the less frequent allele (TcR beta*2) in all the ethnic groups was significantly lower (0.15-0.29, p < 0.01) than that in the Caucasians (0.46). Indians had a significantly lower frequency of this allele (0.15) than the Chinese (0.29) and Malays (0.26).
The allele frequencies for the apolipoprotein B (apo B) 5'-Ins/Del and 3'-VNTR polymorphisms varied significantly (p < 0.01) among Singaporeans of Chinese, Malay and Indian descent. We calculated the unbiased expected heterozygosities for the 5'-Ins/Del polymorphism as 0.3357, 0.1984 and 0.2418, and for the 3'-VNTR as 0.5980, 0.5260 and 0.6749, respectively, in the Chinese, Malays and Indians. Compared to heterozygosities reported for other populations, the Singaporeans differed from most Caucasians in having significantly lower values but were closely related to other non-Caucasians. Thirteen alleles, with a bimodal distribution, were observed at the 3'-VNTR polymorphic locus; the alleles occurring most frequently among the Chinese and Malays were of 35 or 53 repeats, and among the Indians, of 37 or 47 repeats. The Del allele was associated with elevated serum cholesterol (p = 0.023), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.001) in the Chinese, and apo B (p = 0.007) in the Indians. Likewise, the larger 3'-VNTR alleles (> 41 repeats) were associated with raised cholesterol (p = 0.018), LDL-C (p = 0.025), and triglyceride (p = 0.001) in the Chinese. The two polymorphisms were not in significant linkage disequilibrium (D = -0.0029, p = 0.494) in the three ethnic groups.
The distribution of two common DNA polymorphisms (5' untranslated exon 1 and intron 5-DdeI) of the antithrombin III (ATIII) gene was studied in three ethnic groups in Singapore: 251 Chinese, 221 Dravidian Indians and 102 Malays. The polymorphisms were identified by the polymerase chain reaction and size fractionation in agarose gels. The 5' untranslated to exon 1 polymorphism is a length polymorphism while the intron 5 polymorphism is a restriction site (DdeI) polymorphism. The frequency of the short fragment (S) of the 5' to exon 1 length polymorphism of the ATIII gene was found to be 0.37 in the Chinese, 0.54 in the Malays and 0.65 in the Dravidian Indians. For the Chinese, this was significantly lower compared to the Caucasians and Indians (p < 0.0001) and the Malays (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the frequencies of DdeI+ did not vary significantly among these three populations (p > 0.05). The distribution of different genotypes at these two loci of the ATIII gene was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all three ethnic groups. A strong linkage disequilibrium between these two polymorphisms was observed in all the ethnic groups and the estimated correlation coefficient (delta) was 0.42 in the Chinese (p < 0.001), 0.61 in the Dravidian Indians (p < 0.001) and 0.43 in the Malays (p < 0.001). The frequencies of haplotype S+, L+ and L- were, respectively, 0.37, 0.40 and 0.23 in the Chinese, 0.65, 0.18 and 0.16 in the Dravidian Indians and 0.54, 0.37 and 0.09 in the Malays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Members of the Semai group of Orang Asli ('aborigines') in peninsular Malaysia were examined for apolipoprotein E (apo E) variants in relation to plasma total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B (apo B). The e2 and e4 alleles were found to be higher than in most other groups as reported. The sample as a whole was normotriglyceridaemic (mean plasma TG, 1.5 mmol/l) and very markedly hypocholesterolaemic (mean plasma TC 1.7 mmol/l). The distribution of apo E variants was not related to any of the plasma lipids or apolipoprotein fractions using results from all subjects, but if a distinctly hypertriglyceridaemic sub-section was omitted (TG > 1.7 mmol/l) then apo E variants were determinants of plasma TC, LDLC, and apo B concentrations, the lower values of these being associated with the 2-2 and 2-3 genotypes, and the higher with 3-4, and 4-4.
The HLA-DQ alpha genotype and allele frequencies in 130 Malays, 125 Chinese, and 137 Indians in the Malaysian population were determined using a commercial HLA-DQ alpha DNA amplification and typing kit which distinguishes 6 alleles (DQA1.1, DQA1.2, DQA1.3, DQA2, DQA3, and DQA4) and 21 possible genotypes at this locus. All 21 genotypes were encountered in the Malay and Indian samples, but DQA1.1,DQA1.3 and DQA2,DQA2 genotypes were absent in the Chinese sample. In all three ethnic groups, the numbers observed for the various DQ alpha genotypes were in accordance with those expected from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allele frequencies observed in these three groups were significantly different to allow them to be distinguished as distinct populations. For the Malays, Chinese, and Indians, heterozygosity values at this locus were 0.77, 0.77, and 0.83, respectively, and values of the power of discrimination were 0.91, 0.90, and 0.94, respectively. These population data will enable the HLA-DQ alpha locus to be used as a marker in forensic identity testing in Malaysia.
A total of 627 subjects comprising 455 Chinese, 127 Dravidian Indians and 45 Malays were investigated for serum Apo A-IV polymorphism. The frequency of Apo A-IV*2 was found to be significantly higher (p less than 0.001) in Indians (0.043) compared to that in the Chinese (0.010) and Malays (0.011). The frequency of A-IV*3 was found to be around 0.02 in all the ethnic groups. A low frequency of A-IV*4 (less than 0.01) was observed in the Chinese and Indians. The phenotypic distribution of Apo A-IV was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the three ethnic groups.
Three different ethnic groups from Singapore comprising 79 Chinese, 34 Malays and 23 Indians of Dravidian origin, were investigated for the HindIII RFLP at the DNF15S2 locus. The three populations had very similar allele frequencies and the frequency of rarer(S) allele was significantly (p less than 0.01) lower (0.21) in these ethnic groups compared to that in Caucasians (0.41). The phenotypic distributions were at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
A total of 215 subjects comprising 95 Chinese, 66 Malays and 54 Indians were investigated for restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the tissue-type plasminogen activator (PLAT) gene at an EcoRI site using the probe ptPA-4352. The phenotypic distribution showed a good agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The gene frequencies of PLAT*1 were found to be 0.47 in the Chinese, 0.52 in the Malays and 0.41 in South Indians.
Mitochondrial malic enzyme (EC 188.8.131.52; MEM) was examined by starch-gel electrophoresis on post-mortem brain samples from 453 unrelated subjects of either sex comprising 161 Chinese, 150 Indians and 113 Malays and 29 from other racial groups. The estimated gene frequencies of MEM1 were found to be 0.7111, 0.6100 and 0.6769 in Chinese, Indians and Malays, respectively. No significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in Chinese and Malays. However, there was a significant deviation with a deficiency of heterozygotes among Indians. MES did not show any polymorphism.
Serum samples from Sinhalese subjects, from Punjab and from Singapore have been studied. The Gm phenotypes found are very numerous and we can observe some similarities concerning the Gm gene frequencies between the Singapore Indians with the Indians of North India, and with the Sinhalese. In contrast, Gm gene frequencies found among Chinese and Malays from Singapore are quite different from those found among Indians of Singapore. Our results here are very similar to those obtained in Malaya studies.
Acid alpha-glucosidase from the placenta was electrophoretically surveyed in a total of 633 Malaysians, 236 of Malay, 261 of Chinese and 136 of Indian ancestries. A new variant, alpha-glucosidase 3-1 was observed in 1 Malay and 3 Indians. A polymorphism for this enzyme was observed among Indians, but in Chinese and Malays variants are rare. Phenotype 2-1 was observed once in a Chinese and once in a Malay.
812 West Malaysian Orang Asli belonging to four ethnic groups were surveyed for adenosine deaminase (ADA; EC 184.108.40.206) using starch gel electrophoresis. Only the common ADA1 and ADA2 alleles were found, with the frequencies of the latter being 0.025, 0.103, 0.115 and 0.028 in the Semai, Semelai, Temuan, and Jakun groups, respectively. A new 'breeding genetic distance' was applied to these gene frequencies and the Semelai and Temuan were found to be more closely related to each other, and to have considerably more evolutionary flexibility on this scale of 'micro-evolution' than the other two groups. The Semai and Jakun were more similar to each other on the basis of these ADA gene frequencies.
Four red cell enzyme systems were studied in Malaysian mothers and their newborn belonging to three racial groups, the Malays, Indians and Chinese. No significant heterogeneity was observed in the distribution of phosphoglucomutase (PGM1), adenosine deaminase (ADA), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) and acid phosphatase (AP) phenotypes between mothers and their newborn of the three groups. Pooled mother and child acid phosphatase data show a significant heterogeneity between the Malays and Chinese, and between the Malays and Indians. This is comparable to previous studies conducted. For the placental phosphoglucomutase (PGM3) system, a significant heterogeneity was observed between the Chinese and Malays only. No significant heterogeneity was detected in the distribution of PGM1, ADA and 6PGD phenotypes among Malays, Chinese and Indians.
A total of 640 Malaysians, 355 of Malay, 155 of Chinese, and 130 of Indian ancestries have been examined for saliva acid phosphatases. The three ethnic groups were polymorphic for saliva acid phosphatase A (Sap-A) and saliva acid phosphatase (B (Sap-B). The gene frequencies were: Sap-A, Malays: A = 0.469, A' = 0.001, A degrees = 0.530; Chinese: A = 0.436, A' = 0.010, A degrees = 0.555; Indians: A = 0.533, A' = 0.012, A degrees = 0.456. For Sap-B, Malays: B = 0.925, B degrees = 0.075; Chinese: B = 0.797, B1 = 0.016, B degrees = 0.187; Indians: B 0.752, B degrees = 0.248. Phenotype ABB1 is described.
In a study of Malaysians of different racial groups, 1,510 sera (908 from Malays, 371 from Chinese and 231 from Indians) were identified for their protease inhibitor (Pi) types. The gene frequencies for the alleles PiM, PiS and PiX in Malays were, respectively, 0.979, 0.015, and 0.007. In Chinese, the frequencies were 0.981, 0.019 and 0.000, and in Indians they were 0.976, 0.24, and 0.000. It is interesting that the usually rare PiX type is found in appreciable frequency in the Malays. Two different types with unusual behavior and obscure origin were also found.
The Land and Sea Dayaks of Sarawak were surveyed for several erythrocyte enzymes. The gene frequency of 6PGDC in 132 Land Dayaks and 127 Sea Dayaks were 0.045 and 0.047, respectively. The gene frequency of PGM1-1 IN 285 Land Dayks and 240 Sea Dayaks were 0.716 and 0.779, respectively. The ADA2 gene frequency in 283 Land Dayaks and 188 Sea Dayaks were 0.154 and 0.090. ADA 5-1 was found once in the Land Dayaks and once in the Sea Dayaks. AK 2-1 was found once in 221 Sea Dayaks but not in any of 270 Land Dayaks. No PHI, LDH or CA variants were found among the Land or Sea Dayaks.
A survey of abnormal hemoglobins, G6PD deficiency and hereditary ovalocytosis was carried out among the Dayaks of Sarawak. The only abnormal hemoglobin found was Hb Co Sp, which occurred in 0.35% of the Land Dayaks and 0.83% of the Sea Dayaks. G6PD deficiency occurred in 5.3% of the male Land Dayaks and 5.0% of the male Sea Dayaks; no electrophoretic variant of G6PD was found in any of the 285 Land Dayaks and 240 Sea Dayaks examined. Hereditary ovalocytosis was found in 12.7% of the Land Dayaks and 9.0% of the Sea Dayaks.
944 adenosine deaminase phenotypings of Malay, Chinese, and Indian blood donors and newborns at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, yielded ADA1 gene frequency estimates of 0.885 for the Malays, 0.939 for the Chinese, and 0.853 for the Indians.