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  1. Khairuddin N, Blake SJ, Firdaus F, Steptoe RJ, Behlke MA, Hertzog PJ, et al.
    Immunol. Cell Biol., 2014 Feb;92(2):156-63.
    PMID: 24217808 DOI: 10.1038/icb.2013.75
    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to inhibit oncogene expression and also to activate innate immune responses via Toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition have been shown to be beneficial as anti-cancer therapy in certain cancer models. In this study, we investigated the effects of local versus systemic delivery of such immune-stimulating Dicer-substrate siRNAs (IS-DsiRNAs) on a human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven tumour model. Localized siRNA delivery using intratumour injection of siRNA was able to increase siRNA delivery to the tumour compared with intravenous (IV) delivery and potently activated innate immune responses. However, IV injection remained the more effective delivery route for reducing tumour growth. Although IS-DsiRNAs activated innate immune cells and required interferon-α (IFNα) for full effect on tumour growth, we found that potent silencing siRNA acting independently of IFNα were overall more effective at inhibiting TC-1 tumour growth. Other published work utilising IS-siRNAs have been carried out on tumour models with low levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class 1, a target of natural killer cells that are potently activated by IS-siRNA. As TC-1 cells used in our study express high levels of MHC-class I, the addition of the immunostimulatory motifs may not be as beneficial in this particular tumour model. Our data suggest that selection of siRNA profile and delivery method based on tumour environment is crucial to developing siRNA-based therapies.
  2. Alitheen NB, McClure S, McCullagh P
    Immunol. Cell Biol., 2010 01 19;88(4):445-50.
    PMID: 20084079 DOI: 10.1038/icb.2009.119
    Interspecies variations in the processes of B-cell development and repertoire generation contrast with the greater consistency of T-cell development. B-cell development in mice and humans, with postnatal B-cell generation of new repertoire in the bone marrow throughout life, is regarded as the 'standard' pattern. In contrast, accounts of B cells in birds, sheep, cattle, rabbits and pigs (the 'other' species) describe cessation of gene diversification in the perinatal period, with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) functioning as the primary lymphoid organ thereafter. It has become customary to regard the developmental pathways of T and B cells within any individual species as being as dissimilar as the functions of the two mature cell types. Reinterpretation of B-cell development patterns in different species is overdue in response to two types of reports. The first of these describe T-B 'crossover', specifically the intrathymic production of B cells and the extrathymic production of T cells. The second attests to the extent of sharing of B-cell developmental features across the two groups of species. We propose that, as is a feature of other haematopoietic cells, a menu of alternative B- and T-cell pathways has been retained and shared across species. A single pathway usually predominates in any species, masking alternatives. The observed predominance of any pathway is determined by factors such as placental permeability, extent of maturation of the immune system by birth and the feasibility of direct experimental intervention in development.
  3. Alitheen N, McClure S, McCullagh P
    Immunol. Cell Biol., 2007 Jul;85(5):391-3.
    PMID: 17515929
    The first stage in Peyer's patch development in the fetal lamb is characterized by the colonization of the rudimentary Peyer's patches by precursor cells expressing the IgM surface receptor. In the fetal lamb, the spleen has been implicated as the source of gene-rearranged IgM(+) B lymphocytes. This study was intended to quantitate IgM(+) lymphocytes in the spleen, lymph nodes and liver of fetal lambs at various gestational ages between 63 and 110 days using flow cytometry. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that IgM(+) lymphocytes were rare in the liver being consistently less than 1% at every gestational age examined. IgM(+) lymphocytes were detected in the spleen (mean 9.18%) and prescapular lymph nodes (mean 11.89%) as early as 63 days. In both spleen and lymph nodes, the highest representation of IgM(+) lymphocytes occurred between 70 and 86 days gestation. The highest mean percentage of IgM(+) lymphocytes was observed in the spleen (22.63%) and lymph nodes (17.02%) at 75 days gestation. From 98 days onwards, B-lymphocyte density gradually decreased in both spleen and prescapular lymph nodes. This study indicates that substantial populations of IgM(+) lymphocytes were present in both the spleen and prescapular lymph nodes from 70 days gestation and implies that both of these locations could be potential sources for the normal colonization of the ileal Peyer's patches.
  4. Syahida A, Israf DA, Permana D, Lajis NH, Khozirah S, Afiza AW, et al.
    Immunol. Cell Biol., 2006 Jun;84(3):250-8.
    PMID: 16509831
    Many plant-derived natural compounds have been reported previously to inhibit the production of important pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, TNF-alpha and reactive oxygen species by suppressing inducible enzyme expression via inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and nuclear translocation of critical transcription factors. This study evaluates the effects of atrovirinone [2-(1-methoxycarbonyl-4,6-dihydroxyphenoxy)-3-methoxy-5,6-di-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone)], a benzoquinone that we have previously isolated from Garcinia atroviridis, on two cellular systems that are repeatedly used in the analysis of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds, namely, RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and whole blood. Atrovirinone inhibited the production of both nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 from LPS-induced and IFN-gamma-induced RAW 264.7 cells and whole blood, with inhibitory concentration (IC)50 values of 4.62 +/- 0.65 and 9.33 +/- 1.47 micromol/L, respectively. Analysis of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) secretion from whole blood stimulated by either the cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or the COX-2 pathway showed that atrovirinone inhibits the generation of TXB2 by both pathways, with IC50 values of 7.41 +/- 0.92 and 2.10 +/- 0.48 micromol/L, respectively. Analysis of IC50 ratios showed that atrovirinone was more COX-2 selective in its inhibition of TXB2, with a ratio of 0.32. Atrovirinone also inhibited the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the secretion of TNF-alpha from RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-responsive manner, with IC50 values of 5.99 +/- 0.62 and 11.56 +/- 0.04 micromol/L, respectively. Lipoxygenase activity was also moderately inhibited by atrovirinone. Our results suggest that atrovirinone acts on important pro-inflammatory mediators possibly by the inhibition of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway and also by the inhibition of the COX/lipoxygenase enzyme activity.
  5. Norazmi MN, Arifin H, Jamaruddin MA
    Immunol. Cell Biol., 1995 Jun;73(3):245-8.
    PMID: 7590898
    The lymphocyte subset expressing the gamma delta T cell receptor is increased in several infectious diseases including HIV infection. In this study the expression on gamma delta lymphocytes of the T cell activation markers CD25, HLA-DR and CD38, as well as the two isoforms of CD45, namely CD45RA and CD45RO, was determined in the peripheral blood of 56 HIV-infected intravenous drug users and 34 HIV-seronegative blood donors by two-colour flow cytometry. The percentage of gamma delta lymphocytes expressing HLA-DR and CD38 was higher than those in HIV-seronegative controls (P < 0.001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Furthermore the HLA-DR+gamma delta+ lymphocytes correlated inversely with CD4+ T lymphocyte absolute count (P < 0.02 for both). The levels of gamma delta lymphocytes expressing CD25, CD45RA and CD45RO were similar to those in HIV-seronegative controls. Activated gamma delta lymphocytes may play a role in the HIV disease process and could provide a useful marker for disease progression.
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